Tag: Theology

The Birth of Islam and Its Influence

by Rabie Abdel-Halim Published on: 26th November 2021

The verification of knowledge and its classification into various disciplines according to some well-defined criteria, together with the use of logical analysis and analogical reasoning, as in the Principles of Jurisprudence science, denote the development…

Pro-Environmental Practices in Muslim Civilization

by Marwan Haddad Published on: 6th November 2021

This paper is an overview of pro-environmental practices, behavior, and considerations as influenced by Islam. For a simpler presentation and discussion, pro-environmental practices in this paper are divided into technical and non-technical/social. Technical practices include…

Science in the Service of Religion: The Case of Islam

by David A King Published on: 28th October 2021

In Islam, as in no other religion in human history, the performance of various aspects of religious ritual has been assisted by scientific procedures. The organization of the lunar calendar, the regulation of the astronomically…

Water Supply, Sanitation, Hygienic Considerations and Practices in Muslim Civilizations

by Marwan Haddad Published on: 9th April 2021

Water supply and sanitation along with hygienic considerations and practices in the Muslim civilisations over centuries is important to document and report because of its relation to Muslims’ economic, cultural and social aspects of life. Due…

The Role of Religion in the Development of Mathematical Sciences in Medieval Islamic Civilization

by Nuh Aydin Published on: 18th January 2021

The rise of Islamic Civilization was one of the major events in world history. An important aspect of the medieval Islamic Civilization was the development of a remarkable scientific tradition in a relatively short period…

Peregrination and Ceremonial in the Almohad Mosque of Tinmal

by Susana Calvo Capilla Published on: 1st August 2020

The Tinmal mosque was built by the first Almohad caliph, ʿAbd al-Muʾmin, around 1148 next to the tomb of the mahdī Ibn Tūmart, the founder of the Almohad creed (d. 1130). The official pilgrimages (ziyāra)…


The Principles of Animal Advocacy in Islam: Four Integrated Ecognitions

by Nadeem Haque Published on: 4th June 2020

The Qurān—the scripture of the Muslims, which purports to be from the Creator of the Universe—presents a rational, holistic, and integrated view of life, where the human being is considered an integral, coexistential part of…


Arabic Medicinal Manuscripts of Pre-Colonial Northern Nigeria: A Descriptive List

by Mukhtar Umar Bunza Published on: 1st January 2018

West African Muslim scholars produced a number of Arabic works relating to medicine, philosophy, economic studies, political thought, geography, architecture, town planning and public administration...


Dental Care in Islamic Medical Science: Muhammad al-Aqkirmani (d. 1760) and his Risalah fi hukm al-Siwak

by Mykhaylo Yakubovych Published on: 1st January 2018

Most of the oldest Muslim treatises on Siwak remain in a manuscript form. However, similar works on this issue have also appeared in later periods...


Muslims Contribution to the Study and Development of Medical Sciences in 19th Century Nigeria: A Preliminary Account

by Mukhtar Umar Bunza Published on: 23rd May 2017

This paper presented at the 7th International Congress of the International Society of the History of Islamic Medicine, and 4th Fez Congress on History of Medicine, jointly organized by the University of Muhamed Ben Abdallah,…


Manuscript Review: The Detailed Treatise on Matters Concerning Learners and Guidelines for Teachers and Learners, by Al-Qabisi

by N.A. Baloch Published on: 21st May 2014

Al-Qabisi was the inventor of the concept and practice of 'Co-operative Teaching by the Teachers' which has been realised only in some of the modern educational systems in the 20th century.


Manuscript Review: The Book on the Soul, by Ibn Bajjah

by N.A. Baloch Published on: 7th June 2012

Besides philosophy and mathematics, Ibn Bajjah was well-versed in botany, astronomy, logic, grammar, literature and music.

The Sound Rules in Reading the Quran (Tajwid) in Qutb Al-Din al-Shirazi’s Music Notation

The Sound Rules in Reading the Quran (Tajwid) in Qutb Al-Din al-Shirazi’s Music Notation

by Fazli Arslan Published on: 16th August 2011

In the Islamic world, starting from Al-Kindī (d. 874), Al-Fārābī (d. 950), Ibn Sīnā (d. 1034), and Safī al-Dīn al-Urmawī (d. 1294) used the abjad notation to write music. Of these writers, the most systematic…


Did Medieval Islamic Theology Subvert Science?

by Arun Bala Published on: 14th July 2011

It is often supposed in Islamic studies that Al-Ghazali demolished the basis for science in the Muslim world by his so-called orthodox attack against rational thinking which nurtured a negative climate that resulted in the…


Natural Philosophy in the Islamic World

by Peter Adamson Published on: 24th June 2011

In the following short report, we present a summary of the lecture presented by Professor Peter Adamson in the Muslim Heritage Awareness Group (MHAG) meeting organized by FSTC in London on 30 March 2011. In…


Ottoman Cash Waqfs Revisited: The Case of Bursa (1555- 1823)

by Murat Cizakca Published on: 2nd May 2010

Cash endowments contributed to Ottoman society, without any cost to the State, by organizing and financing expenditures on education, health, welfare and a host of other activities. The aim of this article is to discover…


Science under Islam: A Reflection on Past Brilliancy and Future Revival

by Salim Ayduz Published on: 17th January 2008

This is a review of a book by Sayyed Misbah Deen, Emeritus Professor of Computer Science (Keele University), describing the adventure of science and technology in Islam from four standpoints: the rise of science and…


Tolerance or Compatibility? The Search for a Qur’anic Paradigm of Science

by Ahmad Dallal Published on: 11th July 2007

In this illuminating analysis, Prof. Ahmad Dallal produces an authoritative study of some episodes of the scientific exegis of the Holy text of Islam, the Qur'an, focusing on the exegesis (tafsir) of Fakhr


Izz Al-Din ibn Abd Al-Salam

by Adil Salahi Published on: 2nd March 2005

A courageous scholar of Islamic law Izz al-Din wrote several important books. He played an key role in giving firm advice to divided Muslim rulers during a time when the Islamic world was under attack…


Imam Ahmad ibn Taimiyah

by Adil Salahi Published on: 27th January 2005

Ibn Taimiyah was a man to whom learning about Islam was in no way a mere academic exercise. It brought a thorough understanding of God's faith and a determined attempt to make it supreme in…

Imam Ali ibn Hazm

by Adil Salahi Published on: 21st January 2005

An Andalusian scholar who studied as an independent scholar rejecting blind following of a particular school of jurisprudence. He was taught by several women and argued the some women had been prophets.


The Ottoman Ulema

by Mehmet Ipsirli Published on: 12th May 2004

The word ulema, which is widely used in the Islamic world, is used to refer to community based scholars. Ottoman ulema had been a basic element of the state and the society, presenting progressive visions…


Ibn Rushd: Harmony of Theological & Philosophical (Scientific) Truth

by The Editorial Team Published on: 27th April 2004

Ibn Rushd is perhaps the best known Muslim scholar of Cordoba who was instrumental in influencing European theology and epistemology. Here is a facinating glimpse into his role in establishing the role of reasoning in…

Madrassa Education during the Early Ottoman Period

by Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu Published on: 21st April 2004

The madrasas of the early Ottoman period can be considered as institutions which continued the established educational tradition of the Seljuk Turks but also augmented by the contributions of the Ottomans.


Ibn Hazm’s Philosophy and Thoughts on Science

by Salim Al-Hassani Published on: 11th September 2003

Abu Muhammad ‘Ali Ibn Ahmad Ibn Sa’id Ibn HAZM, (November 994 to August 1064) grew up in the period of final collapse of Umayyad rule in Spain, as the nation disintegrated into often conflicting local…


The Book of Water (Kitab Al-Ma’a)

by FSTC Published on: 17th January 2003

Kitab Al-Ma'a, a strange title for the first known Encyclopedia of Medicine arranged according to the alphabet was recently discovered in Algeria and published in Oman. Contains over 900 pages and was written by Ibn…


Quran, Hadith and Knowledge

by The Editorial Team Published on: 1st September 2002

The Quran, repeatedly calls on the believers to seek knowledge, "And He has subjected to you, as from Him, all that is in the heavens and on earth: behold, in that are signs indeed for…

Science conflicting with Religion?

by Salah Zaimeche Published on: 1st September 2002

The apparent conflict of science and religion is a uniquely Western creation. Islam, unlike medieval Catholicism, it is observed, 'did nothing to stifle the spirit of scientific enquiry'.


Islam as the Impetus of Scientific Advance

by Salah Zaimeche Published on: 1st September 2002

Islam provided such impetus in the era 800-1200. Islam makes self-improvement of the individual and the betterment of society part of religious duty, inspiring individuals in all manners and forms.


Muslim Scholars and Science

by Salah Zaimeche Published on: 1st September 2002

Muslim scholars also realised that understanding the complexities of the universe, its order, harmony, perfection and functioning, brought people close to God and His message.


Quranic Verses on Science

by Salah Zaimeche Published on: 1st September 2002

Whilst scientific truths are very regularly questioned and abandoned, the truths in the Quran are permanent and unchangeable.


Women and learning in Islam

by S. P. Scott Published on: 21st July 2002

The female relatives of the khalifs and courtiers vied with each other in the patronage and cultivation of letters.


Introduction to Muslim Science

by Salah Zaimeche Published on: 1st October 2001

Whilst the period of Antiquity, the time of Greco-Roman civilisation, and the Renaissance receive high praise, the period in between (late fifth to the late fifteenth) is highly obscured. Read about those 1000 years of…