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Prophylactic Medicine

by Mahmoud Misry Published on: 13th March 2020

Arab physicians preferred the preservation of health to its restoration, arguing that to preserve something present is nobler than to seek something absent. A story reported in a thirteenth-century source illustrates that preserving health is…

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The Mis-Interpreted Age of Civilisation

by News Desk Published on: 25th February 2020

Two lectures at the Manchester Health Academy, 17th January 2020

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Women’s Contribution to Classical Islamic Civilisation: Science, Medicine and Politics

by Salim Al-Hassani Published on: 11th February 2020

While there are numerous works on the role of Muslim women in jurisprudence (fiqh) and literature, there are also studies on Muslim women in education and in medicine - although on a much smaller scale…

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Anatomy

by Nahyan Fancy Published on: 15th January 2020

The art of medicine is long and it is necessary for its exponent, before he exercises it, to be trained in the science of anatomy/dissection (ʿilm al-tashrīḥ), as Galen has described it, so that he…

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1001 Cures Image Gallery

by Media Desk Published on: 17th December 2019

1001 Cures tells the fascinating story of how generations of physicians from different countries and creeds created a medical tradition admired by friend and foe. It influences the fates and fortunes of countless human beings,…

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Humoral Pathology

by Pauline Koetschet Published on: 13th November 2019

In Islamic medicine, the most pervasive explanatory theory was that of humoral pathology. In this theory, the transformation of food into bodily substance results in four humours (ḫilṭ,ʾaḫlāṭ) : blood (dam), phlegm (balġam), yellow bile…

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Science In India During The Muslim Rule

by Zakaria Virk Published on: 29th October 2019

The scientific cooperation between India and the Arabs dates back to the time of Abbasid Caliphate of Baghdad when a number of books on astronomy, mathematics, and medicine were translated from Sanskrit into Arabic. From…

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theguardian.com: Irish translation of Ibn Sīna discovered!

by News Desk Published on: 16th September 2019

A 15th-century vellum manuscript of the writing of the revered Persian physician Ibn Sīna, or Avicenna, has been found being used to bind a later book, revealing for the first time that his seminal Canon…

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1001 Cures – Introduction

by Peter E. Pormann Published on: 12th October 2018

Islamic civilisation developed a system of healthcare that, at its apogée, was envied by both friend and foe. Therefore, medicine evolved into a highly complex and variegated discipline from the 7th to the 21st century…

Constantine the African and the Qayrawani doctors: Contribution of the ‘Phoenicians’ of North Africa to Latin Medicine in the Middle Ages and Renaissance

by Charles Burnett Published on: 10th September 2018

When a sixteenth-century medical writer referred to Phoenicians, alongside Arabs, as exceptionally important medical sources, he was probably referring to the Muslim and Jewish doctors of Qayrawan, who were writing in Arabic in the tenth…

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1001 Cures Book launch at The Royal Society in London during the British Science Week

by News Desk Published on: 30th April 2018

To celebrate the launch of 1001 Cures; Contributions in Medicine & Healthcare from Muslim Civilisation, Bettany Hughes, Prof. Peter Frankopan, Dr. Aarathi Prasadand Prof. Peter E. Pormann participated in a panel discussion were they discussed…

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From Baghdad to Barcelona: The Anxiety of Influence in the Transmission of the Greek and Arabic Sciences

by Glen M. Cooper Published on: 2nd April 2018

Drawing on Harold Bloom’s model of poetic influence and supersession in his famous book, “The Anxiety of Influence,” and considering several historical cases of cross-cultural reception of the natural sciences from the Middle Ages that…

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1001 Cures: Contributions in Medicine and Healthcare from Muslim Civilisation

by News Desk Published on: 22nd March 2018

1001 Cures: Contributions in Medicine and Healthcare from Muslim Civilisation tells the fascinating story of how generations of physicians from different countries and creeds created a medical tradition admired by friend and foe...

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Treasure Trove of Benefits and Variety at the Table: A Fourteenth-Century Egyptian Cookbook

by Khaleel Shaikh Published on: 20th March 2018

The Kanz al-fawāʾid fī tanwīʿ al-mawāʾid is a 14th century Egyptian cookbook that consists of 830 recipes for a variety of different dishes and beverages...

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FSTC Launch of 1001 Cures Book

by The Editorial Team Published on: 9th March 2018

To mark the launch of 1001 Cures: Contributions in Medicine & Healthcare From Muslim Civilisation new multi-author book with Foreword by Sir Magdi Yacoub, the Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation (FSTC) in partnership with…

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Early Women of Science, Technology, Medicine and Management

by Salim Al-Hassani Published on: 7th March 2018

This article is a paper submitted to and presented at WISE 2018: World Muslim Women's Summit & Exhibition, organised by TASAM, Istanbul, Turkey, from 28th Feb - 4th March 2018.

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Ibn al-Nafis, the Pulmonary Circulation, and The Islamic Golden Age

by William R. Shea Published on: 1st November 2017

Ibn al-Nafis (1213-1288) was an Arab physician who made several important contributions to the early knowledge of the pulmonary circulation. He was the first person to challenge the long-held contention of the Galen School that…

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The West Owes a Debt to Islam: Interview with Prof Glen Cooper

by The Editorial Team Published on: 31st October 2017

Professor Glen Cooper discusses the Golden Age of Muslim Civilisation. During the European Dark Ages, when science, art and literature seemed to flounder for centuries, there actually was a lot of discover in places like…

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Avicenna’s Medical Thinking in Colonial Mexico

by Rolando Neri-Vela Published on: 27th August 2017

New Spain was a viceroyalty of Spain between 1521 and 1821. In these three centuries, the practice and the teaching of medicine had a great influence from Arabian medicine, and in this way, the thinking…

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Albucasis: A Landmark for Arabic and European Surgery

by Maria Do Sameiro Barroso Published on: 9th February 2017

This article presents Abu'l-Qasim Khalaf ibn 'Abbas al-Zaharawi, Arabic أبو القاسم خلف بن عباس الزهراوي, Latin Albucasis (936-1013 A.D.), one on the most outstanding Arabic physicians and the most remarkable Arabic surgeon. His work had…

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A Culture Devoted to Healing

by Glen M. Cooper Published on: 4th January 2017

Muslim Contributions to the Medical Sciences A Tribute to Dr Rabie E. Abdel-Halim

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Historiography of Science and Medicine: Balancing Scholarship with Public Engagement

by William R. Shea Published on: 9th December 2016

In recent years, here at Fez and all over the world, distinguished scholars have rediscovered the immense importance of Islamic medicine which preserved, systematized and developed the medical knowledge of classical Antiquity. From the seventh…

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Medical Books on Healthy Living from Muslim Civilisation

by Cem Nizamoglu Published on: 13th April 2016

If you think medical advice on healthy living - good nutrients, exercise and stress free existence is a modern medical practice, you might want to think again and join us to discover 5 medical books…

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Ophthalmologists of the Medieval Islamic World

by M. Zafer Wafai Published on: 12th April 2016

The main purpose of this monograph is to review some of the contributions made by ophthalmologists from Muslim civilisation between the 9th century CE (early 3rd century AH) and the late 14th century CE (middle…

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Obesity: 1000 years ago

by Rabie Abdel-Halim Published on: 29th March 2016

I enjoyed Richard Barnett's Historical Keywords piece on obesity (May 28, p 1843).[1] More clarification is needed regarding his statement that “obesity first appears in a medical context in Thomas Venner's Via Recta (1620)”.

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World Health Day 7th April: Muslim Heritage in Medicine

by Cem Nizamoglu Published on: 17th April 2015

World Health Day is celebrated on 7th April each year to mark the anniversary of the founding of WHO (World Health Organisation) in 1948. During Muslim civilisation, various scholars made interesting observations alongside innovative discoveries…

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Ibn Sina’s The Canon of Medicine

by Cem Nizamoglu Published on: 15th April 2015

The Sheikh al-Ra'is Sharaf al-Mulk Abu ‘Ali al-Husayn b. ‘Abd Allah b. al-Hasan b. ‘Ali Ibn Sina, in Latin he is know as Avicenna and his most famous works are those on philosophy and medicine.…

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Medicine and Health in Medieval Arabic Poetry: A Historical Review

by Rabie Abdel-Halim Published on: 16th July 2014

This review of medieval Arabic medical poetry is based on our study of the two major classical biographical encyclopedias: “Uyoon Al Anbaa Fi Tabaqaat Al Atibbaa” ("Essential Information on the Classes of Physicians"), authored by…

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Medicine and Health in Medieval Arabic Poetry: An Historical Review

by Rabie Abdel-Halim Published on: 16th July 2014

This review of medieval Arabic medical poetry is based on our study of the two major classical biographical encyclopedias: “Uyoon Al Anbaa Fi Tabaqaat Al Atibbaa” ("Essential Information on the Classes of Physicians"), authored by…

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The role of Ibn Sina (Avicenna)’s Medical Poem in the transmission of medical knowledge to medieval Europe

by Rabie Abdel-Halim Published on: 14th July 2014

Were you aware that in the Medieval Islamic world, celebrated scientists such as Ibn Sina used to relay their teachings through poetry? Poems structure and rhythm aided the process of transmitting and memorising scientific and…

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The Millennium Anniversary Of Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi

by Rabie Abdel-Halim Published on: 28th March 2014

In 2013, the world community of scholars celebrated a millennium after the death in 1013 of the renowned Andalusian physician- surgeon Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis).

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Illuminating the Dark Ages: The Role and Contribution of Muslim Civilisation

by The Editorial Team Published on: 27th March 2013

National Conference for Islam and Medicine (NCIM): Abstract talk at King's College, London, presented in March 2013 by Professor Mohamed El-Gomati OBE, Chairman of the Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation (FSTC)

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Introducing Medical Humanities in the Medical Curriculum in Saudi Arabia: A Pedagogical Experiment

by Rabie Abdel-Halim Published on: 21st February 2013

In a marked shift from the positivist philosophy that influenced medical education for more than a century, world medical educators realize now the significance of the spiritual element of human nature. Consensus is currently building…

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Professor Rabie E. Abdel-Halim’s Lectures

by The Editorial Team Published on: 13th December 2012

In 2012, FSTC members contributed to several activities by publishing articles and giving lectures all around the world. Professor Rabie E Abdel-Halim, member of Muslim Heritage Awareness Group (MHAG) and of FSTC Research Team, attended…

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Ibn Zuhr and the Progress of Surgery

by Rabie Abdel-Halim Published on: 5th December 2012

This study of the original Arabic edition of the book Al-Taysir fi ‘l-Mudawat wa’l-Tadbir (Book of Simplification Concerning Therapeutics and Diet) written by the Muslim physician Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar, 1093-1162 CE) aims at evaluating his…

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Experimental Medicine 1000 Years Ago

by Rabie Abdel-Halim Published on: 23rd November 2012

Little is known about the state of experimentation in the field of medicine during the Medieval Islamic era. With few exceptions, most of the contemporary sources on history of medicine propagate the idea that the…

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Manuscript Review: The Book on the Soul, by Ibn Bajjah

by N.A. Baloch Published on: 7th June 2012

Besides philosophy and mathematics, Ibn Bajjah was well-versed in botany, astronomy, logic, grammar, literature and music.

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Lectures on Islamic Medicine at RCP, London

by The Editorial Team Published on: 28th May 2012

Lectures on Islamic Medicine at the Royal College of Physicians (RCP) at the Launch of the "The Miror of Health" Exhibition, 13th May 2013, London

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Rhazes in the Renaissance of Andreas Vesalius

by Abdul Haq Compier Published on: 6th March 2012

Andreas Vesalius' (1514–64) first publication was a Paraphrasis of the ninth book of the Liber ad Almansorem, written by the Muslim physician and scholar Al-Razi (Rhazes, 854–925). The role of Rhazes in Vesalius' oeuvre has…

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Four Medieval Hospitals in Syria

by Nasim Hasan Naqvi Published on: 23rd January 2012

The creation of hospitals as institutions for the care of sick people was developed during the early Islamic era. Over time, hospitals were found in all Islamic towns. This article describes four of these medieval…

A Medical Classic: Al-Razi’s Treatise on Smallpox and Measles

by Nasim Hasan Naqvi Published on: 3rd January 2012

Kitab fi Al Jadari wa Al Hasaba authored by the Muslim physician Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi (d. ca. 925) is one of the books that remained popular and in great demand for over…

‘Ali b. Sahl Rabban al-Tabari Author of Firdaws al-hikma (Paradise of Wisdom)

by Salim Ayduz Published on: 2nd January 2012

The physician, scientist and philosopher, ‘Ali b. Sahl Rabban al-Tabari was the son of Sahl Sahl Rabban al-Tabari. ‘Ali was born into an educated and intellectual Christian family. He wrote many books on philosophy, medicine…

Caesarean Section in Early Islamic Literature

by Nasim Hasan Naqvi Published on: 20th December 2011

Some medical historians of the last century mistakenly recorded that Caesarean section was strictly forbidden amongst Muslims. This opinion has been repeatedly quoted without examining its authenticity or validity. Research into available ancient Arabic sources…

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Contributions of Ibn al-Nafis to the Progress of Medicine and Urology

by Rabie Abdel-Halim Published on: 12th June 2011

This primary-source study of four medical works of the 13th century Muslim scholar Ibn al-Nafis confirmed that his Kitab al-Mûjaz fi al-Tibb was authored as an independent book. It was meant as a handbook for…

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Manuscript Review: The Book of Observations and Admonitions, by Ibn Sina

by N.A. Baloch Published on: 5th June 2011

[Ibn Sina] flourished as a great physician and philosopher, but was also a distinguished scientist, mathematician, logician, and poet at the same time...

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Insights into Neurologic Localization by Al-Razi (Rhazes), a Medieval Islamic Physician

by Nizar Souayah Published on: 20th January 2011

Al-Razi (Rhazes) (born in 864 CE) wrote over 200 scientific treatises, many of which had a major impact on European medicine. His best known manuscript is Liber Continens, a medical encyclopedia in which he described…

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Evolution of Attitudes Towards Human Experimentation in Ottoman Turkish Medicine

by Nil Sari Published on: 3rd September 2010

Attitudes and expectations towards medical knowledge and medical practice standards influence and determine the position of health practitioners and the development of medicine. While describing the basic characteristics of the Ottoman Turkish medicine and medical…

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Medicine in the Middle Ages: New Insights and a Call for Further Research

by Rabie Abdel-Halim Published on: 15th July 2010

[Proceedings of the conference 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World organised by FSTC, London, 25-26 May 2010]. Aiming at restoring historical continuity to the currently available knowledge on medicine in the Middle Ages, the…

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Lady Montagu and the Introduction of Smallpox Inoculation to England

by Salah Zaimeche Published on: 16th February 2010

The English aristocrat and writer Lady Mary Wortley Montagu (1689-1762) is today remembered particularly for her letters from Turkey, an early example of a secular work by a Western woman about the Muslim Orient. When…

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Anaesthesia 1000 Years Ago (I)

by Rabie Abdel-Halim Published on: 5th June 2009

The following research article in a particular field of the history of medicine, written by two eminent experts, Drs Adnan A. Al-Mazrooa and Rabie E. Abdel-Halim, is composed of two parts. This first part surveys…

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Anaesthesia 1000 Years Ago (II)

by Rabie Abdel-Halim Published on: 5th June 2009

The following research article in a particular field of the history of medicine, written by two eminent experts, Drs Adnan A. Al-Mazrooa and Rabie E. Abdel-Halim, is composed of two parts. This first part surveys…

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Pericardial Pathology 900 Years Ago: A Study and Translations from an Arabic Medical Textbook

by Salah R. Elfaqih Published on: 6th May 2009

This is a study and translation of the section on pericarditis in Kitab al-taysir fi al-mudawat wa-'l-tadbir (Book of Simplification Concerning Therapeutics and Diet) written by the Muslim physician Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar) who lived and…

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Turkish Medical History of the Seljuk Era

by Ali Haydar Bayat Published on: 3rd April 2009

The Great Seljuk state was part of the medieval Islamic civilization. Most of its scientific institutions and educational traditions were inherited from previous and contemporary Muslim and Turkish states. In this well documented article, the…

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The Medical Organization at the Ottoman Court

by Nil Sari Published on: 26th March 2009

The Ottoman imperial Palace was quite different from Western palaces and courts, for it was not only the residence of the Ottoman Sultans and their royal household, but also served to various other functions as…

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Interview with Professor Nil Sari

by Kaleem Hussain Published on: 1st March 2009

Professor Nil Sari Akdeniz, the head of the History of Medicine and Ethics Department of Istanbul University at the Cerrahpasha Medical School since 1983, is a world famous historian of Islamic medicine in general and…

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Women Dealing with Health during the Ottoman Reign

by Nil Sari Published on: 28th February 2009

In the history of Islamic civilization, many hospitals were founded by women, either as wives, daughters or mothers of sultans. All health personnel were male at these hospitals. In the Ottoman period, the female patients…

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The Paracelsian Influence on Ottoman Medicine

by Nil Sari Published on: 25th February 2009

Galen's concept of medicine which dominated the medical world almost nearly for fifteen centuries began to loose its importance in the 16th century. At that time, Paracelsus (1493-1541) introduced a new medical understanding based on…

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Circumcision Ceremonies at the Ottoman Palace

by Nil Sari Published on: 12th February 2009

Circumcision is widely practiced in all Islamic countries. Festivities pertaining to circumcision vary according to the regions and civilizations. In this report, circumcision festivities at the Ottoman Palace and the socioeconomic importance of the tradition…

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Medical Sciences in the Islamic Civilization

by The Editorial Team Published on: 9th February 2009

The medical sciences and related fields have enjoyed great peaks in achievement through Muslim scholarship, which raised both standards of practice and the status of the physician. This article delves into the vast history of…

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The Medical History Museum of Istanbul University: Project, Challenges and Academic Questions

by Nil Sari Published on: 7th February 2009

This article is about the foundation of the Medical History Museum founded recently in Istanbul as part of the Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical School. The aim of this museum, founded by Professor Nil Sari in…

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The Simurgh: A Symbol of Holistic Medicine in the Middle Eastern Culture in History

by Nil Sari Published on: 7th February 2009

This article discusses the view that the simurgh, a mythological bird with supernatural characteristics, was also a symbol of miraculous life and treatment, as related in stories and miniature pictures. Such as view is described…

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The Ethical Theory of Education of Ahmad Miskawayh

by Nadia Jamal al-Din Published on: 31st January 2009

Abu `Ali Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Ya'qub Miskawayh (932-1030) is a brilliant intellectual and philosopher of 10th-century Buwayhid Baghdad. His effect on Islamic philosophy is mainly concerned with ethical issues. His book Tadhib al-akhlaq (Ethical…

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Food as Medicine in Muslim Civilization

by Nil Sari Published on: 9th January 2009

The subject of food and diet was very essential in the Islamic Cuisine. Both of them were very important in the most of the medical manuscripts in the Ottoman world. Balanced diet was also important…

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Islam’s Forgotten Contributions to Medical Science

by Ingrid Hehmeyer Published on: 9th January 2009

The transmission of medical knowledge can be traced to some of the earliest writings in human history. Yet a particularly fruitful period for advancement in medical science emerged with the rise of Islam. For the…

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Highly Valued Virtues of Classical Ottoman Turkish Medical Ethics: A View From Past to Future

by Nil Sari Published on: 8th January 2009

Virtues such as modesty, contentedness, fidelity and hopefulness expected from a physician must be perceived as general criteria of ethical standards, since principles are also the criteria for the preference of values, in a sense.…

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Certain Aspects of Medical Instruction in Medieval Islam and its Influences on Europe

by Aydin Sayili Published on: 24th October 2008

In this article, Professor Aydin Syili analyses the medical teaching in the different phases of Islamic civilisation, especially in the madrasa system. The network of schools covered the Islamic world from the 11th century, while…

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Medieval Islamic Medicine by Peter E. Pormann and Emilie Savage-Smith

by Emilie Savage-Smith Published on: 20th August 2008

  Figure 1. The cover pages of the “Medieval Islamic Medicine” book. Medieval Islamic Medicine by Peter E. Formann and Emilie Savage-Smith is a new book on the Islamic medical tradition, published by Edinburgh University…

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Health in the Ottoman Empire: A Collective Achievement in the History of Ottoman Medicine

by Mehmet Ipsirli Published on: 4th January 2008

This is a review of Health in the Ottomans (Osmanlilarda Saglik), a two-volume book concerning Ottoman medical history. The book is a brilliant achievement aiming at the reconstruction of the main aspects of the the…

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Famous Figures of the Modern Turkish Medical School

by FSTC Published on: 23rd October 2007

To throw light on famous figures of the Turkish modern medical school, this article introduces a set of nine posters on the contribution of eight late Ottoman and early Turkish physicians (whose careers spanned from…

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Hindiba: A Drug for Cancer Treatment in Muslim Heritage

by Nil Sari Published on: 6th June 2007

Hindiba is a plant of Middle Eastern lands. Its therapeutic value as a drug for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. The following detailed study by Professor Nil Sari investigates the historical and medical…

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Al-Kindi

by The Editorial Team Published on: 6th May 2007

Ya'qub b. Ishaq al-Kindi was an early Arab scholar of the 9th century, one of the first great scientists that set the stage for the brilliant Islamic tradition of learning. His works in philosophy, cosmology,…

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Scientific Transfer and Scholarship in Medieval Arabic Pharmacology

by Oliver Kahl Published on: 6th May 2007

Arabic pharmacology, a branch of scientific literature dealing with the preparation and application of compound drugs as formulated in the Arabic language, is an interdisciplinary subject and an intercultural discipline. This article describes its Greek,…

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Al-Razi on Smallpox and Measles

by Abdul Nasser Kaadan Published on: 8th April 2007

This article by Dr. Abdulnasser Kaadan shows that as early as the 9th century, the well known Muslim physician al-Razi described, in his book Kitab al-Jadari wa 'l-Hasba (The Book on Smallpox and Measles), the…

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Selected Gleanings from the History of Islamic Medicine

by Sharif Kaf al-Ghazal Published on: 3rd April 2007

The medical Islamic tradition is one of the richest and the most lasting components of the general history of medicine. Some of its main aspects are dealt with in a series of five articles by…

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Ear, Nose and Throat Medical Practice in Muslim Heritage

by Mostafa Shehata Published on: 23rd March 2007

Muslim medicine is characterised by a high level of experience and critical clinical observation setting aside mythologies and legends. The ear, nose and throat exemplify the participation of Muslim medicine and the contribution of the…

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Suleymaniye Medical Madrasa

by Salim Ayduz Published on: 3rd February 2007

This article discusses the emergence and origins of institutional Ottoman medical practice and learning, and provides an insight into the trade of expertise between the Ottoman provinces and further a field. It focuses on the…

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Ethical Aspects of Ottoman Surgical Practice

by Nil Sari Published on: 27th December 2006

Information about the requirements and expectations of medical ethics regarding surgery during the Ottoman period is found in medical manuscripts; while the moral principles based on Islamic Canon Law (Shari'ah) and the oral tradition (the…

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The Modern Hospital in Medieval Islam

by Aydin Sayili Published on: 13th December 2006

The hospital was one of the most developed institutions of medieval Islam and one of the high-water marks of the Muslim civilisation. The hospitals of medieval Islam were hospitals in the modern sense of the…

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Lady Mary Wortley Montagu and the Introduction of Smallpox Vaccination to England

by Salim Ayduz Published on: 24th March 2006

This short article describes Lady Montagu's efforts in introducing a technique of vaccinating against smallpox; a technique that she learnt from Ottoman Turkey and transported, against some resistance, to the shores of Britain. It was…

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Bone Fractures in Ibn Sina’s Medicine

by Abdul Nasser Kaadan Published on: 29th September 2005

Ibn Sina, or Avicenna as he referred to in the West, was a well-known philosopher and physician from Islamic civilisation. Here we look at his accomplishments and contributions towards knowledge of bone fractures.

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The Earliest Paediatric Surgical Atlas: Cerrahiye-i Ilhaniye

by S. N. Cenk Büyükünal Published on: 7th September 2005

The author of one of the earliest surgical books was Serafeddin Sabuncuoglu. In 1465, he wrote a surgical book in Turkish which contained not only pictures or miniatures of paediatric surgical procedures, but there were…

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Educating Ottoman Physicians

by Nil Sari Published on: 2nd September 2005

Medical doctors in the time of the Ottomans had various routes into professional life depending on their specialty. Some were trained on the model of master and apprentice, others studied courses at madrasas and at…

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The Scholars of Seville – Medicine

by Salah Zaimeche Published on: 15th August 2005

Seville was also a centre Medical expertise in Islamic civilisation. Continuing the Muslim scientific tradition of critical works that advance knowledge in Medicine, many books were written here by leaders of the field.

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The Classification of Mental Diseases in the Ottoman Medical Manuscripts

by Nil Sari Published on: 12th July 2005

The Ottomans provided great contributions towards the fields of psychiatry and neurology. Their thoughts and writings delve into many depths and are worthy of recognition by those in the medical sphere.

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Beauty, Hair and Body Care in the Canon of Ibn Sina

by Nil Sari Published on: 17th June 2005

The seventh and last art mentioned in the fourth book of the Canon of Medicine by Ibn Sina is assigned to the theme of "zina", that is beauty and physical appearance. It consists of four…

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Al-Razi the Medical Scholar

by Salah Zaimeche Published on: 11th May 2005

Al-Razi was "a writer of rare and incredible productiveness as well as the greatest clinician of Islam." The great works of Al-Razi are of immense significance in the study of medicine.

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Central Asian Contributions to the earlier phases of hospital building – Activity in Islam

by Aydin Sayili Published on: 3rd May 2005

Modern hospials finds its origin in Islamic civilisation replacing institutions known for magic and religion with a science based tradition which took knowledge from various places including the Greeks, Egytptains, Indians and others.

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Damascus

by Salah Zaimeche Published on: 12th April 2005

Hospitals, grand public buildings and numerous public endowment based charities characterised the generosity of Damascus. These institutions inspired the innovations and new learning which developed there.

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The Scholars of Aleppo: Al Farabi, Al-Qifti and al-Adim

by Salah Zaimeche Published on: 23rd March 2005

The works of three prominent scholars are highlighted: Al- Farabi who was keenly interested in the relation between logic and language, Al-Qifti's vast scholarship, ranging from lexicography to medicine and finally al-Adim's historical works are…

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The Scholars of Aleppo: Al Mahassin, Al Urdi, Al-Lubudi, Al-Halabi

by Salah Zaimeche Published on: 22nd March 2005

The article describes the works of the following scholars: Al Mahassin: an eminent writer in the field of eye surgery, Al Urdi: the first astronomer associated with Maragha, Al-Lubudi: a physician, mathematician, astronomer and philosopher…

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The Aghlabids of Tunisia

by Salah Zaimeche Published on: 23rd September 2004

The Aghlabids ruled Tunisia and an area that included Sicily and temporarily Sardinia and regions of southern Italy. Here the role their capital city Qayrawan is highlighted for its important legacy.

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Turkish Contributions to Scientific Work in Islam

by Aydin Sayili Published on: 10th September 2004

Turks have played an active part in the pursuit of science and learning in the Islamic World throughout its history. This activity is outlind here from the very formative stages of the islamic civilization down…

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Science and Institutions within Ottoman Administration

by Salim Ayduz Published on: 19th April 2004

The Ottomans conserved the fundamental features of Islamic civilisation in their scientific institutions as they also did in social and cultural areas. Three of the six Ottoman state scientific institutions dealt with here are in…

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Muslim Contribution to Cosmetics

by The Editorial Team Published on: 20th May 2003

Al-Zahrawi's medical encyclopaedia, used in Europe's Universities from the 12th-17th century, discusses under-arm deodorants, hair removing sticks, hand lotions, hair dyes, hair care, suntan lotions, remedies for bad breath, nasal sprays and much more.

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The Impact of Translations of Muslim Sciences on the West

by Salah Zaimeche Published on: 4th March 2003

Scholars from all Christian lands rushed to translate Muslim science, and thus start the scientific awakening of Europe. Many of course were Spaniards: John of Seville, Hugh of Santalla, and those working under the patronage…

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The Beginning of the Islamic Hospitals

by FSTC Published on: 10th January 2003

Possibly the earliest hospital in Islam was a mobile dispensary following the Muslim armies, dating from the time of Prophet Mohammed (PBUH). By the 12th century, the hospital had become a very advanced institution.

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Urinary Stone Disease in Arabian Medicine

by A M Dajani Published on: 31st August 2002

Urinary stone disease (urolithiasis) was discussed in great detail in Arabian Medicine. Explanations given by Ibn Qurrah, Al Razi, Ibn Sina and Al Zahrawi about the formation and growth of urinary stones do not basically…

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Abu al-Qasim Al-Zahrawi the Great Surgeon

by Ibrahim Shaikh Published on: 22nd December 2001

Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi (936-1013 CE), also known in the West as Albucasis, was an Andalusian physician. He is considered as the greatest surgeon in the Islamic medical tradition. His comprehensive medical texts,…

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Ibn Sina and Sports

by The Editorial Team Published on: 19th February 1700

Ibn Sina advices people to partake in diets, bathing and intensive sports...