Joe Lockard

author

Dr. Joe Lockard is an Associate Professor of English at Arizona State University in Tempe. Arizona. He specializes in nineteenth-century American literature. with particular focus on issues of race and slavery. His research and teaching also deal with prison literature: for the past decade, he has led a weekly poetry workshop in Florence State Prison. He recently published co-edited volumes of critical studies on Native American writer Louis Owens (University of New Mexico Press), writing pedagogies in prisons (Syracuse University Press), and has a forthcoming co-edited volume on STEM education in US prisons (SUNY Press). (Image Source)


AUTHOR'S ARTICLES

The Birth of Modern Astronomy

by Published on: 18th January 2020

Some people, unaware of what was accomplished during Muslim civilisation, believe that astronomy died with the Greeks, and was brought to life again by Nicolas Copernicus, the 15th-century Polish astronomer who is famous for introducing…

Arts Image Gallery

by Published on: 17th January 2020

Browse through selected images taken from Muslim Heritage articles related to Arts...

Anatomy

by Published on: 15th January 2020

The art of medicine is long and it is necessary for its exponent, before he exercises it, to be trained in the science of anatomy/dissection (ʿilm al-tashrīḥ), as Galen has described it, so that he…

Author Bradley Steffens on ‘First Scientist’, Ibn al-Haytham

by Published on: 8th January 2020

Author Bradley Steffens was interviewed by IHR Director Nadeem Haque on August 25, 2017. Steffens is a poet, a novelist, and an award-winning author of more than forty nonfiction books for children and young adults.…

Science Institutionalization in Early Islam

by Published on: 7th January 2020

“Bayt al-Hikma of Baghdad as a Model of an Academy of Sciences” from Dirasat, Human and Social Sciences, Volume 44, No. 3, 2017: This study aims to introduce academy-type institutions of the pre-Islamic era. To…

The complex geometry of Islamic design – Eric Broug

by Published on: 6th January 2020

In Islamic culture, geometric design is everywhere: you can find it in mosques, madrasas, palaces, and private homes. And despite the remarkable complexity of these designs, they can be created with just a compass to…

Music Image Gallery

by Published on: 19th December 2019

For several centuries, Arab rulers from Baghdad to Cordoba were famed for their patronage of music and musicians. Their courts boasted full orchestras for entertainment, while noted musicians competed for the ruler’s favour.

Web Of Words

by Published on: 19th December 2019

This alphabet lists just some of the words that have come from sources in Muslim civilization and have passed into the English language with their original meaning intact. It is only a small selection...

When the World Spoke Arabic

by Published on: 18th December 2019

At the height of the Golden Age of Muslim Civilisation, the Arabic language was the lingua franca that served as the language of science, poetry, literature, governance and art. A big movement of translation of…

1001 Cures Image Gallery

by Published on: 17th December 2019

1001 Cures tells the fascinating story of how generations of physicians from different countries and creeds created a medical tradition admired by friend and foe. It influences the fates and fortunes of countless human beings,…

Stunning Ceilings from the Wonders of Islamic Architecture

by Published on: 5th December 2019

Discover ceilings from buildings inspired by Islamic architecture where looking up is a spellbinding experience! Each has a design and a story of its own. Most of them are distinctive and unique in respect of…

Some Manuscripts and Printing examples from Muslim Civilisations

by Published on: 1st December 2019

From Manuscripts and printing in the spread of Muslim science by Geoffrey Roper  

Libraries of the Muslim World (859-2000)

by Published on: 26th November 2019

The Muslim World acquired the art of paper-making in the eighth century in Persia, ultimately Muslims brought papermaking to India and Europe. Public libraries appeared in Baghdad, Cairo, and Cordoba where books were made of…

Water innovations in the Muslim world: past glories and future outlook

by Published on: 25th November 2019

From the eighth century onwards, Muslim societies extending from Cordoba in Spain to Damascus, Baghdad, Fez and through to Marrakech, relied on the world’s most advanced water technologies at the time to serve their communities

Humoral Pathology

by Published on: 13th November 2019

In Islamic medicine, the most pervasive explanatory theory was that of humoral pathology. In this theory, the transformation of food into bodily substance results in four humours (ḫilṭ,ʾaḫlāṭ) : blood (dam), phlegm (balġam), yellow bile…

Africa Image Gallery

by Published on: 9th November 2019

Watch this space - will be updated

White Supremacism and Islamic Astronomy in History of Astronomy Texts from the Eighteenth Century to the Present Day

by Published on: 30th October 2019

This paper reviews manifestations of racism in European and American histories of Arab and Persian astronomy from the eighteenth century to the present day.  Its first section discusses the representation of Islamic astronomy from Adam…

Science In India During The Muslim Rule

by Published on: 29th October 2019

The scientific cooperation between India and the Arabs dates back to the time of Abbasid Caliphate of Baghdad when a number of books on astronomy, mathematics, and medicine were translated from Sanskrit into Arabic. From…

Development of Astronomy in Ottomans

by Published on: 28th September 2019

Generally, it is possible to study the development of astronomy in the Ottomans in three periods; The astronomy from the establishment of Ottomans to Ali Qushji’s arrival in the Ottomans (1299-1472); The astronomy from Ali…

British Museum: “Inspired by the East…” Art Exhibition 10 October 2019 – 26 January 2020

by Published on: 27th September 2019

Conceived and developed in collaboration with the Islamic Arts Museum Malaysia, Inspired by the East: how the Islamic world influenced Western art includes generous loans from their extensive collection of Islamic and Orientalist art. The exhibition…

1001 Cures: Translation Movement

by Published on: 27th September 2019

Translation is one of the most powerful drivers in the development of science and medicine. From the earliest periods of recorded history until today, translation has played a crucial role in propagating scientific knowledge.

theguardian.com: Irish translation of Ibn Sīna discovered!

by Published on: 16th September 2019

A 15th-century vellum manuscript of the writing of the revered Persian physician Ibn Sīna, or Avicenna, has been found being used to bind a later book, revealing for the first time that his seminal Canon…

1001 Cures – Introduction

by Published on: 12th October 2018

Islamic civilisation developed a system of healthcare that, at its apogée, was envied by both friend and foe. Therefore, medicine evolved into a highly complex and variegated discipline from the 7th to the 21st century…

Manuscript Review: ‘The Indica’ or ‘Al-bayruni’s India,’ by Al-Bayruni​

by Published on: 24th September 2018

Bayruni conducted advanced research and wrote original standard works in different areas of knowledge - such as mathematics, astronomy, astrology, physics, pharmacology, cosmology, mineralogy, geography, history, chronology and cultural anthropology...

Manchester Science Festival to Feature Family Event on Ibn Al-Haytham

by Published on: 20th September 2018

1001 Inventions Celebrates Ibn Al-Haytham at Manchester’s Iconic Central Library

Embedding Scientific Ideas as a Mode of Science Transmission

by Published on: 12th September 2018

I used the discipline of astronomy as a template to record the transmitted ideas and hoped that other people, who work on other disciplines, would do the same, all in an effort to paint a…

Constantine the African and the Qayrawani doctors: Contribution of the ‘Phoenicians’ of North Africa to Latin Medicine in the Middle Ages and Renaissance

by Published on: 10th September 2018

When a sixteenth-century medical writer referred to Phoenicians, alongside Arabs, as exceptionally important medical sources, he was probably referring to the Muslim and Jewish doctors of Qayrawan, who were writing in Arabic in the tenth…

Malika V: Nur Jahan

by Published on: 7th September 2018

From Bangladesh to Pakistan, Kyrgyzstan to Nigeria, Senegal to Turkey, it is not particularly rare in our own times for women in Muslim-majority countries to be appointed and elected to high offices—including heads of state.…

Science in Adab Literature

by Published on: 7th September 2018

A long standing topic of discussion among orientalists has been the question whether science in medieval Islamic society was a marginal activity, restricted to small elite circles and not rooted in society, or whether it…

Hydraulic Imagery in Medieval Arabic Texts

by Published on: 4th September 2018

The Arabic reports about irrigation, dams and water-powered machines form a cultural construction which could be called hydraulic imagery. The term imagery is related to the perception patterns concerning hydraulic constructions inasmuch these patterns are…

The Science of Al-Biruni

by Published on: 1st August 2018

Al-Biruni was so far ahead of his time that his most brilliant discoveries seemed incomprehensible to most of the scholars of his days...

Tribute to the late Prof. Dr. Fuat Sezgin

by Published on: 5th July 2018

Research Centre for Islamic History, Art and Culture (IRCICA), Istanbul, is deeply saddened at the demise of Prof. Dr. Fuat Sezgin, a prominent historian of science in the world and leading figure of scholarship in…

Professor Fuat Sezgin Passed Away in Istanbul

by Published on: 1st July 2018

The academic world has lost a great scholar. Below is an obituary predominantly based on a recently updated Wikipedia article (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fuat_Sezgin)

Manuscript Review: The Book on Public Finance, by Abu `Ubayd Al-Harawi

by Published on: 28th June 2018

Abu `Ubayd's work is much more comprehensive in the subject of public finance of the Islamic State...

A Sanctuary for Birds: Muslim Civilisation

by Published on: 20th June 2018

Few creatures from the animal kingdom can live alongside humans in urban habitats. One of these survivalists are birds. There was a time when birds were simply welcomed and not worshipped not treated badly. You…

Malika IV: Hurrem Sultan (Roxolana)

by Published on: 3rd June 2018

From Bangladesh to Pakistan, Kyrgyzstan to Nigeria, Senegal to Turkey, it is not particularly rare in our own times for women in Muslim-majority countries to be appointed and elected to high offices—including heads of state.…

6th International Congress on History of Medicine in Muslim Heritage

by Published on: 2nd June 2018

The 6th International Congress on History of Medicine in Muslim Heritage will be held during 3-6 October at the University of Sidi Mohammed Benabdellah, Fez, Morocco.

Arab Origins of Cryptology

by Published on: 14th May 2018

This article is the summary of a presentation given by Dr. Al-Suwaiyel at Oxford University. The presentation provides an insight into the works of Muslim Scholars on Cryptology in early Islamic periods.

Contributions to Science, Technology and Civilisation: A lecture for U3A

by Published on: 10th May 2018

On Wednesday 25 April 2018, The University of the Third Age (U3A) , hosted an event at Leamington Spa Town Hall to explore Islam through a day of interactive talks, performing arts and an exhibition.…

1001 Cures Book launch at The Royal Society in London during the British Science Week

by Published on: 30th April 2018

To celebrate the launch of 1001 Cures; Contributions in Medicine & Healthcare from Muslim Civilisation, Bettany Hughes, Prof. Peter Frankopan, Dr. Aarathi Prasadand Prof. Peter E. Pormann participated in a panel discussion were they discussed…

World Muslim Women’s Summit & Exhibition WISE 2018 Istanbul

by Published on: 12th April 2018

The World Muslim Women's Summit & Exhibition WISE 2018 was held as a part of the 8th World Islamic Forum on the 1st -2nd of March 2018...

From Baghdad to Barcelona: The Anxiety of Influence in the Transmission of the Greek and Arabic Sciences

by Published on: 2nd April 2018

Drawing on Harold Bloom’s model of poetic influence and supersession in his famous book, “The Anxiety of Influence,” and considering several historical cases of cross-cultural reception of the natural sciences from the Middle Ages that…

1001 Cures: Contributions in Medicine and Healthcare from Muslim Civilisation

by Published on: 22nd March 2018

1001 Cures: Contributions in Medicine and Healthcare from Muslim Civilisation tells the fascinating story of how generations of physicians from different countries and creeds created a medical tradition admired by friend and foe...

Treasure Trove of Benefits and Variety at the Table: A Fourteenth-Century Egyptian Cookbook

by Published on: 20th March 2018

The Kanz al-fawāʾid fī tanwīʿ al-mawāʾid is a 14th century Egyptian cookbook that consists of 830 recipes for a variety of different dishes and beverages...

FSTC Launch of 1001 Cures Book

by Published on: 9th March 2018

To mark the launch of 1001 Cures: Contributions in Medicine & Healthcare From Muslim Civilisation new multi-author book with Foreword by Sir Magdi Yacoub, the Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation (FSTC) in partnership with…

Early Women of Science, Technology, Medicine and Management

by Published on: 7th March 2018

This article is a paper submitted to and presented at WISE 2018: World Muslim Women's Summit & Exhibition, organised by TASAM, Istanbul, Turkey, from 28th Feb - 4th March 2018.

Islam’s Historical Contribution to Commerce and Finance

by Published on: 9th February 2018

Under the reign of Eurocentrism, the Western mind imagines that even if Islam came up with all manner of new ideas and technologies – ideas in engineering, art, mathematics and at a big push, science…

Malika VI: Sayyida Al-Hurra

by Published on: 8th February 2018

From Bangladesh to Pakistan, Kyrgyzstan to Nigeria, Senegal to Turkey, it is not particularly rare in our own times for women in Muslim-majority countries to be appointed and elected to high offices—including heads of state.…

Astronomy in Medieval Jerusalem

by Published on: 1st February 2018

Various medieval Arabic manuscripts preserved in libraries around the world – Leipzig, Cairo, Princeton, and not least Jerusalem

Obituary: Professor Cesare Rossi, Naples

by Published on: 29th January 2018

The world has lost a rare scholar and wonderful person. Cesare Rossi was a distinguished professor of engineering and also historian of engineering. He was a friend and an Associate of the Foundation for Science,…

Introduction to Turkish Motifs in Ottoman Times

by Published on: 23rd January 2018

On 13 and 14 January 2018 Ashfia Ashrif, Manchester based Artist and Student of Traditional Arts, delivered a two day course named “Introduction to Turkish Motifs in Ottoman Times” at FSTC House.

Arabic Medicinal Manuscripts of Pre-Colonial Northern Nigeria: A Descriptive List

by Published on: 1st January 2018

West African Muslim scholars produced a number of Arabic works relating to medicine, philosophy, economic studies, political thought, geography, architecture, town planning and public administration...

Dental Care in Islamic Medical Science: Muhammad al-Aqkirmani (d. 1760) and his Risalah fi hukm al-Siwak

by Published on: 1st January 2018

Most of the oldest Muslim treatises on Siwak remain in a manuscript form. However, similar works on this issue have also appeared in later periods...

When the World was Upside Down: Maps from Muslim Civilisation

by Published on: 15th December 2017

Great scholars from Muslim Civilisation, indeed, turned the world upside down with their maps; not just metaphorically but world maps once were literally upside down (with south dipicted at the top).

Oxford Museum of the History of Science Online Al-Mizan Exhibition

by Published on: 16th November 2017

The Oxford Museum of the History of Science launched an online Al-Mizan Exhibition, this exhibition explores the connections between the sciences and arts in societies from Muslim Civilisation.

Islamic Astronomy from “Star Wars” to Star Tables

by Published on: 10th November 2017

The most obvious difference between modern and Islamic astronomy is that the latter is primarily mathematical and predictive, and the former has other observational goals, such as describing the physics of other worlds.

Ibn al-Nafis, the Pulmonary Circulation, and The Islamic Golden Age

by Published on: 1st November 2017

Ibn al-Nafis (1213-1288) was an Arab physician who made several important contributions to the early knowledge of the pulmonary circulation. He was the first person to challenge the long-held contention of the Galen School that…

The West Owes a Debt to Islam: Interview with Prof Glen Cooper

by Published on: 31st October 2017

Professor Glen Cooper discusses the Golden Age of Muslim Civilisation. During the European Dark Ages, when science, art and literature seemed to flounder for centuries, there actually was a lot of discover in places like…

Buried Evidence: Islamic Viking Burial Garments

by Published on: 27th October 2017

As predicted in our previous article dating back to May 2015, additional studies and research have indeed revealed more artefacts illustrating European and Islamic Civilisation interconnectivity. Similar to the Viking woman who was found wearing…

Avicenna’s Medical Thinking in Colonial Mexico

by Published on: 27th September 2017

New Spain was a viceroyalty of Spain between 1521 and 1821. In these three centuries, the practice and the teaching of medicine had a great influence from Arabian medicine, and in this way, the thinking…

New Annotated Reference (Text Only) Edition of 1001 Inventions Book

by Published on: 26th September 2017

New Annotated Reference (Text Only) Edition of 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilisation

Star-finders Astrolabes

by Published on: 7th September 2017

Over a thousand-year period in Muslim Civilisation, epoch-making discoveries and contributions, such as the first record of a star system outside our own galaxy were made. Also astronomical instruments including celestial globes, armillary spheres, sextants…

The Back-Road Historic Mosques of China

by Published on: 1st September 2017

In a country known for large numbers, it was a modest, round number that grabbed our attention: 100. That is the approximate number of mosques built before 1700 that are estimated to remain throughout central…

Science and Engineering in the Islamic Heritage Symposium

by Published on: 31st August 2017

“Science and Engineering in the Islamic Heritage”, a Symposium organised by Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation – Centre for the Study of Islamic Manuscripts, in co-operation with the Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation (UK), on…

Science and Engineering in the Islamic Heritage Symposium

by Published on: 31st August 2017

“Science and Engineering in the Islamic Heritage”, a Symposium organised by Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation – Centre for the Study of Islamic Manuscripts, in co-operation with the Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation (UK), on…

Water Sterilization Technology in Muslim Civilisation

by Published on: 31st August 2017

Water-related diseases are the most critical health problems in the world now, therefore the mechanisms of sterilize water and its development gained the attention of governments and scientists.

Avicenna’s Medical Thinking in Colonial Mexico

by Published on: 27th August 2017

New Spain was a viceroyalty of Spain between 1521 and 1821. In these three centuries, the practice and the teaching of medicine had a great influence from Arabian medicine, and in this way, the thinking…

Rethinking and Rebuilding Social Cohesion: Engaging Young Syrian Refugees Project

by Published on: 23rd August 2017

On Saturday 1st July 2017, the Foundation for Science, Technology, Civilisation UK (FSTC UK), Rethink Rebuild Society (RR) and AMAL partnered up to deliver the second part of the “Rethinking and Rebuilding Social Cohesion: Engaging…

From Petra back to Makka – From “Pibla” back to Qibla

by Published on: 22nd August 2017

A critique of Dan Gibson, Early Islamic Qiblas: A Survey of mosques built between 1AH/622 C.E. and 263 AH/876 C.E. (with maps, charts and photographs), 296 pp., Vancouver BC: Independent Scholars Press, 2017

Scholarship, Science & Technology in Sub-Saharan Africa: Pre-Islamic to Islamic Era

by Published on: 14th August 2017

On Friday 11 August 2017, the Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation UK, held two consecutive talks on the notion of 'Scholarship, Science & Technology in Sub-Saharan Africa'. The purpose of this event was to…

Manuscript Review: The Book of Routes and Kingdoms, by Ibn Khordadbeh

by Published on: 24th July 2017

[Ibn Khordadbeh] grew up to be a knowledgeable scholar, and during the reign of Caliph al-Mu`tamid (256-279 A.11/870-892) he was appointed as Director of Post and Information in the province of Jibal...

The Story of Mathematics

by Published on: 19th July 2017

During the Cheltenham Science Festival from 6 - 11 June 2017, a panel on “The Story of Math” took place. Professors Mona Siddiqui, Mohamed El-Gomati, Marcus du Sautoy and Dr Amira Bennison took part in…

“1001 Inventions and The World Of Ibn Al-Haytham” Film Released

by Published on: 11th July 2017

The film is part of a global educational campaign launched by 1001 Inventions in partnership with UNESCO in 2015 that has engaged more than 30 million people around the world.

Marrakesh

by Published on: 5th July 2017

It is highly crucial to begin this article by the following point which not many people are aware of, but is perhaps one of the most decisive moments in Muslim history: the role played by…

An introduction to Early Islamic Society and Social Sciences

by Published on: 28th June 2017

...in order to know or appreciate most developments of Muslim society and civilization, or to understand the very foundations of Islamic society and civilization, we have to go to the very early history of Islam.…

The Impact of Islamic Science and Learning on England

by Published on: 28th June 2017

Nothing contrasts more the discrepancies in learning as the place of books. When Muslim libraries abounded with books, some containing even tens of thousands, and where students, scholars and any curious mind found a place,…

Technology in sub-Saharan Cultures

by Published on: 5th June 2017

Genetic and paleontological findings have concluded that Africa is the birthplace of the entire human race. Africa is often thought of as a continent rich in natural beauty and culture. However, little is known or…

Manuscript Review: The Catalogue (Al Fihrist), by Al-Nadim

by Published on: 30th May 2017

AL-FIHRIST is to be regarded the first standard subject-wise 'catalogue' covering all areas of knowledge...

Muslims Contribution to the Study and Development of Medical Sciences in 19th Century Nigeria: A Preliminary Account

by Published on: 23rd May 2017

This paper presented at the 7th International Congress of the International Society of the History of Islamic Medicine, and 4th Fez Congress on History of Medicine, jointly organized by the University of Muhamed Ben Abdallah,…

Islamic Astronomy

by Published on: 24th April 2017

This article was originally published as: “Islamic Astronomy”, in Christopher Walker, ed., Astronomy before the Telescope, London: British Museum Press, 1996, pp. 143-174.

A Chronology – Turkey’s 700-year long venture in science and technology

by Published on: 13th April 2017

A chronology on "Science from the East - Techniques from the West: Turkey's 700-year long venture" is compiled by Professor Dr. Feza Günergun, Department of the History of Science, Istanbul University. People sought knowledge for…

Ravy (Rayy)

by Published on: 29th March 2017

Rayy was a city in the old Persian region of Media, during the Islamic times in the province of Djibal...

Islamic Foreshadowing of Evolution

by Published on: 21st March 2017

...in this article, I will summarise the key elements of the modern science of evolution, and the reasons why the evidence in its favour is generally regarded among scientists as conclusive, before turning to my…

Albucasis: A Landmark for Arabic and European Surgery

by Published on: 9th February 2017

This article presents Abu'l-Qasim Khalaf ibn 'Abbas al-Zaharawi, Arabic أبو القاسم خلف بن عباس الزهراوي, Latin Albucasis (936-1013 A.D.), one on the most outstanding Arabic physicians and the most remarkable Arabic surgeon. His work had…

A Culture Devoted to Healing

by Published on: 4th January 2017

Muslim Contributions to the Medical Sciences A Tribute to Dr Rabie E. Abdel-Halim

Historiography of Science and Medicine: Balancing Scholarship with Public Engagement

by Published on: 9th December 2016

In recent years, here at Fez and all over the world, distinguished scholars have rediscovered the immense importance of Islamic medicine which preserved, systematized and developed the medical knowledge of classical Antiquity. From the seventh…

1001 Inventions New Children’s Book Selected as Best Biography

by Published on: 22nd November 2016

Junior Library Guild Honours National Geographic Readers Book on Ibn al-Haytham

The Journey of Automatic Machines in Muslim Civilisation

by Published on: 24th October 2016

This keynote lecture reviews the rise and development of automatic machines within Muslim civilisation. It looks at how inventors from the Muslim civilisation progressively transformed achievements of previous cultures (e.g. ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, Persia,…

Amazing Mechanical Devices from Muslim Civilisation

by Published on: 9th September 2016

Fully automated environmentally friendly water raising devices, pumps, windmills and more! Discover some of the most facinating devices from the Golden Age of Muslim Civilisation that brought creative innovative ideas helping to drive agriculture and…

Manuscript Review: The Clear Exposition of the Principles of Accountability, by Ibn al-Ukhuwwah

by Published on: 4th September 2016

[Ibn al-Ukhuwwah] provides a summary of the positive and negative injunctions contained in the standard codes of the Shari`ah together with regulations for the safe guarding of public morality, for ensuring the purity of faith…

Mega Cities on the Silk Road

by Published on: 25th August 2016

Throughout history, trade routes played a central role in the transfer of goods and exchange of ideas between different parts of the world. The historic Silk Roads, which were a network of trade routes across…

Ode to Nana Asma’u: Voice and Spirit

by Published on: 16th August 2016

Nana Asma’u sits in the pantheon, of the great educators of Africa. Taught by female scholars – such as Aisha - in her family, as well as by her more well known father (Usman dan…

Malika III: Shajarat Al-Durr

by Published on: 11th August 2016

Our third story is that of Shajarat al-Durr, the first woman to sit upon an Egyptian throne since Cleopatra, nearly 1,300 years before.

al-Jahiz’s Book of Animals: The transcendent value of disgust

by Published on: 11th August 2016

Jeannie Miller, an assistant professor in the department of near & Middle Eastern civilizations, is working on a manuscript examining The Book of Animals by al-Jahiz, a ninth-century Arabic writer and polymath. Al-Jahiz saw himself…

Professors Al -Hassani and Professor Abattouy awarded prestigious King Abdullah’s Award for Translation

by Published on: 15th June 2016

The annual King Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz International Award for Translation in the Humanities from Arabic in to other languages was awarded to Professor Salim Al-Hassani and Professor Mohammed Abattouy. Professor Al-Hassani announced at the award…

Al-Khalili and the Culmination of Spherical Astronomy in 14th-Century Damascus

by Published on: 9th June 2016

Syria in the 14th century was the scene of the most sophisticated developments in astronomy anywhere in the world. Shams al-Din al-Khalili was a muwaqqit, or mosque astronomer, in Damascus in the middle of that…

Manuscript Review: The Discourse of Listener and Speaker on the Etiquette of Learning and Learner, by Ibn Jama’ah

by Published on: 29th May 2016

It was in the year 672 A.H. (1273 A.C.) that Qadi Ibn Jama'ah completed his TADHKIRAH as a guide for students and teachers to help improve quality of their academic life and work...

The House of Wisdom: Baghdad’s Intellectual Powerhouse

by Published on: 17th May 2016

The heyday of Baghdad was 1,200 years ago when it was the thriving capital of the Muslim world. It was home to the House of Wisdom, an academy of knowledge that attracted brains from far…

Malika II: Radiyya bint Iltutmish

by Published on: 13th May 2016

Popularly referred to as Razia Sultana, this is the story of Radiyya bint Iltutmish written by Tom Verde. Born in 1205, Budaun, Radiyya bint Iltutmish, also known as Raziya al-Din, was the first female ruler…

FSTC at Muslim Education Fair

by Published on: 12th May 2016

From 23rd to 24th April, Nida Trust, an organisation which aims to educate the next generation of young people through empowering and supporting students, teachers and parents, hosted hosted 55 exhibitors including schools, education organisations,…

World Environment Day

by Published on: 6th May 2016

World Environment Day (WED) is an annual event that is aimed at being the biggest and most widely celebrated global day for positive environmental action. WED activities take place all year round and climax on…

Earth Day

by Published on: 22nd April 2016

Muslim Heritage is very happy to announce that today, 22nd April, is Earth Day. Earth Day is a day of events and observances intended to inspire awareness of and appreciation for the Earth's environment. The…

18 April, International Day for Monuments and Sites

by Published on: 19th April 2016

Every year on 18 April, UNESCO celebrates the “International Day for Monuments and Sites”, whose establishment was approved by the 22nd UNESCO General Conference in 1983.

Manuscript Review: The Law of Language, by Ibn Faris

by Published on: 18th April 2016

Ibn Faris was a poet of merit and could also write in fine prose style. He was grammarian, philologist and linguist...

Medical Books on Healthy Living from Muslim Civilisation

by Published on: 13th April 2016

If you think medical advice on healthy living - good nutrients, exercise and stress free existence is a modern medical practice, you might want to think again and join us to discover 5 medical books…

Ophthalmologists of the Medieval Islamic World

by Published on: 12th April 2016

The main purpose of this monograph is to review some of the contributions made by ophthalmologists from Muslim civilisation between the 9th century CE (early 3rd century AH) and the late 14th century CE (middle…

OBITUARY: Ahmed Zewail 1946-2016

by Published on: 8th April 2016

A personal encounter. A candle extinguished, but his light will continue to shine: AHMED ZEWAIL 26/02/1946, Egypt - 02/08/2016, USA

1st International Symposium Mediterranean Continuities: Material and spiritual paths

by Published on: 1st April 2016

MOHA is organizing, an international symposium called: ‘Mediterranean Continuities: Material and spiritual paths’, which will take place on 15 – 16 April 2016 in Kavala, Northern Greece.

Obesity: 1000 years ago

by Published on: 29th March 2016

I enjoyed Richard Barnett's Historical Keywords piece on obesity (May 28, p 1843).[1] More clarification is needed regarding his statement that “obesity first appears in a medical context in Thomas Venner's Via Recta (1620)”.

World Water Day

by Published on: 22nd March 2016

Water is life... there are a few things that every human being agrees with. One of them is of course water being essential to our life. It is embedded not just biologically but in every…

World Math Days and Month

by Published on: 12th March 2016

As the world celebrates World Maths and Pi Day on March 12th and March 14th, April is also Mathematics and Statistics Awareness Month. To celebrate these special occasions, the Muslim Heritage website would like to…

International Women’s Day

by Published on: 7th March 2016

To celebrate Women’s Day on 8th March, no way is better than reproducing a collection of articles written by FSTC scholars and associates on the achievements of women in Muslim Heritage in various fields. We…

World Book Day 2016 (UK & Ireland)

by Published on: 2nd March 2016

World Book Day is a yearly event first week of March, "designated by UNESCO as a worldwide celebration of books and reading, and marked in over 100 countries all over the world"*. On this occasion,…

A Tale of Two Civilisations: The Viking and the Muslim Civilisation

by Published on: 16th February 2016

Dating back to March 2015, news regarding the discovery of a ring found on a Viking woman in an ancient burial ground with the inscription 'For/To Allah' erupted in mainstream media. The mystery surrounding how…

FSTC Activity Report 2015

by Published on: 5th February 2016

Year 2015 has been a busy, challenging and a successful Year. FSTC wishes all our colleagues, supporters and readers a successful and prosperous Year 2016. This report provides information on the projects we have worked…

Allah’s Automata – A Review of the Exhibition

by Published on: 2nd December 2015

Reflections on: A New Exhibition on Artifacts of the Arab/Islamic Renaissance ZKM, Karlsruhe, Germany: October 30, 2015 - February 28, 2016 http://zkm.de/en/event/2015/10/globale-allahs-automata by Dr. Charles M. Savage Knowledge Era Enterprises International Munich, Germany http://www.kee-inc.com

Ode to Sheikh Abdul al-Amawi: The Old Man of Barawa

by Published on: 18th November 2015

In this article, Natty Mark Samuels explores the life and contributions of 19th Century Abdul Aziz al-Amawi. Abd al Aziz al-Amawi originated from Barawa, Somalia and his subjects of expertise included theology, law, Sufism, grammar,…

The Mechanical Corpus of Al-Isfizārī in the Sciences of Weights and Ingenious Devices: New Arabic Texts in Theoretical and Practical Mechanics

by Published on: 17th November 2015

Editorial note: This article needs to be read in conjunction with the book release review of the Arabic edition, see: http://muslimheritage.com/node/2068

A Fascinating Journey of Clocks in Muslim Civilisation

by Published on: 6th November 2015

On 22-23 October 2015, the “3rd International conference on History of Medicine and Cures (Colloque international de l’histoire de medecine)” was opened at Fez university of Sidi Mohammed ben Abdullah (Faculté de Médecine et de…

Scholarly Traditions of the Schools in Baghdad: The Mustansiria as a Model

by Published on: 27th October 2015

Baghdad schools are a challenging topic, involving several different facets of history. These include cartography to identify the location of each school, biographical studies to identify their teachers, preachers, jurists and administrators, along with their…

“Egyptology: The Missing Millennium” of Medieval Arabic Sources

by Published on: 20th October 2015

In this paper, I would like to discuss the missing millennium of Medieval Arabic sources in the study of Egyptology. Much of the arguments that I present here are detailed in my book. These include:…

Lighthouse of Alexandria in the sources from Islamic Civilisation

by Published on: 16th October 2015

The Lighthouse of Alexandria is one of the wonders of the Ancient World. It was still a great tourist attraction well into the medieval period, and was visited by many travellers to the city that…

African contributions to Muslim Civilisation

by Published on: 1st October 2015

Black History Month UK is an International annual month, celebrating, recognising and valuing the inspirational individuals and events from within the Black and Minority Ethnic communities. During Black History Month, we remember and celebrate the…

Manuscript Review: The Book of Musical Modes, by Al-Urmawi

by Published on: 26th September 2015

[Al-Urmawi] was the greatest of music theorists. He was the pioneer of a school which propagated the "Systematist Theory"

Nearly 3 Centuries old light system illuminates a sacred grave on Sun’s equinox

by Published on: 23rd September 2015

This year has been chosen as "International Year of Light (IYL2015)" by UNESCO, what a perfect time to remember these words: “If the first light of the new year doesn’t shine upon my mentor, then…

Jordan conference explores Schools and Learning Institutions in Muslim Civilisation

by Published on: 17th September 2015

In order to popularise the diverse history of science. The Jordanian Society for History of Science (JORSHS) in collaboration with the Royal Jordanian Geographical Centre (RJGC) organised the Eighth International Conference of History of Science…

UNESCO: The Islamic Golden Age of Science for today’s knowledge-based society

by Published on: 16th September 2015

From the 14th to 15th September 2015, UNESCO representatives, worldwide researchers, academics, science historians and political decision makers gathered in Paris to explore UNESCO’s International Year of Light by visiting the progression along with contributions…

President of FSTC at the Annual “Avicenna Studienwerk” Summer Academy, Osnabrück, Germany

by Published on: 14th September 2015

On Monday 31st August, 2015, Professor Salim Al-Hassani, President of FSTC (Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation), was invited to participate in a day dedicated to learning about and discussing Muslim heritage in the sciences…

President of FSTC at Edinburgh Arab Festival

by Published on: 8th September 2015

1001 Inventions Versus 1001 Nights: Keynote Speech, by Emeritus Prof. Salim T. S. Al-Hassani, 28 August 2015 at Edinburgh Arab Festival 2015, organized by Islamic & Middle Eastern Department, University of Edinburgh

Song of Suwari: Ode to West African Scholars

by Published on: 3rd September 2015

Although some contemporary historians may argue otherwise, in the past, particularly in places such as West Africa, Muslims and non-Muslims lived together in relative harmony and prosperity. The positive impact of the spread of Islam…

The Unpublished Works of Arabic Geography: An Overview and a Classification

by Published on: 28th August 2015

Islamic geographical texts are not only valuable in terms of geographical research, they also constitute an essential resource in the study of Arab-Islamic civilisation - its literature, history, learning and economics. This chapter will attempt…

Lund Astronomical Clock

by Published on: 26th August 2015

The genesis of this article lies in a recent visit to the Romanesque cathedral of Lund. While in the cathedral, I walked over to the medieval astronomical clock to await the moving figures and music…

Ingenious Clocks from Muslim Civilisation that Defied the Middle Ages

by Published on: 21st August 2015

TIME TELLING MACHINES: Revealing marvellous mechanical and water-powered clocks from early Muslim Civilisation. These sophisticated devices that defied the Middle Ages.

Announcement: On New FSTC Historiography

by Published on: 14th July 2015

The Foundation for Science, Technology, and Civilisation (FSTC) now seeks to build on this success and improve its historiographical approach, use of primary and secondary sources and tighten the focus on science.

Omar Sharif’s final film dedicated to his legacy

by Published on: 11th July 2015

Actor Omar Sharif’s final film “1001 Inventions and the World of Ibn Al-Haytham” has been dedicated to his legacy. Legendary Oscar-nominated actor Omar Sharif, who died on Friday 10 July 2015 in a Cairo hospital…

The International Year of Light Sheds Light on the Dark Ages

by Published on: 27th June 2015

The UNESCO International Year of Light and Light-Based Technologies is a multi-faceted celebration of light in its scientific, technological and cultural context. Central to this has been the recognition of Ibn al-Haytham as the founder…

Turkey: Home of TURQUOISE

by Published on: 9th June 2015

"Did you know the word 'turquoise' is a French word that simply means 'Turkish'?

Ode to Ahmad Baba Al-Massufi

by Published on: 22nd May 2015

Abu al-Abbas Ahmad ibn Ahmad al-Takruri Al-Massufi al-Timbukti, otherwise commonly known as Ahmad Baba for short, was a well-known teacher, professor, philosopher, Arabic grammarian and an author of over forty books and various works.

Manuscript Review: Instruction of the Learner; The Method of Learning, by Al-Zarnuji

by Published on: 22nd May 2015

Zarnuji’s work represents a landmark in the history of Pedagogy in the Muslim East up to the turn of the 12th century...

World Fairtrade Day

by Published on: 9th May 2015

Happy World Fair Trade Day!

Professor Devin Stewart: The Fihrist of Ibn al-Nadīm and the Transmission of Knowledge in the Islamic World

by Published on: 5th May 2015

On Wednesday 22nd April, a public lecture exploring “The Fihrist of Ibn al-Nadeem and the Transmission of Knowledge in the Islamic World” was presented by Professor Devin Stewart at the Al-Furqan Islamic Heritage Foundation.

Ibn Yunus and The Pendulum: A History of Errors

by Published on: 29th April 2015

In this article, Professor David A. King explores the authenticity of the statement that tenth-century Egyptian astronomer Ibn Yūnus was the first person to use a pendulum to measure time. After examining evidence originating from…

On 23 April the World Celebrates the Book

by Published on: 23rd April 2015

World Book Day or World Book and Copyright Day is a yearly event on 23 April, organized by UNESCO to promote reading, publishing and copyright. On this occasion, we are pleased to invite visitors and…

World Health Day 7th April: Muslim Heritage in Medicine

by Published on: 17th April 2015

World Health Day is celebrated on 7th April each year to mark the anniversary of the founding of WHO (World Health Organisation) in 1948. During Muslim civilisation, various scholars made interesting observations alongside innovative discoveries…

An Obituary: Professor Rabie El-Said Abdel-Halim

by Published on: 16th April 2015

We have just received the sad news of the passing of Professor Rabie El-Said Abdel-Halim. He passed away in his sleep this morning 15th April 2015 Wednesday. May he rest in peace, and may his…

Ibn Sina’s The Canon of Medicine

by Published on: 15th April 2015

The Sheikh al-Ra'is Sharaf al-Mulk Abu ‘Ali al-Husayn b. ‘Abd Allah b. al-Hasan b. ‘Ali Ibn Sina, in Latin he is know as Avicenna and his most famous works are those on philosophy and medicine.…

EuroNews.com: Brussels exhibition highlights Ottoman influence

by Published on: 14th April 2015

"The Sultan’s World exhibition runs in Brussels until 31 May 2015. It then travels to Krakow, Poland."

EuroNews.com: Brussels exhibition highlights Ottoman influence

by Published on: 13th April 2015

"The Sultan’s World exhibition runs in Brussels until 31 May 2015. It then travels to Krakow, Poland."

Malika I: Khayzuran & Zubayda

by Published on: 14th March 2015

From Indonesia to Pakistan, Kyrgyzstan to Nigeria, Senegal to Turkey, it is not particularly rare in our own times for women in Muslim-majority countries to be appointed and elected to high offices—including heads of state.…

BBC Travel: Where algebra got its name from

by Published on: 11th March 2015

Amazing snapshots from Khiva (formally known as Khawarizm) in Uzbekistan. The birth place of the famous mathematician Al-Khawarizmi (780 – 850 CE). A prosperous centre of learning during the Golden Age of Muslim Civilisation. (Source…

World Book Day 2015 (UK & Ireland)

by Published on: 5th March 2015

World Book Day is a yearly event on 5th March, "designated by UNESCO as a worldwide celebration of books and reading, and marked in over 100 countries all over the world"*. On this occasion, we…

World Book Day 2015 (UK & Ireland)

by Published on: 5th March 2015

World Book Day is a yearly event on 5th March, "designated by UNESCO as a worldwide celebration of books and reading, and marked in over 100 countries all over the world"*. On this occasion, we…

The Suhayl 2014 Vol 13

by Published on: 26th February 2015

The Suhayl 2014 Vol 13 - International Journal for the History of the Exact and Natural Sciences in Islamic Civilisation FSTC is pleased to bring to the attention of readers the availability online of the…

The Suhayl 2014 Vol 13

by Published on: 26th February 2015

FSTC is pleased to bring to the attention of readers the availability online of the 2015 volume of the. International Journal for the History of the exact and Natural Sciences in Islamic Civilisation.

The renaissance of astronomy in Baghdad in the 9th and 10th centuries

by Published on: 19th February 2015

[Note of the editor] This article was published in 2003 as: David A. King, "The renaissance of astronomy in Baghdad in the ninth and tenth centuries: A list of publications, mainly from the last 50…

BBC Four – The Dark Ages: An Age of Light – The Wonder of Islam

by Published on: 17th February 2015

BBC Four: "The Dark Ages have been misunderstood. History has identified the period following the fall of the Roman Empire with a descent into barbarism - a terrible time when civilisation stopped."

Go Green Week 9-15 February

by Published on: 29th January 2015

As Monday 9th February, until Sunday 15th February “Go Green Week”, Muslim Heritage has compiled a list of articles regarding environmental sustainability in Muslim civilisation. Muslim societies previously led examples of constructing environmentally and ecologically…

Go Green Week 9-15 February

by Published on: 29th January 2015

As Monday 9th February, until Sunday 15th February “Go Green Week”, Muslim Heritage has compiled a list of articles regarding environmental sustainability in Muslim civilisation. Muslim societies previously led examples of constructing environmentally and ecologically…

FSTC at Second International Conference in Sharjah

by Published on: 30th December 2014

FSTC and CE4tF are very pleased to have participated in the Second International Conference on Arabs’ and Muslims’ History of Science and the eleventh Conference on the Space Sciences and Astronomy. The conference was organised…

FSTC President delivers speech at Turkish Innovation Week

by Published on: 7th December 2014

President of FSTC, Professor Salim Al-Hassani, was invited to take part in an event entitled the “Turkish Innovation Week” in Ankara from 19th to 21st November, 2014. This event was organised by the Turkish Exporters’…

BSA presents prestigious award to Dr Anne-Maria Brennan

by Published on: 17th October 2014

The British Science Association (BSA) awarded Dr Anne-Maria Brennan with the Sir Walter Bodmer Award. Dr Anne-Maria Brennan is board member of FSTC and Chairperson of CE4tF.

Manuscript Review: Farthest Perception in the Comprehension of Heavens, by Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi

by Published on: 1st October 2014

With all the weight of his knowledge, Qutub al-Din preferred to be a man of lively temperament who would engage in jests, play chess and also music on the rehab. He was a highly knowledgeable…

Daily Sabah: A woman with a past

by Published on: 18th July 2014

Taken from www.dailysabah.com/features/2014/07/12/a-woman-with-a-past: Fatima al-Fihri, a Muslim woman activist from the annals of history has been reintroduced to inspire future generations.

Medicine and Health in Medieval Arabic Poetry: A Historical Review

by Published on: 16th July 2014

This review of medieval Arabic medical poetry is based on our study of the two major classical biographical encyclopedias: “Uyoon Al Anbaa Fi Tabaqaat Al Atibbaa” ("Essential Information on the Classes of Physicians"), authored by…

Medicine and Health in Medieval Arabic Poetry: An Historical Review

by Published on: 16th July 2014

This review of medieval Arabic medical poetry is based on our study of the two major classical biographical encyclopedias: “Uyoon Al Anbaa Fi Tabaqaat Al Atibbaa” ("Essential Information on the Classes of Physicians"), authored by…

The role of Ibn Sina (Avicenna)’s Medical Poem in the transmission of medical knowledge to medieval Europe

by Published on: 14th July 2014

Were you aware that in the Medieval Islamic world, celebrated scientists such as Ibn Sina used to relay their teachings through poetry? Poems structure and rhythm aided the process of transmitting and memorising scientific and…

Women of Science and Management in History June 2014

by Published on: 8th July 2014

The two day workshop, which took place on the 24th and 25th June 2014, followed on from sessions held in Istanbul in October 2013, and is part of a collaborative project between FSTC and iGETEV.

Dialogue of Civilisations: From Ancient Maya to the Islamic world

by Published on: 4th June 2014

As a means to explore ancient civilisations contributions to modern civilisation, the National Geographic Society, The Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation (FSTC) and supporting organisations attended the “Dialogue of Civilisations International Symposium” held in…

Manuscript Review: The Detailed Treatise on Matters Concerning Learners and Guidelines for Teachers and Learners, by Al-Qabisi

by Published on: 21st May 2014

Al-Qabisi was the inventor of the concept and practice of 'Co-operative Teaching by the Teachers' which has been realised only in some of the modern educational systems in the 20th century.

Breaking News: FSTC to host Women of Science workshop, June 2014

by Published on: 19th May 2014

The two day workshop, 24th and 25th June 2014

The European Jerusalem: Sarajevo, where Muslim heritage flourished in Central Europe

by Published on: 15th May 2014

During Ottoman rule, Sarajevo was heralded as the “European Jerusalem”, as its invaluable contributions to civil engineering, industry, trade and architecture attracted people from various ethnic and religious backgrounds. Aesthetic beauty alongside scientific ingenuity made,…

Lessons from the past: science and rationalism in medieval Islam

by Published on: 7th May 2014

In a bid to shed light on the often overlooked Muslim contribution to the history of science, long-term trustee and supporter of Foundation for Science (FSTC), Technology and Civilisation, Professor Jim al-Khalili, presented the 2014…

Book Release: Publication of the Complete Critical Edition of Al-Isfizārī’s Corpus of Mechanics

by Published on: 22nd April 2014

Last November 2013, the world has seen a new unique publication. The Al-Furqan Islamic Heritage Foundation of London published a new book authored by Mohammed Abattouy and Salim al-Hassani containing the critical edition of the…

Mosque of Whirling Colours: A Mixture of Architecture and Art in Nasīr al-Mulk Mosque in Shiraz, Iran

by Published on: 7th April 2014

There are numerous mosques all around the world. Each has a design of its own. However, in order to be distinctive from other mosques, a mosque needs to be unique and possess outstanding features. One…

Conference on “Astrolabes in Medieval Cultures” at the Warburg Institute in London (24-25 April 2014)

by Published on: 1st April 2014

In the frame of the research project ‘Astrolabes in medieval Jewish society’, the Warburg Institute organizes a conference in London on 24-25 April 2014. The topics covered by this conference will be the astrolabe itself,…

The Millennium Anniversary Of Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi

by Published on: 28th March 2014

In 2013, the world community of scholars celebrated a millennium after the death in 1013 of the renowned Andalusian physician- surgeon Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis).

The Late Professor Abdelhamid I. Sabra: An Obituary

by Published on: 17th March 2014

Abdelhamid Ibrahim Sabra, Professor Emeritus of the History of Arabic Science at Harvard University, passed away on December 18 in Lexington, Massachusetts. Born in 1924 in the Egyptian city of Tanta, he won a scholarship…

President of FSTC with Dick and Dom in “Absolute Genius” CBBC Programme

by Published on: 5th March 2014

Scholar, inventor, mechanical engineer, craftsman and artist Al-Jazari featured on Dick and Dom's "Absolute Genius", Wednesday 26th February at 5:30 pm, CBBC. In a bid to engage pre-school children in the sciences, the BBC launched…

President of FSTC makes waves at AINAC 2013

by Published on: 28th January 2014

Professor Salim Al-Hassani, President of the Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation (FSTC), was one of the keynote speakers at the two day conference of the Arab Innovation Network Annual Conference (AINAC) from 6-7th December…

The Mechanical Water Clock Of Ibn Al-Haytham

by Published on: 22nd November 2013

The Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation (FSTC) announces their new achievement in the history of Islamic clocks. For the first time, the work of Ibn al-Haytham on the water clock (Maqala fi ‘amal al-binkam)…

Professor Jim Al-Khalili: The Forgotten Legacy of Arabic Science

by Published on: 12th November 2013

Jim Al-Khalili is a British theoretical nuclear physicist, professor at the University of Surrey, academic author and broadcaster. He is also long-time trustee and supporter of the Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation (FSTC). He…

21st Century World Summit on Child Education

by Published on: 5th November 2013

Professor Salim T S Al-Hassani, President of The Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation (FSTC) was invited as the keynote speaker at the 21st Century World Summit on Child Education in Ankara, Turkey. A two…

Breaking the Frontiers of Science

by Published on: 4th November 2013

In which era were classification of animals, world maps, medical knowledge of the body, the invention of trebuchet and other scientific, technological and cultural advances developed? One might assume that such advances were most likely…

Muslim Founders of Mathematics

by Published on: 30th October 2013

The 7th to the 13th century was the golden age of Muslim learning. In mathematics they contributed and invented the present arithmetical decimal system and the fundamental operations connected with it addition, subtraction, multiplication, division,…

Women of Science, Medicine and Management, Istanbul

by Published on: 17th October 2013

by Ayshah Ismail The Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation (FSTC), launched a new course in Istanbul, Turkey. Entitled "Women of Science Medicine and Management in Muslim Heritage", the course was in collaboration with Insan…

“Islamic science: Inventions that changed the World” Lecture by Prof El-Gomati at BSA

by Published on: 9th October 2013

British Science Association Tayside & Fife Branch, Free Public Lecture Series 2013-2014. Based on the acclaimed exhibition ‘1001 Inventions: Discover the Muslim heritage in our World’, this talk demonstrates how men and women of different…

“Inventions that changed the World” Lecture by FSTC Chairman

by Published on: 9th October 2013

British Science Association Tayside & Fife Branch, Free Public Lecture Series 2013-2014. Based on the acclaimed exhibition ‘1001 Inventions: Discover the Muslim heritage in our World', this talk demonstrates how men and women of different…

L’orgue hydraulique des Banu Mûsa (The Hydraulic Organ of Banu Musa)

by Published on: 13th August 2013

(The Hydraulic Organ of Banu Musa (9th Century): An Early Instrument of Mechanical Music) In the following article, Dr Mona Chaarani describes in a short article in French her reconstruction of the hydraulic organ of…

Washington Irving and the rediscovery of the lost centuries of knowledge

by Published on: 20th July 2013

Mr Howard Firth, MBE, one of the Founding members of FSTC's Muslim Heritage Awareness Group (MHAG) and the Director of Orkney International Science Festival, published recently the following article online that we republish with his…

New Results In The Research On Some Mathematical Works Of Nasir Al-Din Al-Tusi

by Published on: 18th July 2013

The article analyses the mathematical contents of four texts by Nasir al-Din al-Tusi (1201-1274), one of the most original and prolific scientists of the classical Islamic tradition. These four texts on mathematics are: Al-Tusi's Tahrir…

Interview with Peter Sanders

by Published on: 18th July 2013

Muslim Heritage Interviews 7: Peter Sanders We are very grateful to have Peter Sanders who is a well known photographer. He has travelled extensively across the Muslim World taking pictures of many shuyukh (religious leaders).…

FSTC Contributes to the ICHSTM 2013 in Manchester

by Published on: 13th July 2013

In July 2013, Manchester is the venue of the 24th International Congress of History of Science, Technology and Medicine (ICHSTM). The Congress is organised between Sunday 21 - Sunday 28 July 2013. Its theme this…

Mosul the Pearl of Northern Iraq: Its History and Contribution to Classical Civilisation of Islam

by Published on: 13th July 2013

Mosul, in Northern Iraq, is the country's second largest city and the north's major center for trade, industry and communications. Situated in the northwestern part of the country, on the west bank of Tigris, and…

FSTC Chairman Won Services to Science & Engineering Award

by Published on: 11th July 2013

Professor Mohamed El-Gomati OBE, Chairman of the Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation (FSTC), was among the winners honoured of the British Muslim Awards, which took place at the Sheridan Suite, Manchester on 29th January…

Abu al-Wafa al-Buzjanî

by Published on: 8th July 2013

Muḥammad Abūʾl-Wafāʾ al-Būzjānī (10 June 940–997 or 998) was a distinguished Muslim astronomer and mathematician, who made important contributions to the development of trigonometry. He worked in a private observatory in Baghdad, where he made…

Manuscript Review: Treatise on ‘The Alive Son of the Awake’, by Ibn Tufayl

by Published on: 18th June 2013

Besides [Ibn Tufayl's] contributions in medicine, he is best known for his treatise Ilayyu Ibn Yaqzan (‘The Alive’ son of ‘the Awake’)...

Arabic Manuscript Day: a Cultural Festival

by Published on: 29th May 2013

The Institute of Arabic Manuscripts in Cairo, in cooperation with a large array of partners, including FSTC, organizes on May 27, 2013, a cultural festival dedicated to Arabic Manuscripts. The festival consists in lectures, workshops,…

Interview of Professor Al-Hassani in ‘The Alchemy of Innovation’

by Published on: 17th May 2013

In his new book, The Alchemy of Innovation, published in early 2013, Javed Akhtar Mohammed explores, through interviews with several well-known personalities, the different facets of innovation, considered as the lifeblood of successful organizations, communities,…

The Mirror of Health: Discovering Medicine in the Golden Age of Islam, 1 May to 25 October 2013

by Published on: 4th May 2013

RCP Exhibition, London, UK - The Mirror of Health: Discovering Medicine in the Golden Age of Islam

Importance of Culture in Ecological Dialogue

by Published on: 21st April 2013

Professor Al-Hassani addressed in a keynote lecture the 16th Eurasian Economic Summit organised in Istanbul on 10-11 April 2013. His speech in a session on the "Importance of Culture in Ecological Dialogue" was entitled "A…

Ibn Wasil

by Published on: 19th April 2013

Abu ‘Abd Allah Muhammad Ibn Wasil was an historian and man of letters, born in Hamat in Syria on 2 Shawwal 604/20 April 1208 and died in 697/1298. Visiting Iraq and Egypt, he witnessed the…

The History of Islamic Science in the 23rd International Congress of History of Science

by Published on: 12th April 2013

The International Union of History and Philosophy of Science organised in 28 July-2 August 2009 in Budapest, Hungary, the 23rd International Congress of History of Science and Technology. The theme of the congress was: Ideas…

In Japan: Dr Almansour Lectures on 1000 years of Inventions and Innovations

by Published on: 12th April 2013

On December 7, 2011, Dr Ahmad Almansour presented a lecture at the Faculty of Policy and Management, Keio University, Japan on "1000 years of Inventions and Innovations: Discover the Muslim Heritage in our World."

Ulugh Beg

by Published on: 7th April 2013

Ulugh Beg was a Timurid ruler as well as an astronomer, mathematician. His primary interest was in the sciences and intellectual matters. He built an observatory at Samarkand. In his observations he discovered a number…

Illuminating the Dark Ages: The Role and Contribution of Muslim Civilisation

by Published on: 27th March 2013

National Conference for Islam and Medicine (NCIM): Abstract talk at King's College, London, presented in March 2013 by Professor Mohamed El-Gomati OBE, Chairman of the Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation (FSTC)

‘Umar al-Khayyam (Omar Khayyam)

by Published on: 24th March 2013

‘Umar al-Khayyam (better known as Omar Khayyam, 1048-1123 CE), was a polymath scholar from Nishapur, Persia. Mathematician, philosopher, astronomer and poet, he also wrote treatises in Arabic on mechanics, geography, music and physics. Because of…

FSTC President at Vienna ISV Day

by Published on: 11th March 2013

President of the Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation (FSTC) gave a speech at IGMG's ISVDAY(UniDay) in VHS Meidling, Vienna, Austria. Two years after Professor Al-Hassani's visit to the German IGMG's UniDay in Bielefeld which…

Abd al-Rahman ibn Khaldun

by Published on: 7th March 2013

Abd al-Rahman ibn Khaldun is considered a forerunner of original theories in social sciences and philosophy of history, as well as the author of original views in economics, prefiguring modern contributions.

Lecture on Timbuktu Manuscripts at Al-Furqan Foundation

by Published on: 6th March 2013

Al-Furqan Islamic Heritage Foundation organizes on Wednesday 6th March 2013, starting at 18.00, a lecture on Islamic manuscripts in West Africa at the seat of Al-Furqan in London.

Nasir al-Din al-Tusi

by Published on: 26th February 2013

Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Tusi (born in 18 February 1201 in Tus, Khorasan – died on 26 June 1274 in Baghdad), better known as Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, was a Muslim Persian scholar and prolific…

Thabit ibn Qurra

by Published on: 23rd February 2013

Abu al-Hasan Thabit ibn Qurra al-Harrani al-Sabi (born in Harran, now in southern Turkey, in 836 and died in Baghdad on 18 February 901) was a prolific scientist of the ninth century.

Introducing Medical Humanities in the Medical Curriculum in Saudi Arabia: A Pedagogical Experiment

by Published on: 21st February 2013

In a marked shift from the positivist philosophy that influenced medical education for more than a century, world medical educators realize now the significance of the spiritual element of human nature. Consensus is currently building…

Ibn al-Majdi

by Published on: 19th January 2013

Shihab al-Din Abu al-'Abbas Ahmad Ibn al-Majdi (1359–1447 CE) was an Egyptian mathematician and astronomer. We publish this short article to celebrate the memory of his passing away in Cairo on 27/28 January 1447.

FSTC President at the WSIE 2012 Conferences in Boston

by Published on: 3rd January 2013

In late September 2012, Professor Salim Al-Hassani, President of FSTC, participated in The World Summit on Innovation & Entrepreneurship WSIE 2012 in Boston. The WSIE 2012 brought together the world's most riveting people to plot…

President of FSTC at AINAC in Abu Dhabi

by Published on: 28th December 2012

Professor Salim Al-Hassani, President of the Foundation for Science, Technology (FSTC) attended the First Arab Innovation Network Annual Conference 2012 (AINAC 2012) in early December 2012 in Abu Dhabi, UAE. Organised by Cambridge University's Arab…

Professor Rabie E. Abdel-Halim’s Lectures

by Published on: 13th December 2012

In 2012, FSTC members contributed to several activities by publishing articles and giving lectures all around the world. Professor Rabie E Abdel-Halim, member of Muslim Heritage Awareness Group (MHAG) and of FSTC Research Team, attended…

One of the 500 Most Influential Muslims

by Published on: 11th December 2012

The recently released third edition (2010-2011) of The 500 Most Influential Muslims, has bestowed a deserved distinction on Professor Salim T S Al-Hassani, the President of the Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation (FSTC). The…

Turkish-American TV: Interview with President of FSTC

by Published on: 6th December 2012

Interview with Prof. Salim Al-Hassani at 1001 Inventions Exhibition in National Geographic Museum by Turkish-American TV

The York Society of Engineers: A Lecture by FSTC Chairman, 6th December, York, UK

by Published on: 6th December 2012

Upcoming Lecture by Prof. Mohamed El-Gomati, Chairman of FSTC, at The York Society of Engineers, York

Ibn Zuhr and the Progress of Surgery

by Published on: 5th December 2012

This study of the original Arabic edition of the book Al-Taysir fi ‘l-Mudawat wa’l-Tadbir (Book of Simplification Concerning Therapeutics and Diet) written by the Muslim physician Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar, 1093-1162 CE) aims at evaluating his…

Professor Qasim Al-Samarrai Lecture on the The Edition of Arabic Manuscripts

by Published on: 29th November 2012

On Wednesday 28th November 2012, Al-Furqan Islamic Heritage Foundation in London organised a public lecture on The Critical Edition of Manuscripts: Past, Present and Future, delivered by Professor Qasim Al-Samarrai. The lecture presented an insightful…

Experimental Medicine 1000 Years Ago

by Published on: 23rd November 2012

Little is known about the state of experimentation in the field of medicine during the Medieval Islamic era. With few exceptions, most of the contemporary sources on history of medicine propagate the idea that the…

British Prime Minister David Cameron in Dar Al-Hekma College, Jeddah

by Published on: 16th November 2012

British Prime Minister David Cameron, who arrived in Jeddah on November 6h, 2012, paid a historic visit to Dar Al-Hekma College in Jeddah, in the frame of his visit to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Ecology in Islamic Culture: A Selected Critical Bibliography

by Published on: 16th November 2012

The studies on the Islamic view of environment protection and the links between Islamic classical culture and ecology knew recently a notable progress, testified by numerous valuable publications in various languages. The following is a…

Islamic Manuscripts in the Schoenberg Collection at Pennsylvania University

by Published on: 1st October 2012

The Lawrence J. Schoenberg Collection at the University of Pennsylvania is a private library focusing on late medieval and early modern manuscripts. The collection contains a valuable set of original manuscripts, a great part of…

National Geographic Live!: Salim Al-Hassani Lecture

by Published on: 30th September 2012

President of FSTC Professor Salim Al-Hassani's Lecture at National Geographic Museum, Washington DC

Ibn Al-Haytham on Eye and Brain, Vision and Perception

by Published on: 28th September 2012

Ibn al-Haytham was the major figure in the study of optics and vision in the Middle Ages and his influence was pervasive for over 500 years. In this article, Professor Charles G. Gross, a renowned…

Ibn Rushd (Averroes)

by Published on: 15th September 2012

Ibn Rushd (Averroes) is considered as the most important of the Islamic philosophers. He set out to integrate Aristotelian philosophy with Islamic thought. A common theme throughout his writings is that there is no incompatibility…

Reason and Rationality in the Quran

by Published on: 14th September 2012

In this long and well written article, Dr Ibrahim Kalin, based on his thorough study of the history of philosophy, analyzes the categories of reason and rationality within the Islamic intellectual context as it was…

Book Review: “Debt – The First 5,000 Years” by David Graeber

by Published on: 8th August 2012

Economics textbooks claim that money was invented to replace onerous and complicated barter systems—to relieve ancient people from having to haul their goods to market. But this theory is not supported by evidence. On the…

Inter-cultural Respect through Cultural Roots of Science

by Published on: 20th June 2012

The important lecture presented by Professor Salim Al-Hassani at the 15th Euro-Asian Economic Forum held in Istanbul and Izmir, Turkey in April 2012 addressed an assembly of eminent political representatives of fifty countries. His focus…

A 1000 Years Amnesia: Sports in Muslim Heritage

by Published on: 20th June 2012

Professor Salim Al-Hassani published in the issue 369 (Spring 2012, p. 10) of Runnymede Bulletin (Spring 2012 Runnymede Bulletin - Sport) a short article on “Sports in Muslim Heritage”. He argues, notably, that while Europe…

Manuscript Review: The Book on the Soul, by Ibn Bajjah

by Published on: 7th June 2012

Besides philosophy and mathematics, Ibn Bajjah was well-versed in botany, astronomy, logic, grammar, literature and music.

Lectures on Islamic Medicine at RCP, London

by Published on: 28th May 2012

Lectures on Islamic Medicine at the Royal College of Physicians (RCP) at the Launch of the "The Miror of Health" Exhibition, 13th May 2013, London

An Obituary: Professor Ahmad Y. al-Hassan

by Published on: 19th May 2012

On 28 April 2012 Professor Dr Ahmad Yusuf al-Hassan Gabarin passed away. He was one of the most important historians of Islamic science and technology. Specialist of the various aspects of Islamic technology, the late…

Jewels of Muslim Calligraphy: Book Review of “Female Calligraphers: Past & Present by Hilal Kazan”

by Published on: 6th April 2012

This is a review of the book prepared by Hilal Kazan for the Istanbul Greater City Council Cultural Foundation in order to provide a useful and important bio-bibliographic resource on the history of calligraphy of…

Rhazes in the Renaissance of Andreas Vesalius

by Published on: 6th March 2012

Andreas Vesalius' (1514–64) first publication was a Paraphrasis of the ninth book of the Liber ad Almansorem, written by the Muslim physician and scholar Al-Razi (Rhazes, 854–925). The role of Rhazes in Vesalius' oeuvre has…

East Meets West in Venice

by Published on: 29th February 2012

For much of the millennium before the rise of Portugal and Spain, Venice flourished as the hub of Europe's trade with the lands to its east and south. The profound mutual influences that resulted have…

A New Arabic Text of Mechanics: Sinan ibn Thabit on the Theory of Simple Machines

by Published on: 7th February 2012

The Arabic manuscript Orient fol. 3306 preserved at the Staatsbibliothek in Berlin was in its original form a precious collection of Arabic scientific texts of mechanics and optics. It contains a fragment in one folio…

Queen Honours the FSTC Chairman, Professor Mohamed El-Gomati

by Published on: 30th January 2012

Professor Mohamed El-Gomati, recently appointed Chairman of the Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation (FSTC), has been made an OBE (Most Excellent Order of the British Empire) in the New Year's Honours List for 2012.…

National Geographic Releases New 1001 Inventions Book

by Published on: 30th January 2012

25th January 2012, Washington, DC – The latest edition of the best-selling 1001 Inventions book has been published by National Geographic, and will introduce the enduring legacy of Muslim civilization to new audiences in North…

Four Medieval Hospitals in Syria

by Published on: 23rd January 2012

The creation of hospitals as institutions for the care of sick people was developed during the early Islamic era. Over time, hospitals were found in all Islamic towns. This article describes four of these medieval…

Book Review of “Ibn Sayyar al-Warraq’s Tenth-century Baghdadi Cookbook” by Nawal Nasrallah

by Published on: 16th January 2012

Written nearly a thousand years ago, Ibn Sayyar al-Warraq's tenth-century cookbook is the most comprehensive work of its kind. Its recent edition and English translation offers a unique glimpse into the culinary culture of the…

Science in Arabic Poetry: FSTC Explores a New Face of Muslim Heritage

by Published on: 12th January 2012

On December 12, 2011, The heritage of science in Arabic poetry was celebrated by FSTC and 1001 Inventions in Abu Dhabi in a special event under the general theme of Poetry and Science in Islamic…

A Medical Classic: Al-Razi’s Treatise on Smallpox and Measles

by Published on: 3rd January 2012

Kitab fi Al Jadari wa Al Hasaba authored by the Muslim physician Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi (d. ca. 925) is one of the books that remained popular and in great demand for over…

‘Ali b. Sahl Rabban al-Tabari Author of Firdaws al-hikma (Paradise of Wisdom)

by Published on: 2nd January 2012

The physician, scientist and philosopher, ‘Ali b. Sahl Rabban al-Tabari was the son of Sahl Sahl Rabban al-Tabari. ‘Ali was born into an educated and intellectual Christian family. He wrote many books on philosophy, medicine…

Caesarean Section in Early Islamic Literature

by Published on: 20th December 2011

Some medical historians of the last century mistakenly recorded that Caesarean section was strictly forbidden amongst Muslims. This opinion has been repeatedly quoted without examining its authenticity or validity. Research into available ancient Arabic sources…

Significant Ottoman Mathematicians and their Works

by Published on: 19th December 2011

This article aims to give an overview of the formation and development of mathematical studies and the work of famous mathematician in the Ottoman State over a 600 year period, from the period preceding the…

Islamic Development Bank 2012 Prizes for Science and Technology

by Published on: 12th December 2011

In recognition of the crucial role of Science and Technology (S&T) towards social and economic development, the Islamic Development Bank (IDB) announced the 10th Edition (1433H- 2012G) of his Prizes for Science and Technology. Those…

The Royal Society: European Discovery of Arabic Culture

by Published on: 10th November 2011

This public lecture was organised jointly by the Royal Society and FSTC. It traced the stages in the discovery of Arabic culture by European scholars from the early middle ages until the early-modern period.

FSTC Chairman at Uniday, Germany

by Published on: 10th November 2011

Professor Salim T S Al-Hassani, Chairman of the Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation (FSTC) and 1001 Inventions, was one of the keynote speakers at the Uniday (Students Day) conference on 22nd of October 2011…

Obituary: Professor H. H. Gunhan Danisman (1943-2009)

by Published on: 26th October 2011

At the beginning of 2009, we lost our colleague and friend Professor Gunhan Danisman, a member of the Muslim Heritage Awareness Network in Turkey (MHANT) and an eminent scholar who passed away in Istanbul where…

The Sound Rules in Reading the Quran (Tajwid) in Qutb Al-Din al-Shirazi’s Music Notation

by Published on: 16th August 2011

In the Islamic world, starting from Al-Kindī (d. 874), Al-Fārābī (d. 950), Ibn Sīnā (d. 1034), and Safī al-Dīn al-Urmawī (d. 1294) used the abjad notation to write music. Of these writers, the most systematic…

Ali Al-Qushji and His Contributions to Mathematics and Astronomy

by Published on: 12th August 2011

Ali Al-Qushji was one of the most noteworthy and important scientists in the Islamic world. He wrote valuable works especially on astronomy and mathematics. He was a student and co-worker of the famous statesman and…

The Institution of Waqf as a Solution to the Economic Crisis

by Published on: 11th August 2011

The Wall Street Journal, one of the world's most respected newspapers, has suggested recently that the ongoing economic crisis could be resolved in part by the charitable institution of waqf created by the Muslim civilisation…

Book review of Sustainable History and the Dignity of Man by Dr Nayef Al-Rodhan

by Published on: 20th July 2011

In Sustainable History and the Dignity of Man, Dr Nayef Al-Rodhan outlines a new theory of history. Defining "sustainable history" as "a durable progressive trajectory in which the quality of life on this planet ……

Did Medieval Islamic Theology Subvert Science?

by Published on: 14th July 2011

It is often supposed in Islamic studies that Al-Ghazali demolished the basis for science in the Muslim world by his so-called orthodox attack against rational thinking which nurtured a negative climate that resulted in the…

Kerala Mathematics and Its Possible Transmission to Europe

by Published on: 8th July 2011

The Kerala School of astronomy and mathematics was an Indian school of mathematics and astronomy founded by Madhava of Sangamagrama in Kerala, South India, which included among its members several scientists. The school flourished in…

Arabic Roots of the Scientific Revolution

by Published on: 7th July 2011

It is well known nowadays that modern Scientific Revolution benefited indirectly from the theories, results and inventions transmitted from the Arabic/Islamic scientific tradition during the Renaissance. The new element introduced by Dr Rim Turkmani who…

The Influence of Nasir al-Din al-Tusi on Ottoman Scientific Literature

by Published on: 29th June 2011

The works of Nasir al-Din al-Tusi have always attracted the interest of Ottoman scholars as early as the 14th century. Some of his works were translated into Turkish and various annotations or commentaries were written…

Sustainable History, Human Dignity and Trans-Cultural Synergy

by Published on: 27th June 2011

Dr Nayef Al-Rodhan outlines his theory of history about sustainable history and the dignity of man. He explains how sustainable history is propelled by good governance, which balances the tension between the attributes of human…

Natural Philosophy in the Islamic World

by Published on: 24th June 2011

In the following short report, we present a summary of the lecture presented by Professor Peter Adamson in the Muslim Heritage Awareness Group (MHAG) meeting organized by FSTC in London on 30 March 2011. In…

The Influence of Ibn al-Haytham on Kamal al-Din al-Farisi

by Published on: 17th June 2011

This is a very short note summarizing the lecture presented by Dr Saira Malik in the Muslim Heritage Awareness Group (MHAG) meeting organized by FSTC at the Royal Society in London on March 30, 2011.…

Trevor Hilder: A Story About Sustainable History

by Published on: 13th June 2011

After briefly describing his work background, Trevor Hilder tells the story of the young man who set out to seek his fortune.

Contributions of Ibn al-Nafis to the Progress of Medicine and Urology

by Published on: 12th June 2011

This primary-source study of four medical works of the 13th century Muslim scholar Ibn al-Nafis confirmed that his Kitab al-Mûjaz fi al-Tibb was authored as an independent book. It was meant as a handbook for…

Nader El-Bizri: Ibn al-Haytham – An Introduction

by Published on: 11th June 2011

This presentation focused on the historical and epistemic bearings of the scientific legacy of the celebrated polymath al-Hasan ibn al-Haytham (known in Latin as Alhazen)

Ibn al-Haytham and Psychophysics

by Published on: 10th June 2011

The famous scientist Ibn al-Haytham (‘Alhazen') has rightly been credited with many advances in optics and vision science, but recent spurious claims that he is the ‘founder of psychophysics' rest upon unsupported assertions, a conflation…

Manuscript Review: The Book of Observations and Admonitions, by Ibn Sina

by Published on: 5th June 2011

[Ibn Sina] flourished as a great physician and philosopher, but was also a distinguished scientist, mathematician, logician, and poet at the same time...

Proceedings of the Muslim Heritage Awareness Group Meeting

by Published on: 1st June 2011

The Muslim Heritage Awareness Group (MHAG), a network of supporters and key associates of the Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation (FSTC) met on 30 March 2011 at the Royal Society in London. We report…

Reflections on the Optics of Time

by Published on: 30th May 2011

Based on the outstanding achievement of Ibn al-Haytham's work in optics, which paved the way for the "Optics of Space," Dr. Charles M. Savage develops in this stimulating article a vibrant plea for the need…

“We are the source of world’s many inventions”: Meeting of MHANT in Marmara University

by Published on: 26th April 2011

"Muslim Heritage Awareness Network of Turkey's (MHANT) second meeting, which was organized by the Foundation of Science Technology and Civilisation (FSTC) has been held in Marmara University's chancellery building in Istanbul on 20th April 2011.

Bringing Back Golden Age of Science and Innovation

by Published on: 1st April 2011

Mr Zakri Abdul Hamid reflects in this article the thoughts that occurred to him after visiting the exhibition "1001 Inventions" in New York Hall of Science. He concludes it by formulating a wish that the…

Muslim Heritage and Cultural Roots of Science – Lecture by Professor Salim Al-Hassani at Newcastle

by Published on: 1st April 2011

On Monday 9 March 2011, Professor Salim Al-Hassani, Chairman of the Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation (FSTC), was the guest of Newcastle University where he delivered a lecture on ‘'Muslim Heritage and the Cultural…

Book Review of Dr. Toygar Akman’s “Cybernetics”

by Published on: 25th March 2011

"Cybernetics: Past, Present, Future" published by Toygar Akman, a renowned expert in the field, retraces for the Turkish readers the history of cybernetics and presents the state of the art in this revolutionary scientific field.…

Book Review of ‘Islamic Gardens and Landscapes’ by D. Fairchild Ruggles

by Published on: 18th March 2011

Ranging across poetry, court documents, agronomy manuals, and early garden representations and richly illustrated with pictures and site plans, Islamic Gardens and Landscapes by Dr Fairchild Ruggles is a book of impressive scope sure to…

Cairo: A Millennial

by Published on: 7th March 2011

In this article, published originally in Saudi Aramco World in 1969, focus is laid on the history of Cairo, the capital city of Egypt, founded in 969 by General Gawhar, in the name of the…

Pioneer Physicians

by Published on: 21st February 2011

During the classical Muslim civilisation, big scientific advances in medicine were made. Muslim doctors began by collecting all the medical observations and theories of their predecessors, especially Hippocrates and Galen, and built an original and…

In Memoriam: Peter Raymond MBE

by Published on: 1st February 2011

The Trustees of FSTC: Prof. Salim Al-Hassani, Prof. M. El-Gomati, Peter Fell, Ian Fenn, Mohammed Hafiz, Zeki Poyraz It is with great sadness that we announce the passing away of our dear friend and colleague…

Kalila wa-Dimna

by Published on: 30th January 2011

One of the most popular books ever written is the book the Arabs know as Kalila wa-Dimna, a bestseller for almost two thousand years, and a book still read with pleasure all over the world.…

Muslim Heritage Awareness Network Turkey (MHANT) is Established

by Published on: 24th January 2011

On Friday 1st October 2010, thirty Turkish academics and public figures met to launch the Muslim Heritage Awareness Network Turkey (MHANT) at Marmara University in Istanbul.

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Insights into Neurologic Localization by Al-Razi (Rhazes), a Medieval Islamic Physician

by Published on: 20th January 2011

Al-Razi (Rhazes) (born in 864 CE) wrote over 200 scientific treatises, many of which had a major impact on European medicine. His best known manuscript is Liber Continens, a medical encyclopedia in which he described…

Obituary of Dr David C. Reisman

by Published on: 20th January 2011

In this short obituary, we pay a tribute to the memory of Dr David C. Reisman. Dr Reisman was a promising scholar in the field of Islamic studies. He passed away suddenly at the age…

FSTC and Khalifa University to create interactive Science Heritage Centre in UAE

by Published on: 17th January 2011

Khalifa University (KU) and the Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation (FSTC) recently signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) at the KU campus in Abu Dhabi. The MoU aims to promote greater recognition and appreciation…

Rebuttal by the FSTC to Edward Rothstein’s Article

by Published on: 17th January 2011

Rebuttal by the Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation to "A Golden Age in Science, Full of Light and Shadow" by Edward Rothstein published in The New York Times, December 10, 2010

From Frankfurt and Cairo to Damascus: Recent Models of the Umayyad Mosque Clock

by Published on: 6th January 2011

From Frankfurt and Cairo to Damascus: Recent Models of the Umayyad Mosque Clock, The Umayyad Mosque Clock, Abdel Aziz al-Jaraki, Eilhard Wiedemann, Fritz Hauser, Fuat Sezgin, Donald Hill, Ridhwan al-Sa'ati, Banu Musa, Al-Jazari, Al-Khazini, history…

The 15th Century Turkish Physician Serefeddin Sabuncuoglu Author of Cerrahiyetu ‘l-Haniyye

by Published on: 30th December 2010

The Turkish physician Serafeddin Sabuncuoglu (1385–1470) is the author of a famous treatise of surgery, Cerrahiyetü'l Haniyye (Imperial Surgery), composed in Turkish in 1465. It was the first illustrated surgical atlas and the last major…

The European Muslim Heritage and its Role in the Development of Europe

by Published on: 18th December 2010

In a keynote lecture pronounced by Professor Salim T S Al-Hassani in September 2003 at the European Parliament in Brussels, he used slides and 3-D animations to outline the impressive heritage which Europe received from…

Kamal al-Din Abu al-Hasan (or al-Hasan) al-Farisi

by Published on: 18th December 2010

In this short bio-bibliography of Kamal al-Din al-Farisi, Dr Saira Malik presents succinctly the life and work of one of the most original scientists of the Islamic tradition. The author of Tanqih al-Manazir was indeed…

New Book by Jim Al-Khalili – Pathfinders: The Golden Age of Arabic Science

by Published on: 10th December 2010

For over 700 years the international language of science was Arabic. In this compelling, inspiring book, Jim Al-Khalili celebrates the forgotten pioneers who helped shape our understanding of the world. All scientists have stood on…

Book review: Ibn al-Haytham and the New Optics

by Published on: 29th October 2010

This is a book review of Ibn El-Heysem ve Yeni Optik (Ibn al-Haytham and the New Optics) by Huseyin Gazi Topdemir published in 2008 in Turkish as the first book of a series on scientific…

Ibn Khaldun: Studies on His Contribution in Economy

by Published on: 17th October 2010

In the following section, we focus on Ibn Khaldun's contribution to economic thought. We publish contributions by recognized scholars who endeavoured recently to give Ibn Khaldun long overdue credit by placing him properly within the…

FSTC Renews Scientific Contacts with Aleppo University

by Published on: 16th October 2010

Professor Salim Al-Hassani, Chairman of FSTC, has visited the University of Aleppo on 11 October 2010 to greet the new President of the university, Dr Nidal Shehadeh, and to renew the long standing friendly relationship…

Ibn Khaldun: His Life and Works

by Published on: 15th October 2010

Abd al-Rahman ibn Khaldun, the well known historian and thinker from Muslim 14th-century North Africa, is considered a forerunner of original theories in social sciences and philosophy of history, as well as the author of…

The Coffee Route from Yemen to London 10th-17th Centuries

by Published on: 11th October 2010

The history of coffee goes at least as far back as the 9th century. From Eastern Africa, coffee spread to Egypt and Yemen. The earliest credible evidence for either coffee drinking or knowledge of the…

Kristiane Backer Interviews Professor Salim Al-Hassani

by Published on: 10th October 2010

Kristiane Backer conducted an interview with Professor Salim Al-Hassani, founder of "1001 Inventions" and President of The Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation (FSTC) in the TV Chat Show Matters of Faith on Ebru TV.…

Uncovering A Thousand Years of Science and Technology

by Published on: 1st October 2010

The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) published in September 2010 on its website an interesting article (read online here) about the international touring exhibition "1001 Inventions: Discover the Muslim Heritage in our World" which opened…

Teaching and Researching on Arabic-Islamic Science at the University of Barcelona (1931-2010)

by Published on: 14th September 2010

Proceedings of the conference 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World organised by FSTC, London, 25-26 May 2010. Professor Emilia Calvo, a member of the Barcelona Team working since decades on the history of Islamic…

Evolution of Attitudes Towards Human Experimentation in Ottoman Turkish Medicine

by Published on: 3rd September 2010

Attitudes and expectations towards medical knowledge and medical practice standards influence and determine the position of health practitioners and the development of medicine. While describing the basic characteristics of the Ottoman Turkish medicine and medical…

The Origins of Islamic Science

by Published on: 30th August 2010

In the following well documented article Dr Muhammad Abdul Jabbar Beg surveys the origins of Islamic science, with a special focus on its interaction with the previous intellectual traditions of the ancient world as well…

The Next Golden Age? Using History to Inspire Science TodayNatalie Day

by Published on: 4th August 2010

[Proceedings of the conference 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World organised by FSTC, London, 25-26 May 2010]. This presentation will reflect on the modern state of science in the Islamic-world and the potential of…

Sustainability in its Historical Context

by Published on: 2nd August 2010

[Proceedings of the conference 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World organised by FSTC, London, 25-26 May 2010]. Departing from a definition of sustainability as a concept that involves the management of resources with intergenerational…

Status of Research in the History of Astronomy in the Arab World

by Published on: 17th July 2010

Professor Hamid M. K. Al-Naimy [Proceedings of the conference 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World organised by FSTC, London, 25-26 May 2010]. The aim of this paper is to introduce the status of research…

Manuscripts and printing in the spread of Muslim science

by Published on: 15th July 2010

[Proceedings of the conference 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World organised by FSTC, London, 25-26 May 2010]. The following article presents a brief status about the transmission of Muslim scientific texts, and how the…

The Transfer of Science Between India, Europe and China via Muslim Heritage

by Published on: 15th July 2010

[Proceedings of the conference 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World organised by FSTC, London, 25-26 May 2010]. The Islamic realms served as a crucible for scientific learning from the ancient Greek world in the…

Statement of Professor Jim Al-Khalili in the Opening Session

by Published on: 15th July 2010

[Proceedings of the conference 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World organised by FSTC, London, 25-26 May 2010]. In this brief statement, Professor Jim Al-Khalili outlines some ideas about intercultural dialogue from the standpoint of…

Medicine in the Middle Ages: New Insights and a Call for Further Research

by Published on: 15th July 2010

[Proceedings of the conference 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World organised by FSTC, London, 25-26 May 2010]. Aiming at restoring historical continuity to the currently available knowledge on medicine in the Middle Ages, the…

The Stellar and Lunar Keys to Medieval Muslim Agriculture

by Published on: 15th July 2010

Proceedings of the conference 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World organised by FSTC, London, 25-26 May 2010]. In this short note, Dr Zohor Idrisi, an expert on the history of Islamic agriculture, explores the…

Statement of HH Princess Sumaya bint El Hassan in the Opening Session

by Published on: 15th July 2010

[Proceedings of the conference 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World organised by FSTC, London, 25-26 May 2010]. In this excellent statement addressed by HH Princess Sumaya bint El Hassan, President of El Hassan Science…

Sir Crispin Tickell: “Environment on the Edge”

by Published on: 15th July 2010

[Proceedings of the conference 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World organised by FSTC, London, 25-26 May 2010]. In this concentrated and well written article, Sir Crispin Tickell addresses one of the most urgent and…

Heritage Research for Cultural Inter-Appreciation in the Balkans

by Published on: 15th July 2010

[Proceedings of the conference 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World organised by FSTC, London, 25-26 May 2010]. In this vibrant plea for cultural inter-appreciation in the Balkan, Sali Shahsivari outlines the role that may…

1001 inventions: Cultural Routes of Science for Cultural Inter-Appreciation

by Published on: 26th June 2010

On 2nd June 2010, Professor Salim Al-Hassani lectured in Bristol, UK, on 1001 inventions: Cultural Routes of Science for Cultural Inter-Appreciation. This lecture was organised by the British Science Association (Bristol and Bath branch) and…

Academic Conference: ‘1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World’

by Published on: 8th June 2010

On 25th and 26th May 2010 the Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation (FSTC) was proud to host a high profile academic conference in the Director's Suite at the London Science Museum.

Statement of HE Professor Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu in the Opening Session

by Published on: 26th May 2010

[Proceedings of the conference 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World organised by FSTC, London, 25-26 May 2010]. In this elogious statement addressed to the international conference organised by Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilization…

Proceedings of the Academic Conference 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World

by Published on: 26th May 2010

25-26 May 2010, FSTC organised the high profile academic conference 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World at the London Science Museum.

Professor Ihsanoglu Lecture on Science in the Muslim World

by Published on: 13th May 2010

On June 21, 2011, Professor Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu, the Secretary General of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), lectured about the importance of science and technology for Muslim nations at the American University in Sharjah…

Ottoman Cash Waqfs Revisited: The Case of Bursa (1555- 1823)

by Published on: 2nd May 2010

Cash endowments contributed to Ottoman society, without any cost to the State, by organizing and financing expenditures on education, health, welfare and a host of other activities. The aim of this article is to discover…

Ibn Khaldun’s Thought in Microeconomics: Dynamics of Labor, Demand-supply and Prices

by Published on: 29th April 2010

In this article on Ibn Khaldun's thought in microeconomics, Cecep Maskanul Hakim analyses several central concepts and theories, from the dynamics of labor to the complex question of demand-supply and prices. Another aspect of the…

1001 Inventions: A Conference to Celebrate the International Launch

by Published on: 27th April 2010

This academic meeting will be held on the occasion of celebrating the International Launch of the new blockbuster 1001 Inventions Exhibition

The Economic Theory of Ibn Khaldun and the Rise and Fall of Nations

by Published on: 24th April 2010

The economic theory of Ibn Khaldun and the rise and fall of nations, Selim Cafer Karatas, Ibn Khaldun on economics, the state theory, specialisation and economic surplus, supply and demand, monetary policy, fixed prices, property…

Ibn Khaldun and the Rise and Fall of Empires

by Published on: 24th April 2010

The 14th-century historiographer and historian Abu Zayd ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Khaldun was a brilliant scholar and thinker now viewed as a founder of modern historiography, sociology and economics. Living in one of human kind's most…

Gleanings from the Islamic Contribution in Agriculture

by Published on: 18th April 2010

The Islamic tradition of agriculture, whether in the form of the outstanding progress in agriculture production or as a large corpus of farming manuals written in Arabic, is nowadays a subject of interest for historians…

Ibn Khaldun and Adam Smith: Contributions to Theory of Division of Labor and Modern Economic Thought

by Published on: 16th April 2010

The contributions of Ibn Khaldun to the development of economic thought have gone largely unnoticed in the academic realm of Western nations, this despite recent research focusing on Khaldun's magnum opus, Al-Muqaddimah. In this paper,…

Women’s Contribution to Classical Islamic Civilisation: Science, Medicine and Politics

by Published on: 14th April 2010

While there are numerous works on the role of Muslim women in jurisprudence (fiqh) and literature, there are also studies on Muslim women in education and in medicine - although on a much smaller scale…

Bettany Hughes Presents New Radio and TV Shows

by Published on: 31st March 2010

Bettany Hughes is an advisor to the Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation (FSTC) and member of its consultant network Muslim Heritage Awareness Group (MHAG). Her Youtube films on East/West understanding produced by FSTC were…

Ibn Khaldun’s Theory of Taxation and its Relevance Today

by Published on: 26th March 2010

Ibn Khaldun's theory of taxation has been considered one of his most important contributions to economic thought. In the Muqaddimah, he relates the theory of taxation with the government expenditure and argued for low tax…

Charles Burnett Publishes a New Book on the Arabic-Latin Transmission

by Published on: 18th March 2010

The book Arabic into Latin in the Middle Ages: The Translators and their Intellectual and Social Context by Charles Burnett is a collection of previously published articles on the transmission of Arabic learning to Europe.…

The Courtyard Houses of Syria

by Published on: 9th March 2010

The courtyard house is one of the most enduring architectural forms, transcending regional, historical and cultural boundaries. Its balance of simple appropriate construction, environmental control and social and familial structures continues to engage architects and…

Obituary: Salah al-Din al-Munajjed

by Published on: 9th March 2010

At the beginning of 2010, the Islamic world at large and the Islamic Studies community in particular, lost Dr Salah al-Din al Munajjed, a brilliant and eminent scholar who passed away on 18 January 2010…

1001 Inventions Introduction Film

by Published on: 25th February 2010

On the occasion of the launch of 1001 Inventions Exhibition in the Science Museum in London since 21 January 2010, 1001 Inventions Ltd produced a short introductoy film (5:45 mn) to present this ground breaking…

Introduction to Islamic Art

by Published on: 24th February 2010

One area where the genius of the Muslim civilisation has been recognised worldwide is that of art. The artists of the Islamic world adapted their creativity to evoke their inner beliefs in a series of…

Muslim Contributions to Modern Civilisation

by Published on: 19th February 2010

Dr Salim Ayduz, researcher at FSTC, presented on Tuesday 9 February 2010 a conference on the Muslim contributions to modern civilisation in the "Islam Awareness Week 2010" organised by Lancaster University's Islamic Society. We present…

Architectural Links between East and West in Early Modern Times

by Published on: 19th February 2010

In a programme broadcasted on BBC Radio 3 on Sunday 14 February 2010, the work and influence of the great Ottoman architect Mimar Sinan was highlighted, through the description of his magnificent buildings in Istanbul…

One Thousand Years of Missing History

by Published on: 17th February 2010

The following essay aims to alert communities as to the particular significance of the Muslim civilisation and its historical role in contributing to the birth of modern civilisation. The author, Professor Salim Al-Hassani, a specialist…

Lady Montagu and the Introduction of Smallpox Inoculation to England

by Published on: 16th February 2010

The English aristocrat and writer Lady Mary Wortley Montagu (1689-1762) is today remembered particularly for her letters from Turkey, an early example of a secular work by a Western woman about the Muslim Orient. When…

Piri Reis: A Genius 16th-Century Ottoman Cartographer and Navigator

by Published on: 13th February 2010

Piri Reis is a well known Ottoman-Turkish admiral, geographer and cartographer from the 16th century. His famous world map compiled in 1513 and discovered in 1929 at Topkapi Palace in Istanbul is the oldest known…

Jim Al-Khalili in an Interview with New Scientist: Islam’s House of Wisdom will Rise Again

by Published on: 3rd February 2010

In a recent interview with the magazine New Scientist, Professor Jim Al-Khalili, Professor of Physics at the University of Surrey, Broadcaster and member of Muslim Heritage Awareness Group (a network of experts working with FSTC)…

Who Wrote the First “Useful” Archery Manual?

by Published on: 2nd February 2010

In this article we will be looking at several handbooks on archery written in both the Islamic world and in the West with the aim of determining which is the oldest useful manual on archery.…

Who Wrote the First “Useful” Archery Manual?

by Published on: 2nd February 2010

In this article we will be looking at several handbooks on archery written in both the Islamic world and in the West with the aim of determining which is the oldest useful manual on archery.…

Kairouan Capital of Political Power and Learning in the Ifriqiya

by Published on: 29th January 2010

The following article presents a survey on some glorious pages of the history of Kairouan, the ancient capital of the Islamic Ifriqiya (present day Tunisia). Founded in 670 by ‘Uqba ibn Nafi', the Arab general…

History, Culture and Science in Morocco: 11th-14th Centuries

by Published on: 26th January 2010

The history of the Islamic west offers glorious pages of contribution to world history in various fields. This article presents a survey on some salient aspects of the role played by Morocco in the civilisation…

“Science for All” Report Released

by Published on: 15th January 2010

Science-based organisations and Government need to make greater efforts to engage the public with the sciences, according to a new report ‘Science for All' published on 9 February 2010 by The British Science Association, as…

Dr Ian Griffin Receives a NOYCE Fellowship in 2009

by Published on: 30th December 2009

Dr Ian Griffin Receives a NOYCE Fellowship in 2009

Abdel-Wahed El-Wakil or the Triumph of the Islamic Architectural Style

by Published on: 27th October 2009

Abdel-Wahed El-Wakil is one of the leading voices in contemporary Islamic architecture and a practitioner known worldwide for his design of the Oxford University Centre for Islamic Studies. His use of traditional form and technique…

Al-Muqaddasi and Human Geography: An Early Contribution to Social Sciences

by Published on: 21st September 2009

Recent scholarly interest in the genesis of social sciences in Islamic culture is a noteworthy shift. Until recent times, the development of these fields was credited exclusively to the modern Western tradition, especially to the…

Numbers, Numbers

by Published on: 14th September 2009

Amicable number, perfect numbers, deficient numbers, abundant numbers, studying numbers was done by many including Ibn Sina better known for work in medicine.

1000 Years Amnesia: Environment Tradition in Muslim Heritage

by Published on: 10th September 2009

In a seminar organised by the Oxford Centre of Islamic Studies in 11 January 2005, aimed at brain-storming the topic of Islam and the Environment, Professor Al-Hassani presented a short overview on the environment issue…

Botany, Herbals and Healing In Islamic Science and Medicine

by Published on: 4th September 2009

The scholars of Islamic culture worked extensively in the combined fields of botany, herbals and healing. Several scholars contributed to the knowledge of plants, their diseases and the methods of growth. They classified plants into…

FSTC in the British Science Festival in Surrey

by Published on: 1st September 2009

FSTC in the British Science Festival in Surrey

1001 Inventions Book Continues its Way in the Media: Two Recent Reviews

by Published on: 23rd August 2009

In the following, we republish two recent and very elogious reviews of 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World published by FSTC in 2006 (Editor-in-Chief Salim al-Hassani). These reviews were published by Carl Kessler in…

New Discoveries in the Islamic Complex of Mathematics, Architecture and Art

by Published on: 13th August 2009

The complex of disciplines composed of mathematics, architecture and art in Islamic civilisation has been an important field of recent research. The scholars showed the interaction between mathematical reflexion and procedures and their implementation in…

Rediscovering Arabic Science

by Published on: 12th August 2009

The magazine Saudi Aramco World published in May-June 2007 an interesting folder on Arabic and Islamic science. The folder of 20 pages consists of several articles illustrated with a rich iconography and accompanied with illuminating…

The Game of Kings

by Published on: 12th August 2009

Chess probably originated in Persia or Central Asia before the seventh century and spread to India, China, the Middle East, North Africa and Europe, becoming so acculturated that the ability to play was simply part…

Environment and the Muslim Heritage

by Published on: 8th August 2009

The following short article is based on the notes for a speech presented to the Muslim Heritage Awareness Group held at the Royal Society in London, 14 July 2009. The MHAG is a consulting network…

Muslims and The Frontiers of Knowledge in the 21st Century

by Published on: 26th July 2009

Muslims and The Frontiers of Knowledge in the 21st Century

How Islamic Learning Transformed Western Civilization: Review of ‘The House of Wisdom’

by Published on: 26th July 2009

In February 2009, Jonathan Lyons published 'The House of Wisdom', a riveting history which reveals the vital role the Islamic civilisation played in knowledge creation and how this treasure reached the West. In this fascinating…

Filling the Gap in the History of Pre-Modern Industry: 1000 Years of Missing Islamic Industry

by Published on: 24th July 2009

Most educational systems, particularly those of Western countries, teach that industry was born in Europe and that the Industrial Revolution was the mother that delivered industrial mass production. Salim Al-Hassani, Chairman of FSTC and eminent…

Muslim Heritage Interviews

by Published on: 13th July 2009

During the spring of 2007, Kaleem Hussain hosted a radio show titled the Muslim Heritage Radio Show at Unity FM Radio in Birmingham. The radio show coincided with the 1001 Inventions Exhibition that took place…

Book Review of ‘Ottoman Women – Myth and Reality’ by Asli Sancar

by Published on: 8th July 2009

Aise Asli Sancar, a renowned writer and lecturer on women's issues has said when she began investigating the subject of Ottoman women, she realized that they were much more complex and multifaceted than they are…

Celebrating an Ottoman Intellectual: 2009 Year of Kâtip Çelebi

by Published on: 1st July 2009

Kâtip Çelebi was arguably the most important Ottoman intellectual figure of the 17th century. Being the author of many works in the fields of bio-bibliography, geography, history and economics, he held reformist opinions and cultivated…

Interview with Professor Rabie E. Abdel-Halim

by Published on: 19th June 2009

In this last interview that closes this series of Muslim Heritage Interviews, Professor Rabie El Said Abdel-Halim, eminent expert in urology, poet and well known historian of Islamic medicine, details his passions for medicine and…

The Horizon of Katip Celebi’s Thought

by Published on: 16th June 2009

The article of Professor Dr. Bekir Karliga on the horizon of Katip Çelebi's thought is a tremendous analysis of the reformist efforts deployed by the renowned 17th-century Ottoman scholar Katip Çelebi Mustafa bin Abdallah, known…

Creating a 3D Model with Motion Analysis of Taqi al-Din’s Six-Cylinder Pump

by Published on: 9th June 2009

Among the original machines described in the corpus of Islamic technology, the six-cylinder "monobloc" piston pump designed by Taqi al-Din Ibn Ma'ruf in the late 16th century holds a special place. Working as a suction…

Anatomy of the Horse in the 15th Century

by Published on: 5th June 2009

The famous image we find in an Arabic manuscript depicting the "al-faras al-mastuh" (a horse lying on its back) is a clear representative of the degree of progress attained in the Islamic tradition of veterinary…

Anaesthesia 1000 Years Ago (I)

by Published on: 5th June 2009

The following research article in a particular field of the history of medicine, written by two eminent experts, Drs Adnan A. Al-Mazrooa and Rabie E. Abdel-Halim, is composed of two parts. This first part surveys…

Anaesthesia 1000 Years Ago (II)

by Published on: 5th June 2009

The following research article in a particular field of the history of medicine, written by two eminent experts, Drs Adnan A. Al-Mazrooa and Rabie E. Abdel-Halim, is composed of two parts. This first part surveys…

Muhammad Al-Karaji: A Mathematician Engineer from the Early 11th Century

by Published on: 4th June 2009

Abu Bakr Muhammed Al-Karaji is a Muslim mathematician and engineer from the late 10th century-early 11th century. Of Persian origin, he spent an important part of his scientific life in Baghdad where he composed ground…

Interview with Professor Salim T. S. Al-Hassani

by Published on: 28th May 2009

In the first of the Muslim Heritage Interview Series, Professor Salim T. S. Al-Hassani, the Chairman of the Board of the Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation (FSTC), talks of the beginning of his interest…

Interview with Professor George Saliba

by Published on: 27th May 2009

Welcome to another Muslim Heritage Radio Show. The aim of this show is to educate the listeners about the contributions Muslim Scholars have made from a classical perspective in a wide range of fields, but…

Interview with Professor Emilie Savage-Smith

by Published on: 26th May 2009

Professor Emilie Savage-Smith expands in this remarkable interview on Islamic medicine of which she draws a lively picture. Beginning with a general survey of the conditions of its inception and development in an intercultural context,…

Interview with Dr. Zohor Idrisi

by Published on: 26th May 2009

In the following interview, Dr Zohor Idrisi sheds light on Islamic agriculture and the culinary art in Muslim heritage. She mentions the various factors that favorised the development of agriculture in the Islamic civilisation, such…

Interview with Prof Seyyed Hossein Nasr

by Published on: 26th May 2009

Interviewing Professor Seyyed Hossein Nasr, the eminent specialist of the Islamic spiritual tradition, means talking about the core of spirituality in Islam, the contributions of Muslim scholars and thinkers in developing an original spiritual dimension,…

Interview with Abdul Sahib Shakiry

by Published on: 26th May 2009

The interview with Abdul Sahib Shakiry went along on his interests and activities as a promoter of Islamic tourism, with its correlate concept, responsible tourism. It is in this perspective that he advocated for the…

Interview with Dr. Rim Turkmani

by Published on: 22nd May 2009

The tradition of Islamic astronomy is the main topic of the following interview, in which Dr Rim Turkmani, an astrophysicist scholar, draws on her passion for Islamic science to present a survey on salient aspects…

Interview with Anthony Garnaut: Islam in China

by Published on: 16th May 2009

Islam in China and the contribution of the Muslim community of China to Muslim heritage is the theme of this interview with Anthony Garnaut. The genesis of the Chinese Muslim community, its history and culture…

Ibn Khaldun’s Concept of Education in the ‘Muqaddima’

by Published on: 15th May 2009

At first sight, the place held by education in Ibn Khaldun's sociology appears uncertain to say the least. What today we understand by the term ‘education'—the replication of individuals and groups, firstly at the level…

Paediatric Urology 1000 Years Ago

by Published on: 13th May 2009

In this study, we present a brief commentary on four books written by Muslim physicians and medical authors who lived between the ninth and the eleventh centuries, having to do with urology, with a special…

FSTC at the House of Lords in London

by Published on: 8th May 2009

FSTC was invited to speak at the UK House of Lords for the Every Muslim Child Matters project

Pericardial Pathology 900 Years Ago: A Study and Translations from an Arabic Medical Textbook

by Published on: 6th May 2009

This is a study and translation of the section on pericarditis in Kitab al-taysir fi al-mudawat wa-'l-tadbir (Book of Simplification Concerning Therapeutics and Diet) written by the Muslim physician Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar) who lived and…

The Missing Link in the History of Urology

by Published on: 1st May 2009

With few exceptions, most of the current publications on history of urology still ignore the scientific and technological events of the more than a thousand years between the Greco-Roman times and the modern era. This…

Book Review of ‘Egyptology: The Missing Millennium’ by Okasha El-Daly

by Published on: 23rd April 2009

Egyptology: The Missing Millennium published by Okasha El Daly is an invaluable resource showing the extent of efforts by Muslims to study and develop knowledge inherited from prior generations. In this book, El-Daly explores the…

The Muslim Heritage Awareness Group Meeting (24 March 2009, Royal Society, London)

by Published on: 17th April 2009

The Muslim Heritage Awareness Group (MHAG), a think tank and consulting body of the Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation (FSTC) held recently its meeting on 24 March 2009 in London at the Royal Society.…

Muslim Heritage Shines at Qatar through Ancient Wisdom Exhibition

by Published on: 15th April 2009

FSTC and Muslim Heritage Consulting (MHC) took part in the high profile opening of the Qatar Science and Technology Park on March 16th 2009. The opening night celebrations were attended by His Highness Sheikh Hamad…

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Ottoman Palace Cuisine of the Classical Period

by Published on: 9th April 2009

Turkish cuisine is largely the heritage of Ottoman cuisine, which can be described as a fusion and refinement of Central Asian, Middle Eastern and Balkan cuisines. Turkish cuisine also influenced these cuisines and other neighbouring…

The Volume of the Sphere in Arabic Mathematics: Historical and Analytical Survey

by Published on: 6th April 2009

The following article focuses on the cubic measure of the volume of the sphere in Arabic mathematics. After a short presentation of the Greek and Chinese ancient legacies on this topic, the article surveys thoroughly…

The Ninth Annual Ceremony Recognises the Very Best of British Muslim Achievements

by Published on: 5th April 2009

The ninth Annual Ceremony for The Muslim News Awards for Excellence took place 30 March 2009 in London. Over 800 people celebrated the ninth Annual Ceremony of The Muslim News Awards for Excellence - Britain's…

Shining light upon light

by Published on: 3rd April 2009

Two science histories dissect the transfer of knowledge between the Greco–Islamic and European civilizations, and put right the impression that the flow was one way, explains Yasmin Khan in a recently published article (Nature, vol…

Turkish Medical History of the Seljuk Era

by Published on: 3rd April 2009

The Great Seljuk state was part of the medieval Islamic civilization. Most of its scientific institutions and educational traditions were inherited from previous and contemporary Muslim and Turkish states. In this well documented article, the…

The Medical Organization at the Ottoman Court

by Published on: 26th March 2009

The Ottoman imperial Palace was quite different from Western palaces and courts, for it was not only the residence of the Ottoman Sultans and their royal household, but also served to various other functions as…

1001 Inventions vs. 1001 nights

by Published on: 26th March 2009

Professor Rafid Al-Khaddar, Head of Construction and Civil Engineering Department at John Moores University, Liverpool, and Key Associate and Fellow of FSTC, presented a lecture on "Science and Research in the Arab World".

Book Review of The Dialogue of Civilizations in the Birth of Modern Science by Arun Bala

by Published on: 20th March 2009

The book "The Dialogue of Civilizations in the Birth of Modern Science" by Arun Bala introduces a dialogical perspective on the birth of modern science and lists a great number of contributions made to the…

Al-Ghazali’s Theory of Education

by Published on: 16th March 2009

Al-Ghazali (1058-1111) was one of the most influential Muslim thinkers. A jurist, logician, theologian, and philosopher, he was honoured in the history of Islam with title of Hujjatul-Islam (the Proof of Islam)." Among his numerous…

Ottoman Music Therapy

by Published on: 11th March 2009

Music has been used as a mean of therapy through the centuries to counter all kinds of disorders by various peoples. Physicians and musicians in the Ottoman civilization were aware of the music therapy in…

Okasha El-Daly Lectures at Leeds on Muslim Heritage in Our World

by Published on: 5th March 2009

The Leeds University Islamic Awareness Week organised by students, invited Dr. Okasha El Daly to deliver the opening lecture on Monday 16th February 2009 which took place at Rupert Beckett Theatre, University of Leeds.

Interview with Professor Nil Sari

by Published on: 1st March 2009

Professor Nil Sari Akdeniz, the head of the History of Medicine and Ethics Department of Istanbul University at the Cerrahpasha Medical School since 1983, is a world famous historian of Islamic medicine in general and…

Women Dealing with Health during the Ottoman Reign

by Published on: 28th February 2009

In the history of Islamic civilization, many hospitals were founded by women, either as wives, daughters or mothers of sultans. All health personnel were male at these hospitals. In the Ottoman period, the female patients…

Mont Saint-Michel or Toledo: Greek or Arabic Sources for Medieval European Culture?

by Published on: 25th February 2009

In a recent book, Sylvain Gouguenheim has caused a furore in claiming that European culture owes nothing to Arabic culture. The following article by Professor Charles Burnett, an eminent scholar in the intellectual context of…

The Paracelsian Influence on Ottoman Medicine

by Published on: 25th February 2009

Galen's concept of medicine which dominated the medical world almost nearly for fifteen centuries began to loose its importance in the 16th century. At that time, Paracelsus (1493-1541) introduced a new medical understanding based on…

Al-Farabi’s Doctrine of Education: Between Philosophy and Sociological Theory

by Published on: 14th February 2009

Throughout the ages thinkers have raised the question of what the human being ought to learn in order to be in tune with his own epoch, to live intelligently in society, and to be a…

Turkish Cuisine: A Book Review

by Published on: 13th February 2009

Turkish cuisine is largely the heritage of Ottoman cuisine, which can be described as a fusion and refinement of Central Asian, Middle Eastern and Balkan cuisines. Turkish cuisine also influenced these cuisines and other neighbouring…

Circumcision Ceremonies at the Ottoman Palace

by Published on: 12th February 2009

Circumcision is widely practiced in all Islamic countries. Festivities pertaining to circumcision vary according to the regions and civilizations. In this report, circumcision festivities at the Ottoman Palace and the socioeconomic importance of the tradition…

Medical Sciences in the Islamic Civilization

by Published on: 9th February 2009

The medical sciences and related fields have enjoyed great peaks in achievement through Muslim scholarship, which raised both standards of practice and the status of the physician. This article delves into the vast history of…

The Medical History Museum of Istanbul University: Project, Challenges and Academic Questions

by Published on: 7th February 2009

This article is about the foundation of the Medical History Museum founded recently in Istanbul as part of the Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical School. The aim of this museum, founded by Professor Nil Sari in…

The Simurgh: A Symbol of Holistic Medicine in the Middle Eastern Culture in History

by Published on: 7th February 2009

This article discusses the view that the simurgh, a mythological bird with supernatural characteristics, was also a symbol of miraculous life and treatment, as related in stories and miniature pictures. Such as view is described…

Homage to Professor Salim Al-Hassani in Al-Ithinainiya Literary Forum in Jeddah

by Published on: 7th February 2009

On 2 February 2009 Professor Salim Al-Hassani, Chairman of the FSTC was given homage by Sheikh Abdul Maqsood Khoja at the Al-Ithnainiya Literary Forum in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

The Ethical Theory of Education of Ahmad Miskawayh

by Published on: 31st January 2009

Abu `Ali Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Ya'qub Miskawayh (932-1030) is a brilliant intellectual and philosopher of 10th-century Buwayhid Baghdad. His effect on Islamic philosophy is mainly concerned with ethical issues. His book Tadhib al-akhlaq (Ethical…

A Jewel of Ottoman Naval History: The Book of Kâtib Çelebi on Naval Campaigns

by Published on: 24th January 2009

This is a review of the book prepared by Prof. Dr. Idris Bostan for the Turkish Undersecretariat of Navigation in order to provide a useful and important scientific resource on the naval history of the…

The Six-Cylinder Water Pump of Taqi al-Din: Its Mathematics, Operation and Virtual Design

by Published on: 24th January 2009

The main objective of this study is to investigate into the six-cylinder water raising pump described around 1550 by the Ottoman Muslim scientist Muhammad Ibn Ma'ruf, known as Taqi al-Din, in his treatise Al-Turuq al-Saniya…

Gaza at the Crossroad of Civilisations: Two Contemporary Views

by Published on: 24th January 2009

Gaza, this tormented part of Palestine, land of suffering and resistance, is also a land of long history. This article presents two recent attempts to recover the ancient and medieval history of Gaza: a book…

Ahmad Salim Sa‘idan: A Palestinian Historian of Arabic Mathematics

by Published on: 23rd January 2009

Since the middle of the 20th century, the history of Arabic mathematics evolved as a sub-field of history of science and became an area of a special expertise in which intermingled the skills of confirmed…

Logical Necessities in Mixed Equations: ‘Abd Al-Hamîd Ibn Turk and the Algebra of his Time

by Published on: 17th January 2009

The famed Muslim scholar Al-Kwarazmi has long been known as the father of Algebra. In this article, Aydin Sayili presents an alternative view of the inception and development of Algebra in the works of of…

Ibn Sina on Education

by Published on: 17th January 2009

This study presents the theory of education in the philosophy of Ibn Sina, considered by ancient and modern scholars alike as the most famous of the Muslim philosophers. In his philosophical system, Ibn Sina outlined…

In Memory of Aydin Sayili

by Published on: 16th January 2009

Aydin Sayilli (1913-1993) was an eminent historian of science whose pioneering work during a 50-year career uncovered many hidden treasures in the history of mathematics, astronomy and medicine, especially in the Islamic tradition. In this…

A Plea for the Recovery of the Forgotten History of Muslim Heritage

by Published on: 10th January 2009

This is a review of the book published in 2007 by Michael Hamilton Morgan, Lost History. The essay attempts to uncover the Golden Age of the Muslim civilisation and recognises its contributions to the rise…

Food as Medicine in Muslim Civilization

by Published on: 9th January 2009

The subject of food and diet was very essential in the Islamic Cuisine. Both of them were very important in the most of the medical manuscripts in the Ottoman world. Balanced diet was also important…

Al-Muqaddasi: The Geographer from Palestine

by Published on: 9th January 2009

A notable fact that should be remembered when we talk about the different areas of knowledge in Muslim heritage—and which should be emphasised in these troubled days marked by the tragic situation in the Middle…

Islam’s Forgotten Contributions to Medical Science

by Published on: 9th January 2009

The transmission of medical knowledge can be traced to some of the earliest writings in human history. Yet a particularly fruitful period for advancement in medical science emerged with the rise of Islam. For the…

Highly Valued Virtues of Classical Ottoman Turkish Medical Ethics: A View From Past to Future

by Published on: 8th January 2009

Virtues such as modesty, contentedness, fidelity and hopefulness expected from a physician must be perceived as general criteria of ethical standards, since principles are also the criteria for the preference of values, in a sense.…

It’s Time to Herald the Arabic Science That Prefigured Darwin and Newton

by Published on: 3rd January 2009

In this era of intolerance and cultural tension, Professor Al-Khalili launched a hearty plea in The Guardian in January 2008 to appreciate the fertile scholarship that flowered with Islam. The tradition of Islamic science contributed…

Remembering the Language of History and Science: When the World Spoke Arabic

by Published on: 1st January 2009

Two shows are expected to be broadcast on BBC Four in January 2009: An Islamic History of Europe by Rageh Omaar and Science and Islam by Jim Al-Khalili. As a gift for the Hijri 1430…

Representing Islam and Muslims in the Media: An Academic Debate

by Published on: 17th December 2008

In 5-6 September 2008 the Universities of Manchester and Surrey organised in Manchester an international conference "Representing Islam: Comparative Perspectives". The meeting attracted over 100 eminent national and international speakers and a large audience. The…

News: Representing Islam and Muslims in the Media: An Academic Debate

by Published on: 17th December 2008

In 5-6 September 2008 the Universities of Manchester and Surrey organised in Manchester an international conference "Representing Islam: Comparative Perspectives".

Muslim Heritage and Education

by Published on: 17th December 2008

This is the text of a presentation made to The Education and Culture Committee of the EU Parliament in Brussels on the 5th November 2008.

Intercultural Dialogue at the General Assembly of the United Nations

by Published on: 13th December 2008

In 12-13 November 2008, the United Nations organised in New York a high-level meeting of the General Assembly to promote inter-faith dialogue. The meeting was marked by the active participation of the heads of state…

Muslim Heritage in our World: Social Cohesion (1001 Inventions in UK Parliament)

by Published on: 1st December 2008

Report on a conference launching the 1001 Inventions Exhibition at the UK House of Parliament, 15 October 2008. Between 13 and 17 October 2008, the Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation (FSTC) organised two major…

Capitalist Traditions in Early Arab-Islamic Civilization

by Published on: 21st November 2008

In the following article, Professor S. M. Ghazanfar, a specialist in the history of economic thought in the Islamic civilisation, explores the evidence concerning the roots of historical "capitalism" as it evolved in the early…

Vidinli Huseyin Tawfik: A Modern Turkish Specialist of Linear Algebra

by Published on: 17th November 2008

This article is a biography essay on the life and works of Vidinli Tawfiq Pasha, a 19th-century Ottoman scholar, statesman and general of 19th-century Istanbul, and a noteworthy mathematician who published in 1882 an important…

Islamic Automation: Al-Jazari’s Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices

by Published on: 14th November 2008

In the following essay, Dr. Gunalan Nadarajan, Associate Dean of Research and Graduate Studies in the College of Arts and Architecture at Penn State University, draws on the work of al-Jazari, the famous 13th century…

Science and Rationalism in 9th Century Baghdad

by Published on: 12th November 2008

Text of the Lecture of Professor Jim Al-Khalili in the Conference Muslim Heritage in our World: Social Cohesion marking the 1001 Inventions Exhibition at the House of Parliament, 15th of October 2008, Church House, London,…

The Invention of Spectacles between the East and the West

by Published on: 12th November 2008

The following article by the expert scholar Lutfallah Gari surveys the historical sources to uncover the ancient history of the invention of spectacles. To the question "where and when were they invented?", and after a…

Professor Roshdi Rashed: Promoting Science-based Cultural Dialogue among Civilizations

by Published on: 11th November 2008

Text of the Lecture of Professor Roshdi Rashed in the Conference Muslim Heritage in our World: Social Cohesion marking the 1001 Inventions Exhibition at the House of Parliament, 15th of October 2008, Church House, London,…

The Book of Curiosities or A Medieval Islamic View of the Cosmos

by Published on: 28th October 2008

The Bodleian Library at the University of Oxford has purchased the medieval Arabic manuscript Kitab Gharaib al-funun wa-mulah al-uyun popularised under the title the Book of Curiosities, an exceptionally rich text on cosmography. The treatise…

Certain Aspects of Medical Instruction in Medieval Islam and its Influences on Europe

by Published on: 24th October 2008

In this article, Professor Aydin Syili analyses the medical teaching in the different phases of Islamic civilisation, especially in the madrasa system. The network of schools covered the Islamic world from the 11th century, while…

The Advent of Scientific Chemistry

by Published on: 22nd October 2008

Until recently, the mainstream history of scientific ideas has failed to acknowledge numerous Islamic scientists and their great efforts and achievements throughout the centuries. This short article seeks to contribute in redressing this injustice by…

A ‘Gap-Filling’ Book on Islamic Economic Thought

by Published on: 16th October 2008

This book is a collection of previously-published papers on the origins of economic thought discovered in the writings of some prominent Islamic scholars belonging to the five centuries prior to the pre-modern era. This period…

In Memoriam of Aydin Sayili: Biography and Account of his Scientific Activity

by Published on: 10th October 2008

The following article presents a thorough intellectual biography of the late Aydin Sayili, the well known historian of Islamic science. The second part of the article is a comprehensive list of his works. This bibliography…

Muslim Heritage in Our World: Social Cohesion

by Published on: 26th September 2008

London Conference tackles 1000 years of amnesia of Muslim science and technology, Wednesday 15th October, 2.30pm, Hoare Memorial Hall, Church House, Westminster.

Muslim Heritage: A Scholarly Perspective

by Published on: 24th September 2008

FSTC Research Associate Kaleem Hussain delivered on 17th April 2008 a lecture on ‘Muslim Heritage: A Scholarly Perspective' at the Markfield Institute of Higher Education in Leicester. Aiming to explore the education of children in…

Glimpses in the History of A Great Number: Pi in Arabic Mathematics

by Published on: 22nd September 2008

The Greek letter pi (symbolized by p) is defined as the ratio of the circumference of the circle to its diameter. It is considered to be a vital element in the calculations of areas and…

Arabic and the Art of Printing

by Published on: 11th September 2008

In this special section reproduced from Aramco World (issue March/April 1981), distinguished authors cover topics related to printing in the Islamic civilisation. It is showed, in particular, that contrary to the notion that the technology…

The Fate of Manuscripts in Iraq and Elsewhere

by Published on: 11th September 2008

In this well informed article, Dr Geoffrey Roper, an expert in the field, outlines an impressive portrait of the dangers and threats encountered by the national heritage of Iraq due to the dramatic recent events…

A Bibliography of the Islamic and Chinese Scientific Relationships in Classical Times

by Published on: 8th September 2008

In the following bibliography of the Islamic and Chinese scientific relationships in classical times, a list of the main recent works is produced. The researches cover various scientific domains, from mathematics and astronomy to technology,…

The Islamic Heritage in China: A General Survey

by Published on: 4th September 2008

In this article, Anthony Garnaut, an expert of the Muslim Chinese culture, focuses on the Islamic heritage in China and its relevance to understanding both the evolution of Chinese history and culture, and to appreciating…

Dr. Farouk El-Baz receives 1001inventions book

by Published on: 21st August 2008

Dr. Farouk El-Baz receives 1001inventions book

Muslim Heritage in Mechanics and Technology: Outline of a Program for Future Research

by Published on: 20th August 2008

The following text is the revised and expanded version of a lecture presented at The Royal Society in London (1st March 2007) during a meeting of the Muslim Heritage Awareness Group (MHAG) in which Mohammed…

Medieval Islamic Medicine by Peter E. Pormann and Emilie Savage-Smith

by Published on: 20th August 2008

  Figure 1. The cover pages of the “Medieval Islamic Medicine” book. Medieval Islamic Medicine by Peter E. Formann and Emilie Savage-Smith is a new book on the Islamic medical tradition, published by Edinburgh University…

Ottoman Contributions to Science and Technology

by Published on: 11th August 2008

The Ottoman contribution to science and technology during their six hundred year rule is beyond measure. This article is a brief outline of just some of the Ottoman scientific activities and related institutions that brought…

A Compendium of Knowledge about Islamic Civilization: Its History, Contributions, and Influence

by Published on: 6th August 2008

An extensive compendium of literature on Islamic civilization, the book published by Professor Shaikh M. Ghazanfar Islamic Civilization: History, Contributions, and Influence: A Compendium of Literature presents detailed and focused "literature briefs" on over 600…

George Sarton and the History of Science

by Published on: 4th August 2008

George Sarton was a pioneer scholar who played a decisive role by his scholarship, methodology and academic career in establishing the history of science as a recognized subject in modern academia. His monumental major work…

The Islamic Art in the Louvre Museum in Paris

by Published on: 30th July 2008

The first stone was laid on July 16, 2008 at the Louvre's new Arts of Islam gallery. With this initiative, France's famous Museum is readying to receive its groundbreaking Islamic section that will showcase the…

The Thistle and the Crescent by Bashir Maan: A Book Review

by Published on: 24th July 2008

Information on the long and varied relationship between Islam and Scotland that began as early as the 7th century is non-existent. The Thistle and the Crescent by Bashir Maan has been written to fill this…

Taqi al-Din ibn Ma‘ruf and the Science of Optics: The Nature of Light and the Mechanism of Vision by Hüseyin Gazi Topdemir

by Published on: 15th July 2008

In this article, some aspects of Kitab Nūr hadaqat al-ibsār wa-nūr haqīqat al-anzār (Book of the Light of the Pupil of Vision and the Light of the Truth of the Sights) of the renowned Ottoman…

Taqi al-Din ibn Ma‘ruf and the Science of Optics: The Nature of Light and the Mechanism of Vision

by Published on: 15th July 2008

In this article, some aspects of Kitab Nūr hadaqat al-ibsār wa-nūr haqīqat al-anzār (Book of the Light of the Pupil of Vision and the Light of the Truth of the Sights) of the renowned Ottoman…

Aleppo

by Published on: 9th July 2008

Halab [said Al-Muqaddasi, in 985] is an excellent, pleasant and well fortified city, the inhabitants of which are cultured and rich, and endowed with understanding. The city is populous and built of stone, standing in…

Taqi al-Din Ibn Ma’ruf: Survey on his Works and Scientific Method

by Published on: 4th July 2008

Being in form a bio-bibliographical essay on the life and works of Taqī al-Dīn Ibn Ma'rūf, a well known scholar of 16th-century Istanbul, this article presents the contents of his books and compares his scientific…

Tracing the Impact of Latin Translations of Arabic Texts on European Society

by Published on: 1st July 2008

In this article, Professor Charles Burnett, a world expert in the history of Islamic influences in Europe at The Warburg Institute (London University), retraces the impact the Latin translations of Arabic texts of science and…

Mathematics in the Medieval Maghrib: General Survey on Mathematical Activities in North Africa

by Published on: 30th June 2008

In this important article, Professor Ahmed Djebbar, the renowned scholar and specialist of the history of Arabic sciences, especially in the Islamic West, presents a general survey on mathematical activities in the Medieval Maghrib since…

Ridhwan al-Sa’ati: A Biographical Outline

by Published on: 29th June 2008

Fakhr al-Dīn Ridhwān ibn Rustam al-Sā'ātī (d. between 618-626 H/1220-1229 CE) was a scholar and mechanical engineer, author of the book ‘Ilm al-sā'āt wa 'l-'amal bihā in which he described the famous public clock set…

Ridhwan al-Sa’ati: A Biographical Outline

by Published on: 29th June 2008

Fakhr al-Dīn Ridhwān ibn Rustam al-Sā'ātī (d. between 618-626 H/1220-1229 CE) was a scholar and mechanical engineer, author of the book ‘Ilm al-sā'āt wa 'l-'amal bihā in which he described the famous public clock set…

Taqi al-Din Ibn Ma’ruf: A Bio-Bibliographical Essay

by Published on: 26th June 2008

This article is a bio-bibliographical essay on the life and works of Taqī al-Dīn Ibn Ma'ruf, a scholar of 16th-century Istanbul, one of the most prolific and original scientists of the Ottoman period of Islamic…

Abu ‘l-Barakat al-Baghdadi: Outline of a Non-Aristotelian Natural Philosophy

by Published on: 24th June 2008

Abū 'l-Barakāt al-Baghdādā (flourished in the 11th-12th centuries in Baghdad) was a scholar of the Arabic-Islamic tradition. An original philosopher and respected medical authority, he is well known by his Al-Kitāb al-Mu'tabar, a philosophical essay…

The Astronomical Clock of Taqi Al-Din: Virtual Reconstruction

by Published on: 19th June 2008

In his book The Brightest Stars for the Construction of Mechanical Clocks (Al-Kawakib al-durriyya fi wadh' al-bankamat al-dawriyya), Taqi al-Din Ibn Ma'ruf analyses the four main types of time keeping devices known in the 16th…

The Instruments of Istanbul Observatory

by Published on: 8th June 2008

In this article, Professor Sevim Tekeli, an outstanding scholar in the history of Ottoman science, describes the instruments built by Taqî al-Dîn Ibn Ma'ruf and his team at the Istanbul observatory (was in activity between…

The Observation Well

by Published on: 7th June 2008

Observation wells received much historical interest relating to observatories. In this article Prof. Aydin Sayili describes the history of "observation wells" both in Islamic and European worlds.

Innovation in the Islamic World: Learning from the Past to Design the Future

by Published on: 5th June 2008

The seat of the World Bank in Paris hosted on May 22-23, 2008 an important meeting: the fourth edition of The World Conference on Intellectual Capital for Communities. The conference was attended by eminent scholars…

Learning from the Past to Design the Future

by Published on: 4th June 2008

The seat of the World Bank in Paris hosted on May 22-23, 2008 an important meeting: the fourth edition of The World Conference on Intellectual Capital for Communities. The conference was attended by eminent scholars…

Muslim Heritage in the World Conference on Intellectual Capital

by Published on: 30th May 2008

In the frame of the forthcoming of The World Conference on Intellectual Capital for Communities, Professor Salim Al-Hassani, FSTC Chairman of the Board, presents a keynote lecture on the theme: Innovation in the Islamic World:…

Principle and Use of Ottoman Sundials

by Published on: 30th May 2008

Muslim astronomers and engineers invented a variety of dials for timekeeping and for determining the times of the five daily prayers. In this thorough and technical study, Professor Attila Bir analyses the principle and use…

Taqi al Din Ibn Ma’ruf ‘s Work on Extracting the Cord 2o and Sin 1o

by Published on: 30th May 2008

This article by Professor Sevim Tekeli, a leading historian of science in the Ottoman period, deals with an aspect of the work of Taqi al-Din Ibn Ma'ruf in trigonometry, a mathematical discipline which studies the…

Muslim Printing Before Gutenberg

by Published on: 28th May 2008

Gutenberg in the 15th century. Based on his work on original sources, he states that some of the early printed Arabic documents display quite sophisticated designs involving calligraphic headpieces, transverse lettering, geometric panels, roundels, and…

Knowledge versus Natural Disasters from Arabic Sources

by Published on: 26th May 2008

The aim of this paper is to investigate the various aspects of preparedness and response to natural disasters in the Arabic speaking lands during the 15th and 16th centuries, with comparison to earlier writings. Two…

Kamal Al-Din Al-Farisi’s Explanation of the Rainbow

by Published on: 23rd May 2008

This article focuses on a critical presentation of the arguments put forward by Kamal al-Din al-Farisi about the formation of the rainbow. This optical phenomenon was explained simultaneously but independently by two scientists, Kamal al-Din…

Cultural Understanding through Science Project

by Published on: 20th May 2008

Cultural Understanding is "Recognising that modern science has its roots in many different societies and cultures, and draws on a variety of valid approaches to scientific practice."ASE has been working with the Foundation for Science…

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Islamic Art in Poland: The Kornik Castle

by Published on: 14th May 2008

The article is about the famous Kornik Castle near Poznan, in Poland which has many features inspired by Islamic art and architecture. Outlining the reasons of this influence, Mrs Latour-Abdalla describes the many aspects of…

Our Arabic Heritage in the Celestial Vault

by Published on: 1st May 2008

In Arabic culture, as in other civilisations, the cultural dimension of the history of astronomy appears in part in the meanings and origins of star and constellation names. This nomenclature was shaped by cultural symbols…

Ecology in Muslim Heritage: Treatises on Environmental Pollution up to the End of 13th Cen.

by Published on: 30th April 2008

Several Arabic treatises dating from the 9th through the 13th century deal with environmental pollution. They cover subjects like air and water contamination, solid waste mishandling and environmental assessments of certain localities. The authors of…

Al-Jazari’s Third Water-Raising Device: Analysis of its Mathematical and Mechanical Principles

by Published on: 24th April 2008

Five pumps or water-raising machines are described by al-Jazari in his monumental treatise of mechanics Al-Jami' bayn al-‘ilm wa 'l-‘amal al-nafi' fi sina'at al-hiyal (A Compendium on the Theory and Useful Practice of the Mechanical…

Ecology in Muslim Heritage: A History of the Hima Conservation System

by Published on: 15th April 2008

A hima is a reserved pasture, where trees and grazing lands are protected from indiscriminate harvest on a temporary or permanent basis. It existed in the Middle East before Islam; but it was treated as…

Sheikh Zayed Great Mosque in Abu Dhabi: Islamic Architecture in the 21st Century

by Published on: 10th April 2008

A splendid mosque was erected recently at Abu Dhabi. Named after the late Sheikh Zayed al-Nahyan, the Mosque was opened at the end of 2007 to emerge as one of the ten major mosques of…

Ahmad Ibn Fadhlan in Northern Europe: A Survey of his Account of Russian Vikings in the 10th Century

by Published on: 3rd April 2008

One of the earliest detailed descriptions of Northern Europe is reported in the account written by the Arab Muslim writer and traveler Ahmad Ibn Fadhlan, who was sent in 921 CE as the secretary to…

Al-Jazari’s Castle Water Clock: Analysis of its Components and Functioning

by Published on: 13th March 2008

The first machine described by al-Jazari in his famous treatise of mechanics Al-Jami‘ bayn al-‘ilm wa 'l-‘amal al-nafi‘ fi sina‘at al-hiyal (A Compendium on the Theory and Useful Practice of the Mechanical Arts) is a…

The Self Changing Fountain of Banu Musa bin Shakir

by Published on: 10th March 2008

Amongst the mechanical devices described by the Banu Musa Brothers in their book of mechanics Kitab al-hiyal, seven models present a variety of sophisticated fountains. This article analyses the geometric and physical principles lying behind…

Presentation on The Muslims’ Great Contributions

by Published on: 4th March 2008

Prof. Salim Al Hassani, a Muslim Scholar and the chief editor of "1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World" , will deliver his presentation on "The Muslims' Great Contributions during the Golden Age of the…

Lecture at Liverpool Athenaeum

by Published on: 4th March 2008

800th anniversary and receiving a copy of the 1001i book for the Athenaeum library. The Liverpool Athenaeum has a distinguished membership of proprietors drawn from every walk of life across the city of Liverpool and…

Bringing to Life the Islamic History of Europe: A Video Documentary

by Published on: 3rd March 2008

The video documentary produced by the BBC in 2005 An Islamic History of Europe, by the famous TV presenter Rageh Omaar (who also covered the American invasion of Iraq), reveals the surprising hidden story of…

An 800 Years Old Ancestor: Today’s Science of Robotics and Al-Jazari

by Published on: 29th February 2008

Introducing al-Jazari's ancestry to modern cybernetics and robotics science, Prof. Toygar Akman narrates in this testimony article his own discovery of the work of the great 13th century Muslim scholar. He shows further how al-Jazari's…

Overview on al-Jazari and his Mechanical Devices

by Published on: 25th February 2008

In this article, Professor Yavuz Unat, a known historian of science from Ankara University, draws a general survey on al-Jazari and his treatise. He describes some of his machines and points out the numerous technological…

Tentative Global Timeline of Contacts between the World of Islam and Western Europe: 7th -20th Cent.

by Published on: 19th February 2008

The following timeline presents a survey of Muslim presence in Europe from the 7th century CE until the 20th century. It lists the various and different contacts that shaped the relations of Muslims with Western…

Arabic Eclipse Records Bring Light to Scientific Analysis of the Earth’s Rotation

by Published on: 18th February 2008

A total eclipse of the Moon occurs during the night of Wednesday, February 20/21, 2008. The entire event is visible from large parts of our globe. On this occasion, we attract the attention of our…

Muslim Heritage in the Knowledge-Economy Conference in Jeddah

by Published on: 8th February 2008

During "The First Regional Conference on the Knowledge Economy" in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, January 12-13, 2008, attended by over 300 experts and professionals as well as several VIPs, Professor Salim Al-Hassani delivered a key note…

Nasuh Al-Matrakî, A Noteworthy Ottoman Artist-Mathematician of the Sixteenth Century

by Published on: 6th February 2008

Matrakci Nasuh was a famous Ottoman polymath, writer and knight who produced important books in several fields. He made contributions in the fields of mathematics, geography, history and calligraphy. He also invented a military lawn…

The List of Al-jazari Articles Published on Muslim Heritage Website

by Published on: 1st February 2008

Some 800 years in the past, in 1206, a brilliant Muslim scholar died : Badi' al-Zaman Abu al-‘Izz ibn Ismail ibn al-Razzaz al-Jazari. He was one of the most important inventors and mechanical engineers in…

Al-Jazari: 800 Years After

by Published on: 1st February 2008

Some 800 years in the past, in 1206, a brilliant Muslim scholar died : Badi' al-Zaman Abu al-‘Izz ibn Ismail ibn al-Razzaz al-Jazari. He was one of the most important inventors and mechanical engineers in…

The History of Scientific Interaction

by Published on: 30th January 2008

The evolution of world politics since the last decade of 20th century and several substantial events witnessed during this period have modified communities' outlooks towards each other. They sometimes modified our whole perception of global…

800 Years Later: In Memory of Al-Jazari, A Genius Mechanical Engineer

by Published on: 30th January 2008

Al-Jazari (1136-1206) was an important Arab Muslim scholar. He was an inventor and mechanical engineer who gained fame and glory with his famous book of mechanics Al-Jami `bayn al-`ilm wa 'l-`amal al-nafi `fi sina `at…

Science under Islam: A Reflection on Past Brilliancy and Future Revival

by Published on: 17th January 2008

This is a review of a book by Sayyed Misbah Deen, Emeritus Professor of Computer Science (Keele University), describing the adventure of science and technology in Islam from four standpoints: the rise of science and…

The Seljuk Face of Anatolia: Aspects of the Social and Intellectual History of Seljuk Architecture

by Published on: 15th January 2008

This article deals with the Seljuk Anatolian architecture and art. The art of the Seljuk sultans showed much interest in public buildings such as caravanserais, schools and hospitals. This architecture was based on strong religious…

Mulla Nasruddin Khodja a Major Character of Muslim Satiric Literature

by Published on: 11th January 2008

Mullah Nasruddin Khodja is a wise man famous throughout the Muslim and some parts of the non-Muslim world since the 16th century. Historical documents show that he lived in the 13th century in Anatolia (today…

Health in the Ottoman Empire: A Collective Achievement in the History of Ottoman Medicine

by Published on: 4th January 2008

This is a review of Health in the Ottomans (Osmanlilarda Saglik), a two-volume book concerning Ottoman medical history. The book is a brilliant achievement aiming at the reconstruction of the main aspects of the the…

The First Regional Event on Knowledge-Based Economy

by Published on: 3rd January 2008

The Arabian Knowledge Economy Association organises "The First Regional Conference on the Knowledge Economy" that will be organized jointly with Al-Aghar Strategic Think Tank Group and Jeddah Chamber of Commerce & Industry in Jeddah, Saudi…

Survey on the Development of the Historical Method among Muslim Scholars until Ibn Khaldun

by Published on: 2nd January 2008

This article surveys the development of historical methodology in the works of some influent Muslim historians, observing their trends and scrutinizing everything related to narration of incidents, political, social, and sectarian currents.

The Armillary Sphere: A Concentrate of Knowledge in Islamic Astronomy

by Published on: 1st December 2007

The armillary sphere is an ancient astronomical instrument reproducing a model of the celestial sphere. In its simplest form, it was known since the antiquity. The article presents the principle of its drawing and use,…

Seeking Seamless Scientific Wonders: Review of Emilie Savage-Smith’s Work

by Published on: 24th November 2007

Najma Kazi reviews some salient aspects of Emilie Savage-Smith's work. Emilie Savage-Smith, who is a Professor of History of Science at the Oriental Institute (Oxford University), is an internationally recognised authority on the History of…

Arabic Star Names: A Treasure of Knowledge Shared by the World

by Published on: 24th November 2007

Many of the prominent stars known today are of Arabic origin as they bear names given to them during the golden age of Islamic astronomy. A major contribution in this field is that of al-Sufi…

“Three Times Greater than Venus”: Ibn Ridhwan’s Observation of Supernova 1006

by Published on: 24th November 2007

1001 years ago, an extraordinary astronomical event occurred in the sky: the most intense supernova ever witnessed and recorded by human beings appeared in the Earth's sky in the year 1006 CE. The blast was…

A Treasure of World Heritage: Islamic Manuscripts in the Kandilli Observatory

by Published on: 2nd November 2007

This is a review of a book bringing to light a collection of about 1300 Islamic scientific manuscripts on astronomy and various scientific topics in three languages (Turkish, Arabic and Persian). These manuscripts are held…

Knowledge, Learning Institutions and Libraries in Islam: Book Publishing and Paper Making

by Published on: 1st November 2007

This short article describes the high regard with which Muslim Civilisation has held libraries as centres of knowledge. It reviews major contributions in the field and in particular to our modern books and libraries.

A Wealth of Scholarship: Recent Publications in Islamic Art, Culture and History

by Published on: 31st October 2007

This is a general review of some 23 recent publications (books, films, and articles) on various aspects of Islamic culture, history and civilisation. The survey concentrates on titles related to three categories: art and architecture,…

Famous Figures of the Modern Turkish Medical School

by Published on: 23rd October 2007

To throw light on famous figures of the Turkish modern medical school, this article introduces a set of nine posters on the contribution of eight late Ottoman and early Turkish physicians (whose careers spanned from…

Illustrious Names in the Heavens: Arabic and Islamic Names of the Moon Craters

by Published on: 28th September 2007

24 craters of the Moon bear names of Arabic and Islamic origin. In majority, these names are those of famous scholars of Islamic civilisation. We present below a list of those crater-names on the Moon,…

How Islam Created the Modern World

by Published on: 13th September 2007

In a clear and concise language, Mark Graham endeavours to show in his book How Islam Created the Modern World the decisive influence of the civilisation of Islam in setting the stage for the modern…

The Clock of Civilisations

by Published on: 10th September 2007

A fascinating presentation on the 800 years old Elephant clock of Al-Jazari which reflects the contributions of Greek, Egyptian, Indian, Chinese and Muslim civilisations.

What Islam Did For Us

by Published on: 4th September 2007

This is a review of What Islam Did For Us: Understanding Islam's Contribution to Western Civilization, a book by Tim Wallace-Murphy that emphasizes Islam's immense contributions to the Western civilization in many groundbreaking domains such…

Precious Records of Eclipses in Muslim Astronomy and History

by Published on: 29th August 2007

On the occasion of the lunar eclipse that occurs on 28 August 2007, we produce a short survey of some records of lunar and solar eclipses reported on in Muslim heritage, drawn from various sources,…

Precious Records of Eclipses in Muslim Astronomy and History

by Published on: 29th August 2007

On the occasion of the lunar eclipse that occurs on 28 August 2007, we produce a short survey of some records of lunar and solar eclipses reported on in Muslim heritage, drawn from various sources,…

Latinized Names of Muslim Scholars

by Published on: 28th August 2007

This article includes the Latinized names of Muslim scholars.

The Mechanics of Banu Musa in the Light of Modern System and Control Engineering

by Published on: 10th August 2007

This article is a review of the book published recently by Professor Attila Bir (Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Istanbul) on Banu Musa's book of mechanics studied in the framework of…

Abu Ishaq Ibrahim Ibn Yahya Al-Zarqali

by Published on: 7th August 2007

This short paper introduces a longer essay by Prof. Gunalan Nadarajan, Associate Dean of Research and Graduate Studies in the College of Arts and Architecture at Penn State University. The essay draws on the work…

Abu Ishaq Ibrahim Ibn Yahya Al-Zarqali

by Published on: 18th July 2007

Al-Zarqali is an eminent Andalusian astronomer of the 11th century who was the foremost astronomer of his time. He excelled in different domains of theoretical and practical astronomy and left works that influenced greatly his…

Deciphering Egyptian Hieroglyphs in Muslim Heritage

by Published on: 12th July 2007

The article surveys some results of Dr. Okasha El Daly's exciting discoveries about the precedence of Muslim scholars of the golden age of Islamic culture in deciphering the hieroglyphs of Ancient Egypt. This ground breaking…

Tolerance or Compatibility? The Search for a Qur’anic Paradigm of Science

by Published on: 11th July 2007

In this illuminating analysis, Prof. Ahmad Dallal produces an authoritative study of some episodes of the scientific exegis of the Holy text of Islam, the Qur'an, focusing on the exegesis (tafsir) of Fakhr

The Arabic Sources of Jordanus de Nemore

by Published on: 11th July 2007

The following article by Professors Menso Folkerts and Richard Lorch, from Munich University in Germany, describes the influences of Arabic sciences in the works of Jordanus de Nemore, a scholar who flourished in Western Europe…

Hindiba: A Drug for Cancer Treatment in Muslim Heritage

by Published on: 6th June 2007

Hindiba is a plant of Middle Eastern lands. Its therapeutic value as a drug for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. The following detailed study by Professor Nil Sari investigates the historical and medical…

The Arabic Partial Version of Pseudo-Aristotle’s Mechanical Problems

by Published on: 5th June 2007

Based on manuscript evidence, the article presents a study of the historical and textual traditions of a fragment of Arabic mechanics which is also edited in Arabic and translated into English. This fragment, entitled Nutaf…

Sinan’s Acoustical Technology

by Published on: 4th June 2007

This article gives the the results of a research project studying the acoustical properties of several Ottoman mosques designed by Mimar Sinan in the 16th century. The results of measurements concerning several of these mosques…

Al-Hassâr’s Kitâb al-Bayân and the Transmission of the Hindu-Arabic Numerals

by Published on: 4th June 2007

This article was a talk given at the 7th Maghrebi Colloque of the History of Arabic Mathematics held from 30 May to 1 June 2002 in Marrakech, Morocco. It presents a new manuscript of the…

Sinan: A Great Ottoman Architect and Urban Designer

by Published on: 3rd June 2007

Sinan, called Mimar Sinan (Architect Sinan) and Mimar Koca Sinan (Great Architect Sinan), is the most celebrated of all Ottoman architects. In this article by Dr. Rabah Saoud, his architectural models are characterised. These models…

Rediscovering Arabic Science: Islamic Scientific Heritage in the last issue of Saudi Aramco World

by Published on: 1st June 2007

In its current issue (May-June 2007), Saudi Aramco World, a magazine devoted to increase cross-cultural understanding published in Houston, Texas, dedicated a folder of 20 pages on Islamic science. The folder consists of three articles…

New Lectures at Thinktank, Birmingham’s Museum of Science

by Published on: 26th May 2007

1001 Inventions: Discover the Muslim Heritage in Our World launched at Thinktank, Birmingham's Museum of Science, at Millennium Point on 24th May as part of a UK-wide tour. This unique travelling exhibition revealing 1,000 years…

A New Book on the Ottoman Military History: Guns for the Sultan by Gábor Ágoston

by Published on: 25th May 2007

Ágoston's book provides new insights into the Ottomans' approach to new innovations and reforms in modern technology, which some scholars had previously claimed improbable due to Islamic conversativism.

Ottoman Mining, Metal Working and Fire-Arms Technology in South East Europe (15th-17th centuries)

by Published on: 25th May 2007

The article deals with the impact of Ottoman mining and metal working technology in the Balkans region on the fire-arms technology of Southeast Europe during the crucial period going from the 15th century through to…

Copernicus and Arabic Astronomy: A Review of Recent Research

by Published on: 23rd May 2007

Some 800 years in the past, in 1206, a brilliant Muslim scholar died : Badi' al-Zaman Abu al-‘Izz ibn Ismail ibn al-Razzaz al-Jazari. He was one of the most important inventors and mechanical engineers in…

The Appreciation of Arabic Science and Technology in the Middle Ages

by Published on: 16th May 2007

This article describes the appreciation of Arabic science and technology in the Middle Ages through the example of Adelard of Bath, an English scholar of the early 12th century, one of the first scholars that…

The Influence of Islamic Culinary Art on Europe

by Published on: 16th May 2007

This paper describes the results of a novel research on the Muslim influence on the European culinary art during the Renaissance. Presenting evidence of how this influence entered the aristocratic circles in Europe, it draws…

Yaqut al-Hamawi

by Published on: 11th May 2007

Yâqût al-Hamawî was a Syrian biographer and geographer known for his encyclopaedia writings of the Muslim world. His Mujam al-Buldan, a geographical dictionary that includes much biographical, historical, and cultural data, is a primary source…

Al-Kindi

by Published on: 6th May 2007

Ya'qub b. Ishaq al-Kindi was an early Arab scholar of the 9th century, one of the first great scientists that set the stage for the brilliant Islamic tradition of learning. His works in philosophy, cosmology,…

Scientific Transfer and Scholarship in Medieval Arabic Pharmacology

by Published on: 6th May 2007

Arabic pharmacology, a branch of scientific literature dealing with the preparation and application of compound drugs as formulated in the Arabic language, is an interdisciplinary subject and an intercultural discipline. This article describes its Greek,…

Ibn Battuta

by Published on: 27th April 2007

The Moroccan traveler Ibn Battuta is known as the greatest traveller of premodern times. He lived in the 8th century H/14th century CE. Leaving his homeland at the age of 21 to make the holy…

Cats in Islamic Culture

by Published on: 16th April 2007

This article describes the various cultural representations associated to cats in Islamic civilisation and shows examples of the respect, love and understanding with which cats were treated and regarded in Islamic history. This original attitude…

Literature and Music in Muslim Civilisation

by Published on: 11th April 2007

An outline of the main types of Arabic literature and their influence on European literature and a description of the main Arabic instruments and their subsequent development in Europe.

When Ridhwan al-Sa’ati Anteceded Big Ben by More than Six Centuries

by Published on: 11th April 2007

The following article by Abdel Aziz al-Jaraki, a scholar from Damascus, describes the context of the investigation carried on since several decades on a famous clock built by Fakhr al-Din Ridhwan al-Sa'ati at the beginning…

The Legacy of Muslim Kung Fu Masters

by Published on: 9th April 2007

An important legacy of Islam in China is represented by Muslim Kung Fu, developed throughout history by Muslim Masters, who merged in their endeavour and training between physical and spiritual perfection. The following short survey…

Al-Razi on Smallpox and Measles

by Published on: 8th April 2007

This article by Dr. Abdulnasser Kaadan shows that as early as the 9th century, the well known Muslim physician al-Razi described, in his book Kitab al-Jadari wa 'l-Hasba (The Book on Smallpox and Measles), the…

Selected Gleanings from the History of Islamic Medicine

by Published on: 3rd April 2007

The medical Islamic tradition is one of the richest and the most lasting components of the general history of medicine. Some of its main aspects are dealt with in a series of five articles by…

The Syriac-speaking Christians and the Translation of Greek Science into Arabic

by Published on: 2nd April 2007

This article by Professor John Healey, describes the key role in the development of Muslim science which was played by the Syriac-speaking Christians in the early Islamic era. John Healey is Professor of Semitic Studies…

A New Book by George Saliba: Islamic Science and the Making of the European Renaissance

by Published on: 27th March 2007

This article reviews the new book Islamic Science and the Making of the European Renaissance by George Saliba. The book describes the rise and fall of the Islamic scientific tradition, and the relationship of Islamic…

Ear, Nose and Throat Medical Practice in Muslim Heritage

by Published on: 23rd March 2007

Muslim medicine is characterised by a high level of experience and critical clinical observation setting aside mythologies and legends. The ear, nose and throat exemplify the participation of Muslim medicine and the contribution of the…

Safi al-Din al-Urmawi and the Theory of Music

by Published on: 21st March 2007

In this detailed and well documented article, Dr. Fazli Arslan describes the work of one of the most important figures of the history of Middle Eastern music, Safi al-Din 'Abd al-Mu'min al-Urmawi.

A Discovery in Architecture: 15th Century Islamic Architecture Presages 20th Century Mathematics

by Published on: 26th February 2007

This article relates the discovery by two American scholars, Paul J. Steinhardt and Peter J. Lu (respectively from the department of physics at Princeton and Harvard universities) that medieval Islamic artists produced intricate decorative patterns…

Glances on Calendars and Almanacs in the Islamic Civilization

by Published on: 7th February 2007

From the beginning of the Islamic history, the scholars developed the Islamic hijri calendar as a lunar calendar designed to organize timekeeping for religious and social needs. The development of the Islamic calendar and the…

The Abbasids’ House of Wisdom in Baghdad

by Published on: 7th February 2007

The House of Wisdom was in fame, status, scope, size, resources, patronage, etc. similar to that of the present day British Library in London or the Nationale Bibliotheque in Paris, in addition to being an…

Mapping and Picturing: Maps as Records of History

by Published on: 3rd February 2007

A study of historical maps and sea charts indicates that cartographers have often considered map making as an art as well as a science and aimed to record the different parts of the world not…

Suleymaniye Medical Madrasa

by Published on: 3rd February 2007

This article discusses the emergence and origins of institutional Ottoman medical practice and learning, and provides an insight into the trade of expertise between the Ottoman provinces and further a field. It focuses on the…

Sine, Cosine and the Measurement of the Earth

by Published on: 2nd February 2007

Mathematics has long been an area of expertise amongst Muslim mathematicians. This article considers the contributions of Al-Tusi and Al-Battani and others in trigonometry, focusing upon the progress their discoveries represented in comparison with the…

Scandinavia and Ibn Fadlan

by Published on: 2nd February 2007

This short article provides brief accounts of Ibn Fadlan's observation on Scandinavia and a people he calls the Rus. His reports have become a great source for successive historians on a range of topics from…

Al-Urdi’s Article on ‘The Quality of Observation’

by Published on: 31st January 2007

Astronomy has for a long time been of keen interest of Muslims throughout centuries. This article by Professor Sevim Tekeli highlights the quality and precision of observations made by al-Urdi.

Mathematics in Muslim Heritage

by Published on: 30th January 2007

Early mathematics was revolutionised by Muslim scholars like Al-Khwarizmi, the founder of Algebra; Al-Kindi, Al-Khazin, Al-Khujandi,Al-Sijzi, Abul Wafa and numerous others.This article reviews some of the important works of these mathematicians.

Alfraganus and the Elements of Astronomy

by Published on: 29th January 2007

Al-Farghânî, known in the West as Alfraganus , was one of the most famous astronomers of the 9th century. His book, Elements of Astronomy, written in 833 CE remained as the most popular text book…

Ottoman Maritime Arsenals And Shipbuilding Technology In The 16th And 17th Centuries

by Published on: 28th January 2007

In this article Prof. Idris Bostan describes Ottoman shipbuilding efforts and achievements within the broader context of the progression of military technology and capability.

Beauty and Aesthetics in Islam

by Published on: 25th January 2007

The Islamic civilisation allowed the development of autonomous norms of beauty that were inspired by the faith of Islam. The Islamic artistic tradition viewed the beauty of the universe, emphasized in the Quran, and the…

Islamic Aesthetics, Gardens and Nature

by Published on: 25th January 2007

Sensory beauty, whether it be in feats of architecture or calligraphy, has long been a pursuit of Islamic civilisation. Achievements such as the Alhambra pertain to this fact. This article further describes the results of…

Scientific Contacts and Influences Between the Islamic World and Europe: The Case of Astronomy

by Published on: 25th January 2007

For more than a thousand years the Muslim East and the Christian West, notwithstanding the differences in matters of creed, ideology and social traditions and the intervening opposition of defenders of orthodoxy on both sides,…

How Islam Inspired Scientific Advance

by Published on: 23rd January 2007

The impact of Islam permeated so many spheres of knowledge and produced phenomenal achievements that one is amazed. This article highlights some of these areas and achievements.

Turkish Contributions to Islamic Geography

by Published on: 18th January 2007

Turkish contributions to geography are vast in content and have a very significant place in the history of geography. Turkish geographers, especially cartographers made major contributions and formed a bridge between medieval Islamic and modern…

The Minaret, Symbol of a Civilization

by Published on: 17th January 2007

The minaret is the architectural shape which best indicates the presence of mosque. Over the centuries the mosque assumed a number of roles including a social centre, place for prayer, teaching institute, court of justice,…

Echos of What Lies Behind the ‘Ocean of Fogs’ in Muslim Historical Narratives

by Published on: 16th January 2007

This article is an edited version of the article originally written by the late Professor Mohammed Hamidullah, "Muslim Discovery of America before Columbus", Journal of the Muslim Students' Association of the United States and Canada.…

Aleppo Citadel: Glimpses of the Past

by Published on: 13th January 2007

The Citadel of Aleppo is one of the oldest monuments in the world. It is the most famous historic architectural site in Syria and is built on top of a huge, partially artificial mound rising…

General Organisation of Education and Teaching Methods in Islamic Civilisation

by Published on: 11th January 2007

Organised learning had been a feature of Islamic Civilisation since the beginning. The Prophet Muhammad would organise the education of a committed group who over time became the people of knowledge that spread Islam far…

Learning Institutions in Islam

by Published on: 11th January 2007

Learning institutions in various forms have existed for centuries in the Muslim World, the earliest of which are, al-Qarawiyyin, al-Azhar and al-Qayrawan. This short article traces the emergence and spread of madrasas as a popular…

The Art of Calligraphy in the Ottoman Empire

by Published on: 10th January 2007

Ottoman Turks produced and perfected several varieties of Arabic script. All the various branches of the art of calligraphy, an art greatly loved and respected by the Ottoman Turks, were flourished particularly in the city…

Better Directions at Sea: The Piri Reis Innovation

by Published on: 8th January 2007

The Ottoman Turk Pîrî Reis is truly a great figure in the history of cartography. Pîrî Reis has become well known for his two world maps and for his portolan, the Kitab-i Bahriye. By merging…

The Science of Restoring and Balancing – The Science of Algebra

by Published on: 5th January 2007

Muslim contributions in the field of mathematics have been both varied and far reaching. This article by Mahbub Ghani (from the Department of Electronic Engineering at King's College, London University) considers some Muslim contributions in…

The Oldest Map of Japan Drawn by Mahmud of Kashgar

by Published on: 3rd January 2007

Although the Japanese map was included for the first time in a world atlas in the 15th century, the very first map of Japan was drawn by Mahmud of Kashgar in early 11th century.

Attempts of Flight, Automatic Machines, Submarines and Rocket Technology in Turkish History

by Published on: 2nd January 2007

In the Islamic world, great importance was placed upon the study of natural sciences and technology. This article brings out some of the important works of Turkish Muslim scholars in the fields of automatic machines,…

Scientific Life during the Period of the Anatolian Seljuks

by Published on: 29th December 2006

Besides the madrasas, hospitals and social assistance institutions established in Anatolia during the Anatolian Seljuk period and that of their successors the Municipalities, scholarly-scientific and cultural activities were encouraged and received the patronage of the…

Ethical Aspects of Ottoman Surgical Practice

by Published on: 27th December 2006

Information about the requirements and expectations of medical ethics regarding surgery during the Ottoman period is found in medical manuscripts; while the moral principles based on Islamic Canon Law (Shari'ah) and the oral tradition (the…

Contribution of Al-Khwarizmi to Mathematics and Geography

by Published on: 27th December 2006

Muhammad ibn Musa Al-Khwarizmi is one of the greatest scientific minds of the medieval period and a most important Muslim mathematician who was justly called the 'father of algebra'. Besides his founding the science of…

Aydin Sayili (1913-1993) At Work: His Scientific Biography

by Published on: 27th December 2006

Aydin Sayili is one of the first eminent figures of the history of science in Islam to pursue an academic career in this discipline. He was fortunate to earn the first PhD from the history…

Pioneers of Automatic Control Systems

by Published on: 22nd December 2006

Although the feedback concept, which is lying in the foundation of dynamic systems, has been perceived relative recently, the idea was understood and applied correctly by the Muslim scientists.

An Overview of Ottoman Scientific Activities

by Published on: 22nd December 2006

The scientific activities observed within the borders of the Ottoman Empire throughout six centuries displayed a unique course of development. Although the Ottomans had many shared elements from the viewpoint of historical heritage and tradition…

The Emergence of Scientific Tradition in Islam

by Published on: 22nd December 2006

The definition and nature of science has long been an intriguing philosophical dilemma. In this essay Prof. Acikgenc discusses the substance of science, and related issues such as the scientific community, within an Islamic context.

Transfer of Modern Science and Technology to the Ottoman State

by Published on: 20th December 2006

This article will provide a short introduction to the history of scientific activities in the Ottoman world until the eighteenth century. Scientific researches show that there are many translation activities in different fields in the…

Transfer of Islamic Technology to the West

by Published on: 13th December 2006

The article covers the avenues which led to the transfer of the Islamic knowledge, from Al Andalus, Sicily and Byzantium to the Wars (crusades on the Islamic World), as well as commercial relations and also…

The Modern Hospital in Medieval Islam

by Published on: 13th December 2006

The hospital was one of the most developed institutions of medieval Islam and one of the high-water marks of the Muslim civilisation. The hospitals of medieval Islam were hospitals in the modern sense of the…

Al-Khwarizmi, Abdu’l-Hamid Ibn Turk and the Place of Central Asia in the History of Science

by Published on: 12th December 2006

Abu Ja`far Muhammad ibn Mûsâ al-Khwârazmî is a truly outstanding personality and a foremost representative of the supremacy of the Islamic World during the Middle Ages. Medieval Islam was largely responsible for the shaping of…

The Ottoman Empire and Europe: Cultural Encounters

by Published on: 3rd December 2006

This article mainly covers the cultural encounters between Europe and the Ottomans who had become immediate neighbours on the Balkans and the Mediterranean after the Ottoman state expanded into Central Europe.

Islamic Art as a Means of Cultural Exchange

by Published on: 28th November 2006

With the expansion of Islam over a vast area of land, Muslim artists started to develop the traits they had borrowed from other civilisations, and created their own styles, motifs and fashion which conformed to…

Lecture: Great Men and Women of Science in Muslim Heritage

by Published on: 21st November 2006

Evening lecture with Professor Salim Al-Hassani. Tuesday 21 November 2006, 6pm-8pm

The Balance: The Core Mental Model of the Islamic Science of Weights

by Published on: 17th November 2006

This article includes the recent work by Professor Abattouy and his co-workers. The work has revealed the enormous wealth of Islamic literature on the science of weights. Their findings established that there is much larger…

Muslim Roots, U.S. Blues

by Published on: 17th November 2006

To many the idea that American blues music has its origins with Muslims and even the Islamic call to prayer is inconceivable. It is also largely unknown that up to thirty percent of enslaved Americans,…

Lord Vivian Bowden on Muslim Heritage in Economics and Fiscal System

by Published on: 21st September 2006

Lord Bowden was a legendary Principal and Vice Chancellor of UMIST. He had an interest about Muslim Heritage in Economics and Trade. He was so interested in the subject that he established an institute for…

Artillery Trade of the Ottoman Empire

by Published on: 8th September 2006

Trade has no borders. During times of hostility between the Ottoman Empire and Europe, European traders were not only trading with the Ottomans but trading in contraband war materials. This article provides an insight into…

In Appreciation of FSTC

by Published on: 19th July 2006

Emeritus Professor Durward J Cruickshank, Fellow of Royal Society and world renowned distinguished scientist has presented FSTC with a valuable gift in its work in the History of Science.

From Alchemy to Chemistry

by Published on: 18th May 2006

Until recently, the mainstream history of scientific ideas has failed to acknowledge numerous Islamic scientists and their great efforts and achievements throughout the centuries. This short article seeks to contribute in redressing this injustice by…

Ibn Jubair: Capturing the Decline of Islamic Power

by Published on: 17th May 2006

Ibn Jubair is widely recognised as one of the greatest travellers and geographers of Muslim history. From excerpts his work, The Travels of Ibn Jubair, as presented in this short article we are able to…

West African Mosque Architecture – A Brief Introduction

by Published on: 31st March 2006

Mosques built in parts of the Muslim world where Arabs migrated or took control of through wars developed a distinct tradition of domes and minarets. In areas where Islam spread mostly by returning traders, traditions…

Jewels of the Muslim Chinese Heritage

by Published on: 31st March 2006

The prominence of Islam in China is fascinating and a surprise to many, with its long establishment of Muslim communities, a flourishing Islamic history, a spectacular Islamic cultural heritage and its many Mosques.

Lady Mary Wortley Montagu and the Introduction of Smallpox Vaccination to England

by Published on: 24th March 2006

This short article describes Lady Montagu's efforts in introducing a technique of vaccinating against smallpox; a technique that she learnt from Ottoman Turkey and transported, against some resistance, to the shores of Britain. It was…

CHILDREN’S ACTIVITY: How to Make a Pinhole Camera

by Published on: 16th March 2006

Would you like to make a wonderful camera in just five minutes? This short exercise will help you to create your very own pinhole camera! Just follow the simple steps in this exercise and you…

The Secret Gardens of Sana’a

by Published on: 16th March 2006

In this article Tim Mackintosh-Smith investigates the horticultural past of Sana'a. Whereas as once Yemen at large was well known as a land lavishly green, Mackintosh-Smith discovers quite a different story amidst a city coping…

A Treasure House on the Hudson

by Published on: 16th March 2006

Olana is a remarkable galley of exquisite works of art collected by Fredric Edwin Church during his travels in the Muslim World. In fact, the actual design of Olana was inspired by the architecture of…

Sana’a Rising

by Published on: 16th March 2006

Sana'a is one of the oldest cities of Yemen, indeed one of the oldest in the World, dating back to the Sabean dynasty. Earliest references to its existance date back to the 1st Century AD…

Andalusia’s New Golden Pottery

by Published on: 27th February 2006

In times past, Granada was a hub of artistic flair, imagination, and creativity, to the extent that the architecture of Muslim Spain exists as amongst the proudest Spanish monuments to this day. Such passion and…

The World’s First Soft Drink

by Published on: 27th February 2006

Sherbet, a juice of crushed fruit, herbs, or flowers has long existed as one of the most popular beverages from and of the Muslim world, winning over Western figures such as Lord Byron. Today, this…

Islamic Science, the Scholar and Ethics

by Published on: 24th February 2006

The ethics or philosophy of science has in more recent times become an increasingly important subject. This article discusses and compares modern day scientific ethics with the ethics or morality underpinning Islamic Science.

Muslim Contribution to Spanish Agriculture

by Published on: 23rd February 2006

This article describes some of the numerous Muslim contributions to the development of Spanish agriculture, including the introduction of new crops, more intensive use of irrigation, soil management, and scholarly efforts in farming innovation. Such…

Ibn Battuta and the 14th Century Muslim World

by Published on: 15th February 2006

Ibn Battuta is regarded by many to be one of the greatest travellers and explorers the world has ever seen. In fact, he was able to travel over 75,000 miles, in twenty years and through…

Animal Care

by Published on: 15th February 2006

By way of faith, Muslims have a strong regard for the care of animals. This is due to the attention that the Prophet Muhammad encouraged the wellbeing and good-treatment of other creatures of God. Muslims…

Al-Ramhormuzi and the Wonders of India

by Published on: 15th February 2006

Captain Buzurg ibn Shahriyar, a shipmaster from Khuzistan compiled a collection of stories and accounts of his experiences as a sea farer between 900 and 953. As well as stretching one's imagination, Captain Bazurg's ‘The…

Ebru: The Art of Paper Marbling

by Published on: 1st February 2006

Marbling is an art form developed in the Muslim world, possibly with Chinese origins. Often it has been used to create colourful book binding inside covers. Here is a little history of this art.

The Muslim Agricultural Revolution

by Published on: 1st February 2006

The landscape in the areas under Muslim control from the 7th Century changed radically. Their rich contributions are most notable within the fields of irrigation, farming techniques, encyclopeadic works in botany, and the introduction new…

Cosmic Motifs & Elements in Seljuk and Ottoman Architecture

by Published on: 29th September 2005

The structure of Mosques and other buildings draw inspiration from descriptions in the Qur'an as well as pre-Islamic motifs. Here we look at how some of the resulting motifs and elements reflect the idea of…

Bone Fractures in Ibn Sina’s Medicine

by Published on: 29th September 2005

Ibn Sina, or Avicenna as he referred to in the West, was a well-known philosopher and physician from Islamic civilisation. Here we look at his accomplishments and contributions towards knowledge of bone fractures.

Decimal Arithmetic

by Published on: 8th September 2005

The introduction of Arabic numbers into Europe involved more than a way of writing numbers down. It also involved new ways of calculating with pen and paper that were faster and easier and the system…

The Earliest Paediatric Surgical Atlas: Cerrahiye-i Ilhaniye

by Published on: 7th September 2005

The author of one of the earliest surgical books was Serafeddin Sabuncuoglu. In 1465, he wrote a surgical book in Turkish which contained not only pictures or miniatures of paediatric surgical procedures, but there were…

Educating Ottoman Physicians

by Published on: 2nd September 2005

Medical doctors in the time of the Ottomans had various routes into professional life depending on their specialty. Some were trained on the model of master and apprentice, others studied courses at madrasas and at…

Hail the Queen of Mathematics!

by Published on: 2nd September 2005

In today's world what Friedrich Gauss called the queen of mathematics plays a crucial role in providing internet security. Here we look at some of the Muslims who worked on number theory.

Professor Sevim Tekeli – a short autobiography

by Published on: 24th August 2005

Sevim Tekeli is Emeritus Professor, History of Science Department at Ankara University, a student of Professor Aydin Sayili. This article is based on her answers in a brief interview conducted recently by Dr Salim Ayduz.

The Scholars of Seville – Medicine

by Published on: 15th August 2005

Seville was also a centre Medical expertise in Islamic civilisation. Continuing the Muslim scientific tradition of critical works that advance knowledge in Medicine, many books were written here by leaders of the field.

The Scholars of Seville – Mathematics and Astronomy

by Published on: 15th August 2005

In Seville, scholars led the science of astronomy, criticising earlier works on the basis of new observations and poetry was used to help people memorise the principles of algebra.

The Scholars of Seville – Artists, Architecture and Government

by Published on: 15th August 2005

Seville was a key centre of Islamic Civilisation in Spain. Here you can read about the architect of the famous Giralda tower of Seville's cathedral, which is originally the main tower of the mosque. Also…

Primary Schools under the Ottomans

by Published on: 10th August 2005

Primary schools have a long history in Islamic civilisation. Children were taught to memorise the entire Qur'an usually at primary school for example. Here is a look at how the primary schools under the Ottomans…

Using an Astrolabe

by Published on: 10th August 2005

The history of the astrolabe begins more than two thousand years ago, but it is in the Islamic classical world that the astrolabe was highly developed and its uses widely multiplied. Introduced to Europe from…

Sub-Saharan Centres of Learning

by Published on: 5th August 2005

Though we may think of Timbuktu as the pre-eminent site of pre-colonial West African scholarship, we must remember that there were other places spanning across the Western and Central Sudan that were renowned for their…

The Classification of Mental Diseases in the Ottoman Medical Manuscripts

by Published on: 12th July 2005

The Ottomans provided great contributions towards the fields of psychiatry and neurology. Their thoughts and writings delve into many depths and are worthy of recognition by those in the medical sphere.

The Great Turk Genius Amir Khusraw and his Accomplishments in Music

by Published on: 6th July 2005

Amir Khusraw (d. 1325) was essentially an eminent musician and is regarded as a great savant in the history of world music and a genius of unequalled stature in the history of music in the…

The Scholars of Malaga

by Published on: 29th June 2005

Malaga was a great centre for agriculture and trade and was a part of Islamic Spain for nearly 800 years. Its scholars briefly looked at here included experts on trade and public regulations and arguably…

The Scholars of Toledo

by Published on: 23rd June 2005

Toledo was the first major contact of Christian Europe with Islamic civilisation and it was the beginning of a transformation that would transform barbaric Europe into the leading civilisation in the world. In this short…

Islamic Citadel in Busra

by Published on: 23rd June 2005

Busra was the location of a large Roman theatre which was built upon by Muslims when they arrived to provide a vital fort in defence against the Crusaders. Here is an examination of that fort…

Ibn Al-Nafis and Vinegar

by Published on: 17th June 2005

A doctor does a short enquiry into an old treatment for ear infections and discovers its presence in a medical manuscript by Ibn al-Nafis.

Beauty, Hair and Body Care in the Canon of Ibn Sina

by Published on: 17th June 2005

The seventh and last art mentioned in the fourth book of the Canon of Medicine by Ibn Sina is assigned to the theme of "zina", that is beauty and physical appearance. It consists of four…

Baghdad

by Published on: 7th June 2005

The city of Baghdad was founded under the second Abbasid caliph Al-Mansur (ruled 754-775). After a lengthy research along the course of the Tigris as far north as Mosul, he decided to construct a palace…

Influence of Acoustic Data in Architectural Design

by Published on: 25th May 2005

Sinan's is renowned for its success in the acoustic design of mosques is. Read further to discover the development of applications and technology covering acoustic knowledge within two great Mosques in Sinan.

Masjid-i-Jami: the Friday Mosque of Isfahan

by Published on: 25th May 2005

Iran has made great contributions to Muslim architecture culminating in the introduction of the cylindrical minaret form and the four-iwan plan. The most momentous work that survives in Iran is the Masjid-i-Jami at Isfahan.

The Scholars of Cairo

by Published on: 24th May 2005

The scholarship within Cairo was one which flourished with great vibrancy. The schoalrs contributed to the fields of mathematics, science, astronomy, philosophy, medicine and numerous other areas which are notable and worthy of study.

Al-Razi the Medical Scholar

by Published on: 11th May 2005

Al-Razi was "a writer of rare and incredible productiveness as well as the greatest clinician of Islam." The great works of Al-Razi are of immense significance in the study of medicine.

Central Asian Contributions to the earlier phases of hospital building – Activity in Islam

by Published on: 3rd May 2005

Modern hospials finds its origin in Islamic civilisation replacing institutions known for magic and religion with a science based tradition which took knowledge from various places including the Greeks, Egytptains, Indians and others.

Jerusalem: Thriving Trade, Scholars and Magnificant Architectural Works

by Published on: 27th April 2005

Jerusalem prior to the crusades was a place filled with a thriving trade, scholars and magnificant architectural works. This is notably significant in any study of Muslims contribution to the advancement of Jerusalem.

Al-Hakim Mosque, Cairo (990-1012)

by Published on: 27th April 2005

Al Hakim Mosque is the second major Fatimid Mosque and the fourth most important religious edifice in Egypt. The articles provides an elaborate account of the Fatimids contribution to its rich architectural design.

Astronomical Instruments of Tycho Brahe and Taqi al-Din

by Published on: 26th April 2005

Tycho Brahe "was a brilliant astronomer and scientist of his time, and has had a big significance on the development of astronomy, science in general, and our view of the world" has been influenced by…

Hama

by Published on: 24th April 2005

Hama is famed for its huge water wheels and it produced great scholars in geography, mathematics, medicine and much more. Here we look at a few of them.

Mshatta Palace, Jordan; 743-744 CE

by Published on: 20th April 2005

Msatta is a renowned Ummayad palace with spectacular architectural and artistic details that continues to attract many. The decorative aspects of the Palace are of immense detail and splendour and thus has become an important…

Karatay Madrasa, Konya 1252

by Published on: 13th April 2005

Karatay Madrasa can be considered as the apex of Seljuk architectural small space design. Major features of the madarasa are the great dome and the inclusion of elaborate decoration schemes, essentially from mosaics of glazed…

Damascus

by Published on: 12th April 2005

Hospitals, grand public buildings and numerous public endowment based charities characterised the generosity of Damascus. These institutions inspired the innovations and new learning which developed there.

The Scholars of Damascus

by Published on: 12th April 2005

Scholars of Damascus specialised in numerous fields including medicine, economics and astronomy. Their vast knowledge, discoveries and developments in their fields contributed to the advancement of Damascus.

The Great Mosque of Aleppo

by Published on: 24th March 2005

Built by the Umayyad Caliph Suleyman in 717 CE and altered several times, the Great Mosque of Aleppo remains one of the architectural masterpieces of the Muslim world.

The Scholars of Aleppo: Al Farabi, Al-Qifti and al-Adim

by Published on: 23rd March 2005

The works of three prominent scholars are highlighted: Al- Farabi who was keenly interested in the relation between logic and language, Al-Qifti's vast scholarship, ranging from lexicography to medicine and finally al-Adim's historical works are…

The Scholars of Aleppo: Al Mahassin, Al Urdi, Al-Lubudi, Al-Halabi

by Published on: 22nd March 2005

The article describes the works of the following scholars: Al Mahassin: an eminent writer in the field of eye surgery, Al Urdi: the first astronomer associated with Maragha, Al-Lubudi: a physician, mathematician, astronomer and philosopher…

Ince Minare Madrasa

by Published on: 11th March 2005

Ince Minare Madrasa is one of the most impressive structures introduced by the Seljuks to endorse the central plan scheme that was to dominate much of their late architecture and that of their Ottoman successors.

Al-Fârâbî as a Source of the History of Philosophy and of Its Definition

by Published on: 11th March 2005

The origins of science lie in the study we call philosophy which itself is traced back through traditions of wisdom. Here a look at al Farabi's description of wisdom and the history of philosophy.

Merv: History, Science and Learning

by Published on: 11th March 2005

Merv is the city which in medieval times dominated the province of Khurasan in today's Turkmenistan.

Izz Al-Din ibn Abd Al-Salam

by Published on: 2nd March 2005

A courageous scholar of Islamic law Izz al-Din wrote several important books. He played an key role in giving firm advice to divided Muslim rulers during a time when the Islamic world was under attack…

Observatories In Islam

by Published on: 2nd March 2005

The observatory as an organised and state sponsored activity began with in the Islamic world. Much progress was made in this area, particularly in eastern parts of the Islamic world.

The Scholars of Samarkand

by Published on: 2nd March 2005

Samarkand contributed in particular to the progress of science in astronomy through its observatory. Some of its directors and their achievements are highlighted here.

Harran

by Published on: 22nd February 2005

Harran is a very old town situated in the Jazira province of modern Turkey near the sources of the Balkh River. Badly effected by the Crusades, it nevertheless had its production of scientists that are…

12th Century Cookery from all the World

by Published on: 18th February 2005

This historical masterpiece on Arab/Islamic cooking by Kammaluddin Ibn Al-Adeem a famous historian, religious scholar, poet and calligrapher was written at the end of the 12th Century, and shows the rich culinary culture of Muslims…

Kufa

by Published on: 14th February 2005

Being the home of the encyclopaedic scholar Al-kindi and the great chemist Jabir Ibn Hayan, Kufa had a key role in the history of science.

Khwarizm

by Published on: 2nd February 2005

Khwarizm is the city of the birth of algebra, where Al-Biruni corrected and refined the sciences of the past and thought of the earth spinning on its axis many centuries before Copernicus.

Imam Ahmad ibn Taimiyah

by Published on: 27th January 2005

Ibn Taimiyah was a man to whom learning about Islam was in no way a mere academic exercise. It brought a thorough understanding of God's faith and a determined attempt to make it supreme in…

Ukhaidir Palace (720-800 CE)

by Published on: 27th January 2005

About 100 miles south-west of Baghdad is Ukhaidar palace, one of the most preserved palaces of the Muslim world. It is unique in its architectural wealth and incorporated some of the key innovations that greatly…

Imam Ali ibn Hazm

by Published on: 21st January 2005

An Andalusian scholar who studied as an independent scholar rejecting blind following of a particular school of jurisprudence. He was taught by several women and argued the some women had been prophets.

Bukhara

by Published on: 21st January 2005

Bukhara, a city in central Asia has a history indicative of a number of eastern Islamic cities. It produced important scholars, most famously Ibn Sina and the compiler of the most quoted source of sayings…

Atala Mosque, Jaunpur 1408

by Published on: 21st January 2005

Being the first mosque to be build after the independence of Jaunpur from the Islamic caliphate in India, the Atala Mosque was given royal treatment setting up a new monumentality to the traditional jami'.

Imam Jaafar As-Sadiq

by Published on: 14th January 2005

One of the foremost scholars of Islam Imam Jaafar as-Sadiq was a teacher of both Abu Haneefah and Malik, the founders of two of the four schools of Islamic Law.

Muslim Contributions to Philosophy – Ibn Sina, Farabi, Beyruni

by Published on: 14th January 2005

Muslim philosophers were men of science who explored and set the very foundations of knowledge. They had great influence and importance in the history of fundamental ideas.

Leonard of Pisa (Fibonacci) and Arabic Arithmetic

by Published on: 14th January 2005

Professor Charles Burnett shows that Fibonacci failed to give adequate recognition to other sources of learning which he took from to produce his Liber Abacci. These other sources were translations of Arabic works from Toledo…

Basra

by Published on: 4th January 2005

Basra became like many places in the Muslim world a centre for knowledge and commerce. Originally set up on the orders of the Caliph as a military camp, the town had good fortunes but suffered…

Earliest maps of America

by Published on: 4th January 2005

The earliest maps made of America by Columbus have all since been lost. However, a number of very early and accurate maps exist which were made by Piri Reis based on material including the maps…

The Machines of Al-Jazari and Taqi Al-Din

by Published on: 30th December 2004

Prof. Salim T S Al-Hassani In this pioneering survey of some of the machines of Al-Jazari and Taqi Al-Din, Professor Salim Al-Hassani uses in-depth analysis with the tools of modern technology to make them live…

Architecture of Al-Azhar

by Published on: 30th December 2004

Of the many splendours of Egypt, the Al-Azhar stands as a landmark in its architectural and cultural history, marking the beginning of the Fatimid rule and the foundation of its capital Cairo (Al-Qahira, "The Victorious").

Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal

by Published on: 30th December 2004

Ahmad Ibn Hanbal was a founder of one of the four main Sunni schools of Jurisprudence. He developed fiqh but was also an expert in the study of Islamic oral traditions (the sayings - hadith).…

Imam El-Shafie

by Published on: 20th December 2004

Imam El-Shafie established the specialised branch of Islamic studies in Jurisprudence called Usool ul Fiqh, i.e. the methodology of Islamic law. His work founded one of the four main schools of Islamic law.

Granada: The Last Refuge of Muslims in Spain

by Published on: 20th December 2004

Granada on the southern coast of Spain was to stay in Muslim hands until 1492. Its fall came centuries after other Muslim areas fell to the Christians. This article highlights some of the important legacies…

Imam Abu Haneefah

by Published on: 9th December 2004

Imam Abu Haneefah developed a science of Islamic law through systematic study of textual evidence and methodic reasoning and his approach had a far reaching impact on the Islamic world and beyond.

The Great Mosque of Tlemcen

by Published on: 8th December 2004

The Great Mosque of Tlemcen as a whole is an architectural masterpiece however, the techniques introduced in the construction of the mihrab dome are the most innovative. It is one of the oldest and best…

Muslims in Norman Sicily

by Published on: 22nd November 2004

When the Normans took control of Sicily from the Muslims, they recognised the achievements of Muslims and Muslims together with their institutions continued to have a core role for centuries despite consternation elsewhere.

Sicily under Islamic Rule

by Published on: 22nd November 2004

Sicily under Islamic rule brought people from all over the mediteranean in a rich diverse and enlightened community including a far reaching freedom of religion.

MSIM Presentation

by Published on: 9th November 2004

Professor Salim Al-Hassani's highly visual and compelling presentation will assess some of the Muslim contribution to civilisation using graphical simulations and some 3D animations of early Muslim inventions.

Bosniacs

by Published on: 9th November 2004

The Bosniac Muslims played a crucial role integrated in the Austro-Hungarian empire and Muslims and Islam continues to have great recognition in Austria.

Taj Mahal : The Architecture of Love

by Published on: 4th November 2004

"The whole together appears like a most perfect pearl on an azure ground. The effect is such as, I confess, I never experienced from any work of art. The fine materials, the beautiful forms, and…

Kutubiya Mosque (1158)

by Published on: 30th October 2004

Abul Mumin chose to build his mosque adjacent to the main street of booksellers to emphasize the importance of reading and learning as the main source of progress, hence the origin of the name "Kutubiya".

Al-Qarawiyyin Mosque and University

by Published on: 20th October 2004

For well over twelve hundred years Al-Qarawiyyin has been one of the leading spiritual and educational centres of the Muslim World, a typical institution, of many, underlining how learning constituted the heart of the religion…

Fes

by Published on: 13th October 2004

The date of the foundation of Fes is from the early 9th century. Fes soon after received an influx of diverse origins, Berbers, Jews, Arabs, including also Spanish Muslims from Cordoba. A strong scientific tradition…

The Impact of Islamic Science and Learning on England: Adelard of Bath and Daniel of Morley

by Published on: 13th October 2004

Most certainly the first English scientist ever was Adelard of Bath. He championed Islamic learning and was the most `Arabist' of all scientists. He and Daniel of Morley were instrumental in the transfer of scientific…

Bejaia – Algeria

by Published on: 1st October 2004

Bejaia - a small town on the north coast of Algeria, was once a trading hub of the Mediteranian trading extensively with many places including Pisa. Through this town, a great deal of Mathematics was…

Astrology for the Ottomans

by Published on: 29th September 2004

Among the Ottomans there was constant controversy over whether astrology violated the principles of reason and religion. Although many Islamic scholars judged astrology to contravene religion, astronomers continued to interpret the heavens, and sultans to…

The Aghlabids of Tunisia

by Published on: 23rd September 2004

The Aghlabids ruled Tunisia and an area that included Sicily and temporarily Sardinia and regions of southern Italy. Here the role their capital city Qayrawan is highlighted for its important legacy.

Khirbat Al-Mafjar, Palace (740 -750)

by Published on: 12th September 2004

Khirbat Palace remains a unique example of Umayyad luxury and their developed taste for art. The palace gained particular reputation due to the well-preserved floor mosaics.

Turkish Contributions to Scientific Work in Islam

by Published on: 10th September 2004

Turks have played an active part in the pursuit of science and learning in the Islamic World throughout its history. This activity is outlind here from the very formative stages of the islamic civilization down…

Salerno and Constantine the African

by Published on: 31st August 2004

Salerno came to prominence as the first faculty-University of the Christian West because of its importance as a center where Islamic science, particularly medicine, became known to Europe… this because of his translations... The principal…

Marrakech

by Published on: 26th August 2004

Marrakech became, due to the ambitions and sponsorship of its rulers, the centre of attraction for numerous scholars including Ibn Rushd who served as the Chief Physician and where he pursued many works in science.…

Ottoman Palace Architecture: The Topkapi Palace

by Published on: 8th July 2004

Construction of a palace to accommodate the Ottoman administration and royal household began in 1459, lasting most of the reign of Sultan Mehmed II. The palace included gardens reflecting the Muslim traditional love of nature…

Sultan Ahmet Cami or Blue Mosque

by Published on: 8th July 2004

Commissioned by Sultan Ahmed (1606-1617), the mosque was built by Mehmet Agha who is said to have toured key Ottoman monuments before he drew the plan of the blue mosque. This can be affirmed by…

The Ottoman Madrassa

by Published on: 8th July 2004

The Madrassa was one of the main venues of education in the Muslim World under the Ottoman Caliphate until 1924 when Ataturks' law abolished it in favour of modern schools and universities. In planning terms…

The Ottoman Han (Caravanserai) and Bazaars

by Published on: 7th July 2004

The expansion of commerce in the Ottoman world necessitated the introduction of new types of buildings to accommodate various trade types. The han or caravanserai consisted of cells arranged around a courtyard, providing all the…

Modelling the Stars

by Published on: 30th June 2004

The measurement of the positions of the stars was developed and refined by scientists of the Muslim world and many kinds of Models were developed. These are described within this article.

The Destruction of the Muslim Economic System: A Prime reason for the Decline of Muslim Science

by Published on: 19th May 2004

Attacks on Islamic centres of wealth on land and on sea by Western Christian pirates greatly reduced the economic power of Muslim lands. North Africa became economically impoverished as the Trans-Saharan traffic, which had sustained…

Did Muslim Rulers play a part in the decline of Muslim Civilisation?

by Published on: 19th May 2004

Muslims stand responsible for their own decadence. After the early conquests, Islamic rule became very corrupt, and this considerably weakened the caliphate. Islam produced great leaders but also some weak ones, which combined over time…

Were the Berbers and Seljuks instrumental in decline of Muslim Civilisation?

by Published on: 19th May 2004

It is actually a hostility to Berbers and Turks that explains their being blamed for the decadence of Islam. The Seljuk role, it could be said, was in actual fact instrumental in saving whole Islamic…

The Ottoman Ulema

by Published on: 12th May 2004

The word ulema, which is widely used in the Islamic world, is used to refer to community based scholars. Ottoman ulema had been a basic element of the state and the society, presenting progressive visions…

Umayyad Mosques and Palaces

by Published on: 6th May 2004

The Umayyad architectural splendour is experienced in both religious and domestic buildings. At the core of their religious heritage we find the Dome of the Rock, the architectural jewel of Islam and Damascus Mosque, its…

The Question is? Myths and Fallacies Surrounding the Decline of Muslim Civilisation

by Published on: 5th May 2004

Why did Islamic civilisation fall into decline? This article seeks to correct some misunderstandings and open the debate about what went wrong and what can be done to put it right.

Tunis in Islamic Times

by Published on: 5th May 2004

Tunis, the green, was the capital of Muslim Caliphate in the Maghreb reaching an unrivalled prosperous period of economic, cultural and social growth. Below is a summary of how this once great city was planned…

The Impact of Islam on Urban Development in North Africa

by Published on: 5th May 2004

This paper seeks to remind readers of the contribution of Islam to the civilisation of the peoples of North Africa by looking at its influence on the urbanisation of the region. The aim is to…

Ibn Rushd: Harmony of Theological & Philosophical (Scientific) Truth

by Published on: 27th April 2004

Ibn Rushd is perhaps the best known Muslim scholar of Cordoba who was instrumental in influencing European theology and epistemology. Here is a facinating glimpse into his role in establishing the role of reasoning in…

Ottoman Educational Institutions during the Reform Period

by Published on: 26th April 2004

The Imperial Tanzimat Rescript (Tanzimat Fermani) announced on 3 November 1839 provided state protection for basic rights and freedoms. Following this, programs of educational reform made the reorganization of secondary education a priority and the…

Madrasas of the Ottoman Empire

by Published on: 26th April 2004

Ottoman Madrasas, were generally the continuation of traditional Islamic Madrasas, but they created their own curriculum and education tradition with the passing of centuries.

Madrassa Education during the Early Ottoman Period

by Published on: 21st April 2004

The madrasas of the early Ottoman period can be considered as institutions which continued the established educational tradition of the Seljuk Turks but also augmented by the contributions of the Ottomans.

The Muslim Influence on Musical Theory

by Published on: 21st April 2004

The Muslim influence on musical theory is strongly denied by Western scholars. Even those who accept the Muslims playing some role, reject their deep involvement with the theory,although the Muslims used notation in musical theory…

Impact on Instrumental Tablature

by Published on: 21st April 2004

The Arabs were the first to give Europe a scientific description of musical instruments. Looking back into history we can give a descriptive influence of the Muslim scheme of phonetic notation and instrumental tablature which…

The Contribution of Muslims to the Development of Music

by Published on: 21st April 2004

An insight into the influence of Muslims on the musical revival of Europe which can be detected as early as the period of the Carolingian Empire.

Curricula in Ottoman Madrasas

by Published on: 21st April 2004

It is possible to provide a basic (though only partial) outline of what was taught at Ottoman madrasas. Students would study from the books of (sarf), syntax (nahiv) and logic (mantik) and then hadith and…

Ranking of the Ottoman Madrasas

by Published on: 21st April 2004

Following the conquest of Istanbul, Mehmed the Conqueror initiated a campaign of construction. A new era in Ottoman education began with the establishment of the Fatih madrasas and the hierarchical structure of the madrasas was…

The Development and Decline of Ottoman Madrasas

by Published on: 21st April 2004

The development of madrasas was greatly influenced by the impact of a strengthened central state authority and the resulting political stability and economic well-being it brought to the society. Toward the end of the sixteenth…

Science and Institutions within Ottoman Administration

by Published on: 19th April 2004

The Ottomans conserved the fundamental features of Islamic civilisation in their scientific institutions as they also did in social and cultural areas. Three of the six Ottoman state scientific institutions dealt with here are in…

The Muslim Carpet

by Published on: 13th April 2004

The Muslim carpet has long been a luxury commodity sought by textile museums, rich collectors and wealthy merchants all over the world. The fame of the flying carpet of 'Al'a Al-Din (Aladdin) added some emotional…

Muslim Musical Instruments Transmitted to Europe

by Published on: 2nd April 2004

Many musical instruments came into European civilisation from Islamic Civilsation. Much of this is hardly known and rarely acknowledged. This article starts to set the record straight

Music in Muslim Civilisation

by Published on: 1st April 2004

People who are familiar with traditional Arab music as well as Flamenco will know the obvious historical connections. What is less well known are the deeper connections from Western musical instruments and theory back to…

Spain’s Islamic Legacy

by Published on: 15th March 2004

Muslims ruled in Spain and Portugal over a period of 800 years. When the Christians finally forced out the Muslims and instituted the inquisition they encountered some of the great achievements of Islamic science and…

Fatimid Coins 909-1171CE

by Published on: 18th January 2004

During the Fatimid Dynasty, Islamic coins were of such high quality and so abundant that they became the most wide-spread trade coins of the Mediterranean world.

Andalusian Coins 711-1494CE

by Published on: 18th January 2004

Muslims minted their first gold coins when they entered Spain in 711CE. The new coins were modelled in size and design after the Arab-Byzantine but their inscriptions were in Latin. A large star in the…

Abbasid Coins (750-1258CE)

by Published on: 18th January 2004

The Abbasid Dynasty experimented with different kinds of coins. They improved the appearance of coins using a more elegant form of Kufic script and the legends and the size of the legends on the dinars…

Umayyad Coins (661-750CE)

by Published on: 18th January 2004

As part of a policy to unify the various regions under Islamic rule, Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan introduced the first Umayyad gold coins in 691CE. Within a short period of time, Islamic Coins replaced…

The Little Known Tolerant and Humane Side of Islamic Civilisation

by Published on: 13th October 2003

...it can safely be said that no faith can show as equal sense of brotherhood between diverse colours as in Islam.

Ibn Hazm’s Philosophy and Thoughts on Science

by Published on: 11th September 2003

Abu Muhammad ‘Ali Ibn Ahmad Ibn Sa’id Ibn HAZM, (November 994 to August 1064) grew up in the period of final collapse of Umayyad rule in Spain, as the nation disintegrated into often conflicting local…

Christopher Wren and the Muslim Origin of Gothic Architecture

by Published on: 11th August 2003

Christopher Wren's respect for Muslim architecture is displayed in his adoption of numerous Muslim architectural solutions within his designs. In his greatest ever project, the Cathedral of St. Paul, London, the Muslim influence can be…

Tunis in the Islamic Period

by Published on: 25th July 2003

Tunis was rebuilt under the Roman Emperor Augustus in the first century AD, but without the importance of Carthage. The Muslims re-fortified it in 720 AD, and built the Zaytouna Mosque.

Ziryab, the Musician, Astronomer, Fashion Designer and Gastronome

by Published on: 13th June 2003

Abul-Hasan Alí Ibn Nafí, nicknamed Ziryab, was Chief Entertainer of the Court of Cordoba in 822AD. He revolutionised medieval music, lifestyle, fashion, hairstyles, furniture and even tableware. He transformed the way people ate, socialised, and…

Al-Kindi, Cryptography, Code Breaking and Ciphers

by Published on: 9th June 2003

Cryptography paved the way for the development of arguably humanity's greatest achievements yet, Computers, the Internet and the digital world. This article presents Al-Kindi as the originator of the modern method of decipher.

Aspects of Mineralogy and Gemology in Muslim Civilisation

by Published on: 7th June 2003

Many Muslim scholars dealt with minerals and gems and wrote monographs on the subject. The golden age of their writings was the 4th-5th century after Hijra (AH) (10th-11th century CE). They used almost all the…

The University of Sankore, Timbuktu

by Published on: 7th June 2003

Sankore's achievement in higher education is important to Islamic Civilisation even though it is less known in comparison to Al-Azhar, Al-Qayrawan, Al-Qarawiyyin and Qurtuba Universities.

The Cannon of Mehmed II

by Published on: 4th June 2003

In the Fort Nelson Museum a huge bronze cannon sits in the court yard. Cast in two peices in 1464 by the order of the Sultan Mehmed II, no such split guns existed in Europe…

Muslim Contribution to Cosmetics

by Published on: 20th May 2003

Al-Zahrawi's medical encyclopaedia, used in Europe's Universities from the 12th-17th century, discusses under-arm deodorants, hair removing sticks, hand lotions, hair dyes, hair care, suntan lotions, remedies for bad breath, nasal sprays and much more.

The Seljuk Mausoleum

by Published on: 15th April 2003

Under the Seljuk patronage the mausoleum saw considerable development. This type of building evolved from early funerary monuments which were first erected to honour the Umayyad rulers in the 8th century.

The Seljuk Caravanserai (the Khan)

by Published on: 14th April 2003

The Seljuk's developed the caravanserais or khans (Anatolia) or Ribat. These were charitable foundations providing travellers with three days of free shelter, food and entertainment (in some cases) as part of the charitable work emphasised…

The Seljuk Madrassa

by Published on: 14th April 2003

Seljuk's made developments in the form, function and character of the mosque and expanded the use of Madrassa which, according to Van Berchem, first appeared in Kurassan early 10th century as an adaptation of the…

The Seljuk Minarets

by Published on: 14th April 2003

The Seljuk mosques took a form of minaret which was substantially different from that of North Africa. The adoption of the cylindrical form, instead of the usual square, with tapered shafts often broken by balconies…

The Seljuk Kiosk Mosque and General Plan

by Published on: 14th April 2003

Another Seljuk innovation in the plan of the mosque appeared in what Andre Godard called the Mosque Kiosque. This usually small edifice is characterised by its unusual plan which consists of a domed hall, standing…

The Seljuk Iwan

by Published on: 13th April 2003

According to Scerrato (1980) the Iwans plans of Seljuk Mosques were mainly developed for multi-functions including, prayer, teaching, lodging of teachers and students, libraries and charitable activities like stopping stations on the road of pilgrims.

Architecture Under Seljuk Patronage (1038-1327)

by Published on: 13th April 2003

The Seljuks were the first Turkish dynasty to rule the Muslim World reviving the dying Caliphate. Their arrival marked the introduction of the four Iwan mosque concept, the Caravanserais (Khans) and baroque art that spread…

Recommended Reading for Understanding the Impact of Muslim Science on the West

by Published on: 10th April 2003

Amongst the English writing authors who can enlighten the reader further on the Islamic impact are Eugene Myers, Metletzki, Turner and Menocal. Here's a list of selected books for further reading on the Impact of…

Cordoba, European Jewel of the Middle Ages

by Published on: 4th April 2003

Cordoba used to be the jewel of Europe dazzling visitors from the North. With over 70 public libraries during the time of Caliph Hakam II, and 900 public baths, Scholars and booksellers flocked there and…

Misconceptions about Islamic and Greek Science

by Published on: 19th March 2003

According to some, heritage was lost during the Dark Ages (5th-15th AD) and then recovered during the Renaissance. The real evidence from history shows that where the Greeks had left off