Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Abdullah Al-Idrisi, also known as AsShareef Al-Idrisi, was one of the greatest geographers and cartographers in the 12th century CE. Al-Idrisi was born in Ceuta in Morocco — occupied by Spain since 1415 CE — in 493 AH (1100 CE).
Al-Idrisi was commissioned by Roger II to construct a map of the known world. Using 400,000 Drachmas worth of silver, he then created multiple spheres, mounting and amalgamating one on the other, then sculpting and engraving it into a three-dimensional map of the world.
Over a period of 15 years, Al-Idrisi would incorporate knowledge of Africa, the Indian Ocean, and the Far East gathered by Islamic Merchants and explorers along with Islamic records and maps, and interviews of Norman sailors and voyagers conducted both by him and by the King.
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