This article presents a historical analysis of the various constructions built on the ancient overland Hajj route from Iraq to Makkah and the role of Lady Zubayda with especial reference to her Makkah water projects.
A survey of the historical sources with an appendix on some recent fallacies about mosque orientations
A critique of Dan Gibson, Early Islamic Qiblas: A Survey of mosques built between 1AH/622 C.E. and 263 AH/876 C.E. (with maps, charts and photographs), 296 pp., Vancouver BC: Independent Scholars Press, 2017
In a marked shift from the positivist philosophy that influenced medical education for more than a century, world medical educators realize now the significance of the spiritual element of human nature. Consensus is currently building…