Tag: Mathematics


New Results In The Research On Some Mathematical Works Of Nasir Al-Din Al-Tusi

by V. F. Medzlumbeyova Published on: 6th July 2020

The article analyses the mathematical contents of four texts by Nasir al-Din al-Tusi (1201-1274), one of the most original and prolific scientists of the classical Islamic tradition. These four texts on mathematics are: Al-Tusi's Tahrir…


The Role of Mathematics and Geometry in Formation of Persian Architecture

by Ahad Nejad Ebrahimi Published on: 15th June 2020

Geometry is one of the main features in the formation of Persian architecture. Research in Persian architecture geometry is impossible without familiarity with geometry. This research tries to demonstrate the relationship between the progress of…

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Digital Light & Codebreakers

by Salim Al-Hassani Published on: 3rd March 2020

Taken from the Bletchley Park's Digital Light: Code Makers brochure, a summary of Prof Salim Al-Hassani's speech about Muslim Civilisation's contribution in optics and cryptology.

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The complex geometry of Islamic design – Eric Broug

by Media Desk Published on: 6th January 2020

In Islamic culture, geometric design is everywhere: you can find it in mosques, madrasas, palaces, and private homes. And despite the remarkable complexity of these designs, they can be created with just a compass to…


Science In India During The Muslim Rule

by Zakaria Virk Published on: 29th October 2019

The scientific cooperation between India and the Arabs dates back to the time of Abbasid Caliphate of Baghdad when a number of books on astronomy, mathematics, and medicine were translated from Sanskrit into Arabic. From…


The Science of Al-Biruni

by Amelia Carolina Sparavigna Published on: 1st August 2018

Al-Biruni was so far ahead of his time that his most brilliant discoveries seemed incomprehensible to most of the scholars of his days...


Embedding Scientific Ideas as a Mode of Science Transmission

by George Saliba Published on: 7th July 2018

I used the discipline of astronomy as a template to record the transmitted ideas and hoped that other people, who work on other disciplines, would do the same, all in an effort to paint a…


From Baghdad to Barcelona: The Anxiety of Influence in the Transmission of the Greek and Arabic Sciences

by Glen M. Cooper Published on: 2nd April 2018

Drawing on Harold Bloom’s model of poetic influence and supersession in his famous book, “The Anxiety of Influence,” and considering several historical cases of cross-cultural reception of the natural sciences from the Middle Ages that…


Islam’s Historical Contribution to Commerce and Finance

by John M. Hobson Published on: 9th February 2018

Under the reign of Eurocentrism, the Western mind imagines that even if Islam came up with all manner of new ideas and technologies – ideas in engineering, art, mathematics and at a big push, science…


The West Owes a Debt to Islam: Interview with Prof Glen Cooper

by The Editorial Team Published on: 31st October 2017

Professor Glen Cooper discusses the Golden Age of Muslim Civilisation. During the European Dark Ages, when science, art and literature seemed to flounder for centuries, there actually was a lot of discover in places like…


The Story of Mathematics

by Sairah Yassir-Deane Published on: 19th July 2017

During the Cheltenham Science Festival from 6 - 11 June 2017, a panel on “The Story of Math” took place. Professors Mona Siddiqui, Mohamed El-Gomati, Marcus du Sautoy and Dr Amira Bennison took part in…


“1001 Inventions and The World Of Ibn Al-Haytham” Film Released

by 1001 Inventions Published on: 11th July 2017

The film is part of a global educational campaign launched by 1001 Inventions in partnership with UNESCO in 2015 that has engaged more than 30 million people around the world.


World Math Days and Month

by Cem Nizamoglu Published on: 12th March 2016

As the world celebrates World Maths and Pi Day on March 12th and March 14th, April is also Mathematics and Statistics Awareness Month. To celebrate these special occasions, the Muslim Heritage website would like to…


BBC Travel: Where algebra got its name from

by News Desk Published on: 11th March 2015

Amazing snapshots from Khiva (formally known as Khawarizm) in Uzbekistan. The birth place of the famous mathematician Al-Khawarizmi (780 – 850 CE). A prosperous centre of learning during the Golden Age of Muslim Civilisation. (Source…

Intro to "The Story of Maths: The Genius of the East"

Intro to “The Story of Maths: The Genius of the East”

by Media Desk Published on: 13th May 2014

Four-part series about the history of mathematics, presented by Oxford professor Marcus du Sautoy...


Muslim Founders of Mathematics

by FSTC Published on: 30th October 2013

The 7th to the 13th century was the golden age of Muslim learning. In mathematics they contributed and invented the present arithmetical decimal system and the fundamental operations connected with it addition, subtraction, multiplication, division,…


Abu al-Wafa al-Buzjanî

by The Editorial Team Published on: 8th July 2013

Muḥammad Abūʾl-Wafāʾ al-Būzjānī (10 June 940–997 or 998) was a distinguished Muslim astronomer and mathematician, who made important contributions to the development of trigonometry. He worked in a private observatory in Baghdad, where he made…


Ulugh Beg

by The Editorial Team Published on: 7th April 2013

Ulugh Beg was a Timurid ruler as well as an astronomer, mathematician. His primary interest was in the sciences and intellectual matters. He built an observatory at Samarkand. In his observations he discovered a number…


‘Umar al-Khayyam (Omar Khayyam)

by The Editorial Team Published on: 24th March 2013

‘Umar al-Khayyam (better known as Omar Khayyam, 1048-1123 CE), was a polymath scholar from Nishapur, Persia. Mathematician, philosopher, astronomer and poet, he also wrote treatises in Arabic on mechanics, geography, music and physics. Because of…


Islamic Manuscripts in the Schoenberg Collection at Pennsylvania University

by The Editorial Team Published on: 1st October 2012

The Lawrence J. Schoenberg Collection at the University of Pennsylvania is a private library focusing on late medieval and early modern manuscripts. The collection contains a valuable set of original manuscripts, a great part of…


Significant Ottoman Mathematicians and their Works

by Salim Ayduz Published on: 19th December 2011

This article aims to give an overview of the formation and development of mathematical studies and the work of famous mathematician in the Ottoman State over a 600 year period, from the period preceding the…


Ali Al-Qushji and His Contributions to Mathematics and Astronomy

by Ilay Ileri Published on: 12th August 2011

Ali Al-Qushji was one of the most noteworthy and important scientists in the Islamic world. He wrote valuable works especially on astronomy and mathematics. He was a student and co-worker of the famous statesman and…


Kerala Mathematics and Its Possible Transmission to Europe

by Dennis Francis Almeida Published on: 8th July 2011

The Kerala School of astronomy and mathematics was an Indian school of mathematics and astronomy founded by Madhava of Sangamagrama in Kerala, South India, which included among its members several scientists. The school flourished in…


The Influence of Nasir al-Din al-Tusi on Ottoman Scientific Literature

by Salim Ayduz Published on: 29th June 2011

The works of Nasir al-Din al-Tusi have always attracted the interest of Ottoman scholars as early as the 14th century. Some of his works were translated into Turkish and various annotations or commentaries were written…


Manuscript Review: The Book of Observations and Admonitions, by Ibn Sina

by N.A. Baloch Published on: 5th June 2011

[Ibn Sina] flourished as a great physician and philosopher, but was also a distinguished scientist, mathematician, logician, and poet at the same time...


The Origins of Islamic Science

by Muhammad Abdul Jabbar Beg Published on: 30th August 2010

In the following well documented article Dr Muhammad Abdul Jabbar Beg surveys the origins of Islamic science, with a special focus on its interaction with the previous intellectual traditions of the ancient world as well…


History, Culture and Science in Morocco: 11th-14th Centuries

by Salah Zaimeche Published on: 26th January 2010

The history of the Islamic west offers glorious pages of contribution to world history in various fields. This article presents a survey on some salient aspects of the role played by Morocco in the civilisation…


Numbers, Numbers

by FSTC Published on: 14th September 2009

Amicable number, perfect numbers, deficient numbers, abundant numbers, studying numbers was done by many including Ibn Sina better known for work in medicine.

New Discoveries in the Islamic Complex of Mathematics, Architecture and Art

by Salim Al-Hassani Published on: 13th August 2009

The complex of disciplines composed of mathematics, architecture and art in Islamic civilisation has been an important field of recent research. The scholars showed the interaction between mathematical reflexion and procedures and their implementation in…


Muhammad Al-Karaji: A Mathematician Engineer from the Early 11th Century

by Mohammed Abattouy Published on: 4th June 2009

Abu Bakr Muhammed Al-Karaji is a Muslim mathematician and engineer from the late 10th century-early 11th century. Of Persian origin, he spent an important part of his scientific life in Baghdad where he composed ground…


The Volume of the Sphere in Arabic Mathematics: Historical and Analytical Survey

by Mustafa Mawaldi Published on: 6th April 2009

The following article focuses on the cubic measure of the volume of the sphere in Arabic mathematics. After a short presentation of the Greek and Chinese ancient legacies on this topic, the article surveys thoroughly…


Ahmad Salim Sa‘idan: A Palestinian Historian of Arabic Mathematics

by Mohammed Abattouy Published on: 23rd January 2009

Since the middle of the 20th century, the history of Arabic mathematics evolved as a sub-field of history of science and became an area of a special expertise in which intermingled the skills of confirmed…


In Memory of Aydin Sayili

by Mohammed Abattouy Published on: 16th January 2009

Aydin Sayilli (1913-1993) was an eminent historian of science whose pioneering work during a 50-year career uncovered many hidden treasures in the history of mathematics, astronomy and medicine, especially in the Islamic tradition. In this…


Vidinli Huseyin Tawfik: A Modern Turkish Specialist of Linear Algebra

by Salim Ayduz Published on: 17th November 2008

This article is a biography essay on the life and works of Vidinli Tawfiq Pasha, a 19th-century Ottoman scholar, statesman and general of 19th-century Istanbul, and a noteworthy mathematician who published in 1882 an important…


In Memoriam of Aydin Sayili: Biography and Account of his Scientific Activity

by Mubahat Turker-Kuyel Published on: 10th October 2008

The following article presents a thorough intellectual biography of the late Aydin Sayili, the well known historian of Islamic science. The second part of the article is a comprehensive list of his works. This bibliography…


Glimpses in the History of A Great Number: Pi in Arabic Mathematics

by Moustafa Mawaldi Published on: 22nd September 2008

The Greek letter pi (symbolized by p) is defined as the ratio of the circumference of the circle to its diameter. It is considered to be a vital element in the calculations of areas and…


Mathematics in the Medieval Maghrib: General Survey on Mathematical Activities in North Africa

by Ahmed Djebbar Published on: 30th June 2008

In this important article, Professor Ahmed Djebbar, the renowned scholar and specialist of the history of Arabic sciences, especially in the Islamic West, presents a general survey on mathematical activities in the Medieval Maghrib since…


Taqi al-Din Ibn Ma’ruf: A Bio-Bibliographical Essay

by Salim Ayduz Published on: 26th June 2008

This article is a bio-bibliographical essay on the life and works of Taqī al-Dīn Ibn Ma'ruf, a scholar of 16th-century Istanbul, one of the most prolific and original scientists of the Ottoman period of Islamic…


Taqi al Din Ibn Ma’ruf ‘s Work on Extracting the Cord 2o and Sin 1o

by Sevim Tekeli Published on: 30th May 2008

This article by Professor Sevim Tekeli, a leading historian of science in the Ottoman period, deals with an aspect of the work of Taqi al-Din Ibn Ma'ruf in trigonometry, a mathematical discipline which studies the…


Al-Jazari’s Third Water-Raising Device: Analysis of its Mathematical and Mechanical Principles

by Salim Al-Hassani Published on: 24th April 2008

Five pumps or water-raising machines are described by al-Jazari in his monumental treatise of mechanics Al-Jami' bayn al-‘ilm wa 'l-‘amal al-nafi' fi sina'at al-hiyal (A Compendium on the Theory and Useful Practice of the Mechanical…


Nasuh Al-Matrakî, A Noteworthy Ottoman Artist-Mathematician of the Sixteenth Century

by Salim Ayduz Published on: 6th February 2008

Matrakci Nasuh was a famous Ottoman polymath, writer and knight who produced important books in several fields. He made contributions in the fields of mathematics, geography, history and calligraphy. He also invented a military lawn…


Sinan’s Acoustical Technology

by Mutbul Kayili Published on: 4th June 2007

This article gives the the results of a research project studying the acoustical properties of several Ottoman mosques designed by Mimar Sinan in the 16th century. The results of measurements concerning several of these mosques…


Al-Hassâr’s Kitâb al-Bayân and the Transmission of the Hindu-Arabic Numerals

by Paul Kunitzsch Published on: 4th June 2007

This article was a talk given at the 7th Maghrebi Colloque of the History of Arabic Mathematics held from 30 May to 1 June 2002 in Marrakech, Morocco. It presents a new manuscript of the…



by The Editorial Team Published on: 6th May 2007

Ya'qub b. Ishaq al-Kindi was an early Arab scholar of the 9th century, one of the first great scientists that set the stage for the brilliant Islamic tradition of learning. His works in philosophy, cosmology,…


A Discovery in Architecture: 15th Century Islamic Architecture Presages 20th Century Mathematics

by The Editorial Team Published on: 26th February 2007

This article relates the discovery by two American scholars, Paul J. Steinhardt and Peter J. Lu (respectively from the department of physics at Princeton and Harvard universities) that medieval Islamic artists produced intricate decorative patterns…


Sine, Cosine and the Measurement of the Earth

by Mahbub Ghani Published on: 2nd February 2007

Mathematics has long been an area of expertise amongst Muslim mathematicians. This article considers the contributions of Al-Tusi and Al-Battani and others in trigonometry, focusing upon the progress their discoveries represented in comparison with the…


Mathematics in Muslim Heritage

by The Editorial Team Published on: 30th January 2007

Early mathematics was revolutionised by Muslim scholars like Al-Khwarizmi, the founder of Algebra; Al-Kindi, Al-Khazin, Al-Khujandi,Al-Sijzi, Abul Wafa and numerous others.This article reviews some of the important works of these mathematicians.


The Science of Restoring and Balancing – The Science of Algebra

by Mahbub Ghani Published on: 5th January 2007

Muslim contributions in the field of mathematics have been both varied and far reaching. This article by Mahbub Ghani (from the Department of Electronic Engineering at King's College, London University) considers some Muslim contributions in…


Contribution of Al-Khwarizmi to Mathematics and Geography

by N. Akmal Ayyubi Published on: 27th December 2006

Muhammad ibn Musa Al-Khwarizmi is one of the greatest scientific minds of the medieval period and a most important Muslim mathematician who was justly called the 'father of algebra'. Besides his founding the science of…


Al-Khwarizmi, Abdu’l-Hamid Ibn Turk and the Place of Central Asia in the History of Science

by Aydin Sayili Published on: 12th December 2006

Abu Ja`far Muhammad ibn Mûsâ al-Khwârazmî is a truly outstanding personality and a foremost representative of the supremacy of the Islamic World during the Middle Ages. Medieval Islam was largely responsible for the shaping of…


Decimal Arithmetic

by FSTC Published on: 8th September 2005

The introduction of Arabic numbers into Europe involved more than a way of writing numbers down. It also involved new ways of calculating with pen and paper that were faster and easier and the system…


Hail the Queen of Mathematics!

by Mahbub Ghani Published on: 2nd September 2005

In today's world what Friedrich Gauss called the queen of mathematics plays a crucial role in providing internet security. Here we look at some of the Muslims who worked on number theory.


The Scholars of Seville – Mathematics and Astronomy

by Salah Zaimeche Published on: 15th August 2005

In Seville, scholars led the science of astronomy, criticising earlier works on the basis of new observations and poetry was used to help people memorise the principles of algebra.



by The Editorial Team Published on: 22nd February 2005

Harran is a very old town situated in the Jazira province of modern Turkey near the sources of the Balkh River. Badly effected by the Crusades, it nevertheless had its production of scientists that are…



by The Editorial Team Published on: 2nd February 2005

Khwarizm is the city of the birth of algebra, where Al-Biruni corrected and refined the sciences of the past and thought of the earth spinning on its axis many centuries before Copernicus.


Leonard of Pisa (Fibonacci) and Arabic Arithmetic

by Charles Burnett Published on: 14th January 2005

Professor Charles Burnett shows that Fibonacci failed to give adequate recognition to other sources of learning which he took from to produce his Liber Abacci. These other sources were translations of Arabic works from Toledo…


Bejaia – Algeria

by FSTC Published on: 1st October 2004

Bejaia - a small town on the north coast of Algeria, was once a trading hub of the Mediteranian trading extensively with many places including Pisa. Through this town, a great deal of Mathematics was…



by FSTC Published on: 26th August 2004

Marrakech became, due to the ambitions and sponsorship of its rulers, the centre of attraction for numerous scholars including Ibn Rushd who served as the Chief Physician and where he pursued many works in science.…


Al-Kindi, Cryptography, Code Breaking and Ciphers

by Tariq Al-Tayeb Published on: 9th June 2003

Cryptography paved the way for the development of arguably humanity's greatest achievements yet, Computers, the Internet and the digital world. This article presents Al-Kindi as the originator of the modern method of decipher.



by The Editorial Team Published on: 11th July 2002

Algebra, algorithm, quadratic equation, sine function... just some of the terms which would not be known to us but for Al-Khawarizmi. An astronomer, geographer and founder of several branches and basic concepts of mathematics.