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Islamic Coins

Islamic/Arabic Coins, the dirham, was said to be of such…

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Plague and Contagion

Historians traditionally have divided the occurrence of the bubonic plague…

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Architecture

The Role of Mathematics and Geometry in Formation of Persian Architecture

Geometry is one of the main features in the formation…

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astronomy

Astronomy as a global science: The case of Islamic astronomy

This short article was written by Professor Rudiger Lohlker in…

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Music Therapy and Mental Health

Mental Health Care and Bimaristans in the Medical History of…

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Memory and Erasure in the Story of the West: Or, Where have All the Muslims Gone?

This a transcript of a lecture delivered on November 13,…

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Contributions of Scholars from the Muslim Civilisation to Pharmacology

This article has been produced from Chapter 5 "Contributions of…

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Astronomy

Portable Cosmologies

15-16th Century Italian-Islamic Exchanges of the Astrolabe and Effects on…

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New Results In The Research On Some Mathematical Works Of Nasir Al-Din Al-Tusi

The article analyses the mathematical contents of four texts by…

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Hydraulic Imagery in Medieval Arabic Texts

The Arabic reports about irrigation, dams and water-powered machines form…

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Ibn al-Haytham and Psychophysics

The famous scientist Ibn al-Haytham (‘Alhazen') has rightly been credited…

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Epidemics

Throughout history one of the greatest disasters humankind has seen…

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Turkish Medical History of the Seljuk Era

The Great Seljuk state was part of the medieval Islamic…

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Al-Andalus, a Bridge Between Arabic and European Science

The purpose of this paper is to outline the conditions…

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Book Review: “Greco-Arab and Islamic Herbal Medicine: Traditional System, Ethics, Safety, Efficacy and Regulatory Issues”

Traditional Arab-Islamic* herbal medicine plays an increasingly influential role in…

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An Untold Story: The Important Contributions of Muslim Scholars for the Understanding of Human Anatomy

It is usually assumed that Galen is one of the…

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The Arab Roots of European Medicine

Wel knew he the olde Esculapius And Deyscorides and eek…

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The Islamic Roots of the Modern Hospital

"The hospital shall keep all patients, men and women, until…

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The Classification of Mental Diseases in the Ottoman Medical Manuscripts

The Ottomans provided great contributions towards the fields of psychiatry…

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The Islamic Roots of Modern Pharmacy

Along the road from sympathetic magic and shamanism to scientific…

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Islamic Glass Image Gallery

From Ibn Al-Haytam’s optical lenses to a mosque lamp of…

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Keep your distance – health lessons from the history of pandemics

From a simple cold to a serious illness, humans have…

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Some Thoughts on the Politics of Early Modern Ottoman Science

Beyond Dominant Paradigms in Ottoman and Middle Eastern/ North African…

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Prophylactic Medicine

Arab physicians preferred the preservation of health to its restoration,…

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Digital Light & Codebreakers

Taken from the Bletchley Park's Digital Light: Code Makers brochure,…

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astronomy

Islamic Sacred Geography and Finding the Qibla by the Sun and Stars

A survey of the historical sources with an appendix on…

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Ibn Sina and Sports

Ibn Sina advices people to partake in diets, bathing and…

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Women’s Contribution to Classical Islamic Civilisation: Science, Medicine and Politics

While there are numerous works on the role of Muslim…

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Science Institutionalization in Early Islam

“Bayt al-Hikma of Baghdad as a Model of an Academy…

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The Birth of Modern Astronomy

Some people, unaware of what was accomplished during Muslim civilisation,…

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Anatomy

The art of medicine is long and it is necessary…

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Water innovations in the Muslim world: past glories and future outlook

From the eighth century onwards, Muslim societies extending from Cordoba…

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Humoral Pathology

In Islamic medicine, the most pervasive explanatory theory was that…

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White Supremacism and Islamic Astronomy in History of Astronomy Texts from the Eighteenth Century to the Present Day

This paper reviews manifestations of racism in European and American…

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Development of Astronomy in Ottomans

Generally, it is possible to study the development of astronomy…

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1001 Cures: Translation Movement

Translation is one of the most powerful drivers in the…

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1001 Cures – Introduction

Islamic civilisation developed a system of healthcare that, at its…

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Constantine the African and the Qayrawani doctors: Contribution of the ‘Phoenicians’ of North Africa to Latin Medicine in the Middle Ages and Renaissance

When a sixteenth-century medical writer referred to Phoenicians, alongside Arabs,…

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The Science of Al-Biruni

Al-Biruni was so far ahead of his time that his…

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Embedding Scientific Ideas as a Mode of Science Transmission

I used the discipline of astronomy as a template to…

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Manuscript Review: The Book on Public Finance, by Abu `Ubayd Al-Harawi

Abu `Ubayd's work is much more comprehensive in the subject…

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Arab Origins of Cryptology

This article is the summary of a presentation given by…

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1001 Cures Book launch at The Royal Society in London during the British Science Week

To celebrate the launch of 1001 Cures; Contributions in Medicine…

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From Baghdad to Barcelona: The Anxiety of Influence in the Transmission of the Greek and Arabic Sciences

Drawing on Harold Bloom’s model of poetic influence and supersession…

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1001 Cures: Contributions in Medicine and Healthcare from Muslim Civilisation

1001 Cures: Contributions in Medicine and Healthcare from Muslim Civilisation…

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Islam’s Historical Contribution to Commerce and Finance

Under the reign of Eurocentrism, the Western mind imagines that…

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Astronomy in Medieval Jerusalem

Various medieval Arabic manuscripts preserved in libraries around the world…

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Arabic Medicinal Manuscripts of Pre-Colonial Northern Nigeria: A Descriptive List

West African Muslim scholars produced a number of Arabic works…

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Dental Care in Islamic Medical Science: Muhammad al-Aqkirmani (d. 1760) and his Risalah fi hukm al-Siwak

Most of the oldest Muslim treatises on Siwak remain in…

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Islamic Astronomy from “Star Wars” to Star Tables

The most obvious difference between modern and Islamic astronomy is…

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Ibn al-Nafis, the Pulmonary Circulation, and The Islamic Golden Age

Ibn al-Nafis (1213-1288) was an Arab physician who made several…

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Avicenna’s Medical Thinking in Colonial Mexico

New Spain was a viceroyalty of Spain between 1521 and…

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Star-finders Astrolabes

Over a thousand-year period in Muslim Civilisation, epoch-making discoveries and…

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Avicenna’s Medical Thinking in Colonial Mexico

New Spain was a viceroyalty of Spain between 1521 and…

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The Story of Mathematics

During the Cheltenham Science Festival from 6 - 11 June…

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An introduction to Early Islamic Society and Social Sciences

...in order to know or appreciate most developments of Muslim…

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The Impact of Islamic Science and Learning on England

Nothing contrasts more the discrepancies in learning as the place…

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Technology in sub-Saharan Cultures

Genetic and paleontological findings have concluded that Africa is the…

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Muslims Contribution to the Study and Development of Medical Sciences in 19th Century Nigeria: A Preliminary Account

This paper presented at the 7th International Congress of the…

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Islamic Astronomy

This article was originally published as: “Islamic Astronomy”, in Christopher…

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A Chronology – Turkey’s 700-year long venture in science and technology

A chronology on "Science from the East - Techniques from…

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Albucasis: A Landmark for Arabic and European Surgery

This article presents Abu'l-Qasim Khalaf ibn 'Abbas al-Zaharawi, Arabic أبو…

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A Culture Devoted to Healing

Muslim Contributions to the Medical Sciences A Tribute to Dr…

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Historiography of Science and Medicine: Balancing Scholarship with Public Engagement

In recent years, here at Fez and all over the…

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The Journey of Automatic Machines in Muslim Civilisation

This keynote lecture reviews the rise and development of automatic…

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Manuscript Review: The Clear Exposition of the Principles of Accountability, by Ibn al-Ukhuwwah

[Ibn al-Ukhuwwah] provides a summary of the positive and negative…

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Al-Khalili and the Culmination of Spherical Astronomy in 14th-Century Damascus

Syria in the 14th century was the scene of the…

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Manuscript Review: The Discourse of Listener and Speaker on the Etiquette of Learning and Learner, by Ibn Jama’ah

It was in the year 672 A.H. (1273 A.C.) that…

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The House of Wisdom: Baghdad’s Intellectual Powerhouse

The heyday of Baghdad was 1,200 years ago when it…

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Medical Books on Healthy Living from Muslim Civilisation

If you think medical advice on healthy living - good…

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Ophthalmologists of the Medieval Islamic World

The main purpose of this monograph is to review some…

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Obesity: 1000 years ago

I enjoyed Richard Barnett's Historical Keywords piece on obesity (May…

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World Math Days and Month

As the world celebrates World Maths and Pi Day on…

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Allah’s Automata – A Review of the Exhibition

Reflections on: A New Exhibition on Artifacts of the Arab/Islamic…

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The Mechanical Corpus of Al-Isfizārī in the Sciences of Weights and Ingenious Devices: New Arabic Texts in Theoretical and Practical Mechanics

Editorial note: This article needs to be read in conjunction…

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A Fascinating Journey of Clocks in Muslim Civilisation

On 22-23 October 2015, the “3rd International conference on History…

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“Egyptology: The Missing Millennium” of Medieval Arabic Sources

In this paper, I would like to discuss the missing…

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Nearly 3 Centuries old light system illuminates a sacred grave on Sun’s equinox

This year has been chosen as "International Year of Light…

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Jordan conference explores Schools and Learning Institutions in Muslim Civilisation

In order to popularise the diverse history of science. The…

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Lund Astronomical Clock

The genesis of this article lies in a recent visit…

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Ingenious Clocks from Muslim Civilisation that Defied the Middle Ages

TIME TELLING MACHINES: Revealing marvellous mechanical and water-powered clocks from…

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Announcement: On New FSTC Historiography

The Foundation for Science, Technology, and Civilisation (FSTC) now seeks…

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The International Year of Light Sheds Light on the Dark Ages

The UNESCO International Year of Light and Light-Based Technologies is…

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Manuscript Review: Instruction of the Learner; The Method of Learning, by Al-Zarnuji

Zarnuji’s work represents a landmark in the history of Pedagogy…

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Professor Devin Stewart: The Fihrist of Ibn al-Nadīm and the Transmission of Knowledge in the Islamic World

On Wednesday 22nd April, a public lecture exploring “The Fihrist…

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Ibn Yunus and The Pendulum: A History of Errors

In this article, Professor David A. King explores the authenticity…

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World Health Day 7th April: Muslim Heritage in Medicine

World Health Day is celebrated on 7th April each year…

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Ibn Sina’s The Canon of Medicine

The Sheikh al-Ra'is Sharaf al-Mulk Abu ‘Ali al-Husayn b. ‘Abd…

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BBC Travel: Where algebra got its name from

Amazing snapshots from Khiva (formally known as Khawarizm) in Uzbekistan.…

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The renaissance of astronomy in Baghdad in the 9th and 10th centuries

[Note of the editor] This article was published in 2003…

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Manuscript Review: Farthest Perception in the Comprehension of Heavens, by Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi

With all the weight of his knowledge, Qutub al-Din preferred…

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Medicine and Health in Medieval Arabic Poetry: A Historical Review

This review of medieval Arabic medical poetry is based on…

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Medicine and Health in Medieval Arabic Poetry: An Historical Review

This review of medieval Arabic medical poetry is based on…

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Manuscript Review: The Detailed Treatise on Matters Concerning Learners and Guidelines for Teachers and Learners, by Al-Qabisi

Al-Qabisi was the inventor of the concept and practice of…

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The Mechanical Water Clock Of Ibn Al-Haytham

The Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation (FSTC) announces their…

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Muslim Founders of Mathematics

The 7th to the 13th century was the golden age…

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L’orgue hydraulique des Banu Mûsa (The Hydraulic Organ of Banu Musa)

(The Hydraulic Organ of Banu Musa (9th Century): An Early…

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Manuscript Review: Treatise on ‘The Alive Son of the Awake’, by Ibn Tufayl

Besides [Ibn Tufayl's] contributions in medicine, he is best known…

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‘Umar al-Khayyam (Omar Khayyam)

‘Umar al-Khayyam (better known as Omar Khayyam, 1048-1123 CE), was…

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Introducing Medical Humanities in the Medical Curriculum in Saudi Arabia: A Pedagogical Experiment

In a marked shift from the positivist philosophy that influenced…

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Professor Rabie E. Abdel-Halim’s Lectures

In 2012, FSTC members contributed to several activities by publishing…

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Ibn Zuhr and the Progress of Surgery

This study of the original Arabic edition of the book…

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Professor Qasim Al-Samarrai Lecture on the The Edition of Arabic Manuscripts

On Wednesday 28th November 2012, Al-Furqan Islamic Heritage Foundation in…

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Experimental Medicine 1000 Years Ago

Little is known about the state of experimentation in the…

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Reason and Rationality in the Quran

In this long and well written article, Dr Ibrahim Kalin,…

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Book Review: “Debt – The First 5,000 Years” by David Graeber

Economics textbooks claim that money was invented to replace onerous…

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Lectures on Islamic Medicine at RCP, London

Lectures on Islamic Medicine at the Royal College of Physicians…

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East Meets West in Venice

For much of the millennium before the rise of Portugal…

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A New Arabic Text of Mechanics: Sinan ibn Thabit on the Theory of Simple Machines

The Arabic manuscript Orient fol. 3306 preserved at the Staatsbibliothek…

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Four Medieval Hospitals in Syria

The creation of hospitals as institutions for the care of…

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A Medical Classic: Al-Razi’s Treatise on Smallpox and Measles

Kitab fi Al Jadari wa Al Hasaba authored by the…

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Caesarean Section in Early Islamic Literature

Some medical historians of the last century mistakenly recorded that…

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Significant Ottoman Mathematicians and their Works

This article aims to give an overview of the formation…

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Ali Al-Qushji and His Contributions to Mathematics and Astronomy

Ali Al-Qushji was one of the most noteworthy and important…

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The Institution of Waqf as a Solution to the Economic Crisis

The Wall Street Journal, one of the world's most respected…

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Did Medieval Islamic Theology Subvert Science?

It is often supposed in Islamic studies that Al-Ghazali demolished…

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Kerala Mathematics and Its Possible Transmission to Europe

The Kerala School of astronomy and mathematics was an Indian…

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Arabic Roots of the Scientific Revolution

It is well known nowadays that modern Scientific Revolution benefited…

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Natural Philosophy in the Islamic World

In the following short report, we present a summary of…

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The Influence of Ibn al-Haytham on Kamal al-Din al-Farisi

This is a very short note summarizing the lecture presented…

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Trevor Hilder: A Story About Sustainable History

After briefly describing his work background, Trevor Hilder tells the…

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Contributions of Ibn al-Nafis to the Progress of Medicine and Urology

This primary-source study of four medical works of the 13th…

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Reflections on the Optics of Time

Based on the outstanding achievement of Ibn al-Haytham's work in…

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Cairo: A Millennial

In this article, published originally in Saudi Aramco World in…

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Pioneer Physicians

During the classical Muslim civilisation, big scientific advances in medicine…

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Insights into Neurologic Localization by Al-Razi (Rhazes), a Medieval Islamic Physician

Al-Razi (Rhazes) (born in 864 CE) wrote over 200 scientific…

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From Frankfurt and Cairo to Damascus: Recent Models of the Umayyad Mosque Clock

From Frankfurt and Cairo to Damascus: Recent Models of the…

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The 15th Century Turkish Physician Serefeddin Sabuncuoglu Author of Cerrahiyetu ‘l-Haniyye

The Turkish physician Serafeddin Sabuncuoglu (1385–1470) is the author of…

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The European Muslim Heritage and its Role in the Development of Europe

In a keynote lecture pronounced by Professor Salim T S…

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Book review: Ibn al-Haytham and the New Optics

This is a book review of Ibn El-Heysem ve Yeni…

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Ibn Khaldun: Studies on His Contribution in Economy

In the following section, we focus on Ibn Khaldun's contribution…

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Ibn Khaldun: His Life and Works

Abd al-Rahman ibn Khaldun, the well known historian and thinker…

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Teaching and Researching on Arabic-Islamic Science at the University of Barcelona (1931-2010)

Proceedings of the conference 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our…

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Evolution of Attitudes Towards Human Experimentation in Ottoman Turkish Medicine

Attitudes and expectations towards medical knowledge and medical practice standards…

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The Origins of Islamic Science

In the following well documented article Dr Muhammad Abdul Jabbar…

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Status of Research in the History of Astronomy in the Arab World

Professor Hamid M. K. Al-Naimy [Proceedings of the conference 1001…

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Manuscripts and printing in the spread of Muslim science

[Proceedings of the conference 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our…

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The Transfer of Science Between India, Europe and China via Muslim Heritage

[Proceedings of the conference 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our…

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Medicine in the Middle Ages: New Insights and a Call for Further Research

[Proceedings of the conference 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our…

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The Stellar and Lunar Keys to Medieval Muslim Agriculture

Proceedings of the conference 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our…

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Statement of HH Princess Sumaya bint El Hassan in the Opening Session

[Proceedings of the conference 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our…

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Ottoman Cash Waqfs Revisited: The Case of Bursa (1555- 1823)

Cash endowments contributed to Ottoman society, without any cost to…

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Ibn Khaldun’s Thought in Microeconomics: Dynamics of Labor, Demand-supply and Prices

In this article on Ibn Khaldun's thought in microeconomics, Cecep…

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The Economic Theory of Ibn Khaldun and the Rise and Fall of Nations

The economic theory of Ibn Khaldun and the rise and…

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Ibn Khaldun and the Rise and Fall of Empires

The 14th-century historiographer and historian Abu Zayd ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn…

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Ibn Khaldun and Adam Smith: Contributions to Theory of Division of Labor and Modern Economic Thought

The contributions of Ibn Khaldun to the development of economic…

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Ibn Khaldun’s Theory of Taxation and its Relevance Today

Ibn Khaldun's theory of taxation has been considered one of…

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Muslim Contributions to Modern Civilisation

Dr Salim Ayduz, researcher at FSTC, presented on Tuesday 9…

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One Thousand Years of Missing History

The following essay aims to alert communities as to the…

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Lady Montagu and the Introduction of Smallpox Inoculation to England

The English aristocrat and writer Lady Mary Wortley Montagu (1689-1762)…

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Kairouan Capital of Political Power and Learning in the Ifriqiya

The following article presents a survey on some glorious pages…

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Al-Muqaddasi and Human Geography: An Early Contribution to Social Sciences

Recent scholarly interest in the genesis of social sciences in…

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Numbers, Numbers

Amicable number, perfect numbers, deficient numbers, abundant numbers, studying numbers…

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Botany, Herbals and Healing In Islamic Science and Medicine

The scholars of Islamic culture worked extensively in the combined…

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New Discoveries in the Islamic Complex of Mathematics, Architecture and Art

The complex of disciplines composed of mathematics, architecture and art…

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Rediscovering Arabic Science

The magazine Saudi Aramco World published in May-June 2007 an…

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Filling the Gap in the History of Pre-Modern Industry: 1000 Years of Missing Islamic Industry

Most educational systems, particularly those of Western countries, teach that…

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Creating a 3D Model with Motion Analysis of Taqi al-Din’s Six-Cylinder Pump

Among the original machines described in the corpus of Islamic…

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Anatomy of the Horse in the 15th Century

The famous image we find in an Arabic manuscript depicting…

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Anaesthesia 1000 Years Ago (I)

The following research article in a particular field of the…

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Anaesthesia 1000 Years Ago (II)

The following research article in a particular field of the…

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Muhammad Al-Karaji: A Mathematician Engineer from the Early 11th Century

Abu Bakr Muhammed Al-Karaji is a Muslim mathematician and engineer…

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Ibn Khaldun’s Concept of Education in the ‘Muqaddima’

At first sight, the place held by education in Ibn…

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Paediatric Urology 1000 Years Ago

In this study, we present a brief commentary on four…

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Pericardial Pathology 900 Years Ago: A Study and Translations from an Arabic Medical Textbook

This is a study and translation of the section on…

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The Missing Link in the History of Urology

With few exceptions, most of the current publications on history…

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The Volume of the Sphere in Arabic Mathematics: Historical and Analytical Survey

The following article focuses on the cubic measure of the…

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The Medical Organization at the Ottoman Court

The Ottoman imperial Palace was quite different from Western palaces…

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Book Review of The Dialogue of Civilizations in the Birth of Modern Science by Arun Bala

The book "The Dialogue of Civilizations in the Birth of…

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Al-Ghazali’s Theory of Education

Al-Ghazali (1058-1111) was one of the most influential Muslim thinkers.…

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Interview with Professor Nil Sari

Professor Nil Sari Akdeniz, the head of the History of…

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Women Dealing with Health during the Ottoman Reign

In the history of Islamic civilization, many hospitals were founded…

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Mont Saint-Michel or Toledo: Greek or Arabic Sources for Medieval European Culture?

In a recent book, Sylvain Gouguenheim has caused a furore…

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The Paracelsian Influence on Ottoman Medicine

Galen's concept of medicine which dominated the medical world almost…

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Al-Farabi’s Doctrine of Education: Between Philosophy and Sociological Theory

Throughout the ages thinkers have raised the question of what…

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Circumcision Ceremonies at the Ottoman Palace

Circumcision is widely practiced in all Islamic countries. Festivities pertaining…

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Medical Sciences in the Islamic Civilization

The medical sciences and related fields have enjoyed great peaks…

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The Medical History Museum of Istanbul University: Project, Challenges and Academic Questions

This article is about the foundation of the Medical History…

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The Simurgh: A Symbol of Holistic Medicine in the Middle Eastern Culture in History

This article discusses the view that the simurgh, a mythological…

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The Ethical Theory of Education of Ahmad Miskawayh

Abu `Ali Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Ya'qub Miskawayh (932-1030) is…

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The Six-Cylinder Water Pump of Taqi al-Din: Its Mathematics, Operation and Virtual Design

The main objective of this study is to investigate into…

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Ahmad Salim Sa‘idan: A Palestinian Historian of Arabic Mathematics

Since the middle of the 20th century, the history of…

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Logical Necessities in Mixed Equations: ‘Abd Al-Hamîd Ibn Turk and the Algebra of his Time

The famed Muslim scholar Al-Kwarazmi has long been known as…

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Ibn Sina on Education

This study presents the theory of education in the philosophy…

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A Plea for the Recovery of the Forgotten History of Muslim Heritage

This is a review of the book published in 2007…

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Food as Medicine in Muslim Civilization

The subject of food and diet was very essential in…

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Islam’s Forgotten Contributions to Medical Science

The transmission of medical knowledge can be traced to some…

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Highly Valued Virtues of Classical Ottoman Turkish Medical Ethics: A View From Past to Future

Virtues such as modesty, contentedness, fidelity and hopefulness expected from…

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It’s Time to Herald the Arabic Science That Prefigured Darwin and Newton

In this era of intolerance and cultural tension, Professor Al-Khalili…

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Remembering the Language of History and Science: When the World Spoke Arabic

Two shows are expected to be broadcast on BBC Four…

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Muslim Heritage and Education

This is the text of a presentation made to The…

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Capitalist Traditions in Early Arab-Islamic Civilization

In the following article, Professor S. M. Ghazanfar, a specialist…

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Vidinli Huseyin Tawfik: A Modern Turkish Specialist of Linear Algebra

This article is a biography essay on the life and…

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Islamic Automation: Al-Jazari’s Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices

In the following essay, Dr. Gunalan Nadarajan, Associate Dean of…

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Science and Rationalism in 9th Century Baghdad

Text of the Lecture of Professor Jim Al-Khalili in the…

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The Invention of Spectacles between the East and the West

The following article by the expert scholar Lutfallah Gari surveys…

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The Book of Curiosities or A Medieval Islamic View of the Cosmos

The Bodleian Library at the University of Oxford has purchased…

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Certain Aspects of Medical Instruction in Medieval Islam and its Influences on Europe

In this article, Professor Aydin Syili analyses the medical teaching…

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The Advent of Scientific Chemistry

Until recently, the mainstream history of scientific ideas has failed…

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A ‘Gap-Filling’ Book on Islamic Economic Thought

This book is a collection of previously-published papers on the…

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Glimpses in the History of A Great Number: Pi in Arabic Mathematics

The Greek letter pi (symbolized by p) is defined as…

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Arabic and the Art of Printing

In this special section reproduced from Aramco World (issue March/April…

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A Bibliography of the Islamic and Chinese Scientific Relationships in Classical Times

In the following bibliography of the Islamic and Chinese scientific…

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Muslim Heritage in Mechanics and Technology: Outline of a Program for Future Research

The following text is the revised and expanded version of…

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Ottoman Contributions to Science and Technology

The Ottoman contribution to science and technology during their six…

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George Sarton and the History of Science

George Sarton was a pioneer scholar who played a decisive…

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Taqi al-Din Ibn Ma’ruf: Survey on his Works and Scientific Method

Being in form a bio-bibliographical essay on the life and…

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Tracing the Impact of Latin Translations of Arabic Texts on European Society

In this article, Professor Charles Burnett, a world expert in…

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Mathematics in the Medieval Maghrib: General Survey on Mathematical Activities in North Africa

In this important article, Professor Ahmed Djebbar, the renowned scholar…

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Ridhwan al-Sa’ati: A Biographical Outline

Fakhr al-Dīn Ridhwān ibn Rustam al-Sā'ātī (d. between 618-626 H/1220-1229…

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Ridhwan al-Sa’ati: A Biographical Outline

Fakhr al-Dīn Ridhwān ibn Rustam al-Sā'ātī (d. between 618-626 H/1220-1229…

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The Astronomical Clock of Taqi Al-Din: Virtual Reconstruction

In his book The Brightest Stars for the Construction of…

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The Instruments of Istanbul Observatory

In this article, Professor Sevim Tekeli, an outstanding scholar in…

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The Observation Well

Observation wells received much historical interest relating to observatories. In…

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Innovation in the Islamic World: Learning from the Past to Design the Future

The seat of the World Bank in Paris hosted on…

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Principle and Use of Ottoman Sundials

Muslim astronomers and engineers invented a variety of dials for…

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Taqi al Din Ibn Ma’ruf ‘s Work on Extracting the Cord 2o and Sin 1o

This article by Professor Sevim Tekeli, a leading historian of…

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Muslim Printing Before Gutenberg

Gutenberg in the 15th century. Based on his work on…

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Kamal Al-Din Al-Farisi’s Explanation of the Rainbow

This article focuses on a critical presentation of the arguments…

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Our Arabic Heritage in the Celestial Vault

In Arabic culture, as in other civilisations, the cultural dimension…

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Al-Jazari’s Third Water-Raising Device: Analysis of its Mathematical and Mechanical Principles

Five pumps or water-raising machines are described by al-Jazari in…

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Al-Jazari’s Castle Water Clock: Analysis of its Components and Functioning

The first machine described by al-Jazari in his famous treatise…

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The Self Changing Fountain of Banu Musa bin Shakir

Amongst the mechanical devices described by the Banu Musa Brothers…

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Bringing to Life the Islamic History of Europe: A Video Documentary

The video documentary produced by the BBC in 2005 An…

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An 800 Years Old Ancestor: Today’s Science of Robotics and Al-Jazari

Introducing al-Jazari's ancestry to modern cybernetics and robotics science, Prof.…

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Overview on al-Jazari and his Mechanical Devices

In this article, Professor Yavuz Unat, a known historian of…

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Tentative Global Timeline of Contacts between the World of Islam and Western Europe: 7th -20th Cent.

The following timeline presents a survey of Muslim presence in…

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Arabic Eclipse Records Bring Light to Scientific Analysis of the Earth’s Rotation

A total eclipse of the Moon occurs during the night…

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Nasuh Al-Matrakî, A Noteworthy Ottoman Artist-Mathematician of the Sixteenth Century

Matrakci Nasuh was a famous Ottoman polymath, writer and knight…

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The List of Al-jazari Articles Published on Muslim Heritage Website

Some 800 years in the past, in 1206, a brilliant…

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Al-Jazari: 800 Years After

Some 800 years in the past, in 1206, a brilliant…

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The History of Scientific Interaction

The evolution of world politics since the last decade of…

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800 Years Later: In Memory of Al-Jazari, A Genius Mechanical Engineer

Al-Jazari (1136-1206) was an important Arab Muslim scholar. He was…

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Science under Islam: A Reflection on Past Brilliancy and Future Revival

This is a review of a book by Sayyed Misbah…

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Health in the Ottoman Empire: A Collective Achievement in the History of Ottoman Medicine

This is a review of Health in the Ottomans (Osmanlilarda…

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Survey on the Development of the Historical Method among Muslim Scholars until Ibn Khaldun

This article surveys the development of historical methodology in the…

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The Armillary Sphere: A Concentrate of Knowledge in Islamic Astronomy

The armillary sphere is an ancient astronomical instrument reproducing a…

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Seeking Seamless Scientific Wonders: Review of Emilie Savage-Smith’s Work

Najma Kazi reviews some salient aspects of Emilie Savage-Smith's work.…

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Arabic Star Names: A Treasure of Knowledge Shared by the World

Many of the prominent stars known today are of Arabic…

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“Three Times Greater than Venus”: Ibn Ridhwan’s Observation of Supernova 1006

1001 years ago, an extraordinary astronomical event occurred in the…

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A Treasure of World Heritage: Islamic Manuscripts in the Kandilli Observatory

This is a review of a book bringing to light…

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Famous Figures of the Modern Turkish Medical School

To throw light on famous figures of the Turkish modern…

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Illustrious Names in the Heavens: Arabic and Islamic Names of the Moon Craters

24 craters of the Moon bear names of Arabic and…

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Precious Records of Eclipses in Muslim Astronomy and History

On the occasion of the lunar eclipse that occurs on…

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Precious Records of Eclipses in Muslim Astronomy and History

On the occasion of the lunar eclipse that occurs on…

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The Mechanics of Banu Musa in the Light of Modern System and Control Engineering

This article is a review of the book published recently…

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Abu Ishaq Ibrahim Ibn Yahya Al-Zarqali

This short paper introduces a longer essay by Prof. Gunalan…

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Deciphering Egyptian Hieroglyphs in Muslim Heritage

The article surveys some results of Dr. Okasha El Daly's…

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Tolerance or Compatibility? The Search for a Qur’anic Paradigm of Science

In this illuminating analysis, Prof. Ahmad Dallal produces an authoritative…

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The Arabic Sources of Jordanus de Nemore

The following article by Professors Menso Folkerts and Richard Lorch,…

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Hindiba: A Drug for Cancer Treatment in Muslim Heritage

Hindiba is a plant of Middle Eastern lands. Its therapeutic…

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The Arabic Partial Version of Pseudo-Aristotle’s Mechanical Problems

Based on manuscript evidence, the article presents a study of…

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Sinan’s Acoustical Technology

This article gives the the results of a research project…

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Al-Hassâr’s Kitâb al-Bayân and the Transmission of the Hindu-Arabic Numerals

This article was a talk given at the 7th Maghrebi…

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Rediscovering Arabic Science: Islamic Scientific Heritage in the last issue of Saudi Aramco World

In its current issue (May-June 2007), Saudi Aramco World, a…

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A New Book on the Ottoman Military History: Guns for the Sultan by Gábor Ágoston

Ágoston's book provides new insights into the Ottomans' approach to…

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Ottoman Mining, Metal Working and Fire-Arms Technology in South East Europe (15th-17th centuries)

The article deals with the impact of Ottoman mining and…

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Copernicus and Arabic Astronomy: A Review of Recent Research

Some 800 years in the past, in 1206, a brilliant…

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The Appreciation of Arabic Science and Technology in the Middle Ages

This article describes the appreciation of Arabic science and technology…

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Scientific Transfer and Scholarship in Medieval Arabic Pharmacology

Arabic pharmacology, a branch of scientific literature dealing with the…

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When Ridhwan al-Sa’ati Anteceded Big Ben by More than Six Centuries

The following article by Abdel Aziz al-Jaraki, a scholar from…

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Al-Razi on Smallpox and Measles

This article by Dr. Abdulnasser Kaadan shows that as early…

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Selected Gleanings from the History of Islamic Medicine

The medical Islamic tradition is one of the richest and…

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The Syriac-speaking Christians and the Translation of Greek Science into Arabic

This article by Professor John Healey, describes the key role…

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Ear, Nose and Throat Medical Practice in Muslim Heritage

Muslim medicine is characterised by a high level of experience…

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Glances on Calendars and Almanacs in the Islamic Civilisation

From the beginning of the Islamic history, the scholars developed…

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The Abbasids’ House of Wisdom in Baghdad

The House of Wisdom was in fame, status, scope, size,…

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Suleymaniye Medical Madrasa

This article discusses the emergence and origins of institutional Ottoman…

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Sine, Cosine and the Measurement of the Earth

Mathematics has long been an area of expertise amongst Muslim…

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Al-Urdi’s Article on ‘The Quality of Observation’

Astronomy has for a long time been of keen interest…

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Mathematics in Muslim Heritage

Early mathematics was revolutionised by Muslim scholars like Al-Khwarizmi, the…

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Alfraganus and the Elements of Astronomy

Al-Farghânî, known in the West as Alfraganus , was one…

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Ottoman Maritime Arsenals And Shipbuilding Technology In The 16th And 17th Centuries

In this article Prof. Idris Bostan describes Ottoman shipbuilding efforts…

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Scientific Contacts and Influences Between the Islamic World and Europe: The Case of Astronomy

For more than a thousand years the Muslim East and…

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How Islam Inspired Scientific Advance

The impact of Islam permeated so many spheres of knowledge…

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General Organisation of Education and Teaching Methods in Islamic Civilisation

Organised learning had been a feature of Islamic Civilisation since…

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Learning Institutions in Islam

Learning institutions in various forms have existed for centuries in…

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The Science of Restoring and Balancing – The Science of Algebra

Muslim contributions in the field of mathematics have been both…

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Attempts of Flight, Automatic Machines, Submarines and Rocket Technology in Turkish History

In the Islamic world, great importance was placed upon the…

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Ethical Aspects of Ottoman Surgical Practice

Information about the requirements and expectations of medical ethics regarding…

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Contribution of Al-Khwarizmi to Mathematics and Geography

Muhammad ibn Musa Al-Khwarizmi is one of the greatest scientific…

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Pioneers of Automatic Control Systems

Although the feedback concept, which is lying in the foundation…

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An Overview of Ottoman Scientific Activities

The scientific activities observed within the borders of the Ottoman…

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The Emergence of Scientific Tradition in Islam

The definition and nature of science has long been an…

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Transfer of Modern Science and Technology to the Ottoman State

This article will provide a short introduction to the history…

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Transfer of Islamic Technology to the West

The article covers the avenues which led to the transfer…

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The Modern Hospital in Medieval Islam

The hospital was one of the most developed institutions of…

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Al-Khwarizmi, Abdu’l-Hamid Ibn Turk and the Place of Central Asia in the History of Science

Abu Ja`far Muhammad ibn Mûsâ al-Khwârazmî is a truly outstanding…

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The Balance: The Core Mental Model of the Islamic Science of Weights

This article includes the recent work by Professor Abattouy and…

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Lord Vivian Bowden on Muslim Heritage in Economics and Fiscal System

Lord Bowden was a legendary Principal and Vice Chancellor of…

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Artillery Trade of the Ottoman Empire

Trade has no borders. During times of hostility between the…

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From Alchemy to Chemistry

Until recently, the mainstream history of scientific ideas has failed…

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Lady Mary Wortley Montagu and the Introduction of Smallpox Vaccination to England

This short article describes Lady Montagu's efforts in introducing a…

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CHILDREN’S ACTIVITY: How to Make a Pinhole Camera

Would you like to make a wonderful camera in just…

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Islamic Science, the Scholar and Ethics

The ethics or philosophy of science has in more recent…

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Bone Fractures in Ibn Sina’s Medicine

Ibn Sina, or Avicenna as he referred to in the…

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Decimal Arithmetic

The introduction of Arabic numbers into Europe involved more than…

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The Earliest Paediatric Surgical Atlas: Cerrahiye-i Ilhaniye

The author of one of the earliest surgical books was…

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Educating Ottoman Physicians

Medical doctors in the time of the Ottomans had various…

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Hail the Queen of Mathematics!

In today's world what Friedrich Gauss called the queen of…

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The Scholars of Seville – Medicine

Seville was also a centre Medical expertise in Islamic civilisation.…

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The Scholars of Seville – Mathematics and Astronomy

In Seville, scholars led the science of astronomy, criticising earlier…

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Using an Astrolabe

The history of the astrolabe begins more than two thousand…

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Sub-Saharan Centres of Learning

Though we may think of Timbuktu as the pre-eminent site…

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Ibn Al-Nafis and Vinegar

A doctor does a short enquiry into an old treatment…

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Beauty, Hair and Body Care in the Canon of Ibn Sina

The seventh and last art mentioned in the fourth book…

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Al-Razi the Medical Scholar

Al-Razi was "a writer of rare and incredible productiveness as…

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Central Asian Contributions to the earlier phases of hospital building – Activity in Islam

Modern hospials finds its origin in Islamic civilisation replacing institutions…

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Astronomical Instruments of Tycho Brahe and Taqi al-Din

Tycho Brahe "was a brilliant astronomer and scientist of his…

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Al-Fârâbî as a Source of the History of Philosophy and of Its Definition

The origins of science lie in the study we call…

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Observatories In Islam

The observatory as an organised and state sponsored activity began…

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Imam Ahmad ibn Taimiyah

Ibn Taimiyah was a man to whom learning about Islam…

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Imam Jaafar As-Sadiq

One of the foremost scholars of Islam Imam Jaafar as-Sadiq…

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Muslim Contributions to Philosophy – Ibn Sina, Farabi, Beyruni

Muslim philosophers were men of science who explored and set…

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Leonard of Pisa (Fibonacci) and Arabic Arithmetic

Professor Charles Burnett shows that Fibonacci failed to give adequate…

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The Machines of Al-Jazari and Taqi Al-Din

Prof. Salim T S Al-Hassani In this pioneering survey of…

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Kutubiya Mosque (1158)

Abul Mumin chose to build his mosque adjacent to the…

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Al-Qarawiyyin Mosque and University

For well over twelve hundred years Al-Qarawiyyin has been one…

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The Impact of Islamic Science and Learning on England: Adelard of Bath and Daniel of Morley

Most certainly the first English scientist ever was Adelard of…

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Astrology for the Ottomans

Among the Ottomans there was constant controversy over whether astrology…

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Turkish Contributions to Scientific Work in Islam

Turks have played an active part in the pursuit of…

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Salerno and Constantine the African

Salerno came to prominence as the first faculty-University of the…

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The Ottoman Madrassa

The Madrassa was one of the main venues of education…

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Modelling the Stars

The measurement of the positions of the stars was developed…

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The Destruction of the Muslim Economic System: A Prime reason for the Decline of Muslim Science

Attacks on Islamic centres of wealth on land and on…

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Did Muslim Rulers play a part in the decline of Muslim Civilisation?

Muslims stand responsible for their own decadence. After the early…

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Were the Berbers and Seljuks instrumental in decline of Muslim Civilisation?

It is actually a hostility to Berbers and Turks that…

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The Ottoman Ulema

The word ulema, which is widely used in the Islamic…

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The Question is? Myths and Fallacies Surrounding the Decline of Muslim Civilisation

Why did Islamic civilisation fall into decline? This article seeks…

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Ibn Rushd: Harmony of Theological & Philosophical (Scientific) Truth

Ibn Rushd is perhaps the best known Muslim scholar of…

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Madrasas of the Ottoman Empire

Ottoman Madrasas, were generally the continuation of traditional Islamic Madrasas,…

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Madrassa Education during the Early Ottoman Period

The madrasas of the early Ottoman period can be considered…

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The Development and Decline of Ottoman Madrasas

The development of madrasas was greatly influenced by the impact…

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Science and Institutions within Ottoman Administration

The Ottomans conserved the fundamental features of Islamic civilisation in…

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Fatimid Coins 909-1171CE

During the Fatimid Dynasty, Islamic coins were of such high…

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Andalusian Coins 711-1494CE

Muslims minted their first gold coins when they entered Spain…

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Abbasid Coins (750-1258CE)

The Abbasid Dynasty experimented with different kinds of coins. They…

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Umayyad Coins (661-750CE)

As part of a policy to unify the various regions…

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The Little Known Tolerant and Humane Side of Islamic Civilisation

...it can safely be said that no faith can show…

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Ibn Hazm’s Philosophy and Thoughts on Science

Abu Muhammad ‘Ali Ibn Ahmad Ibn Sa’id Ibn HAZM, (November…

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Al-Kindi, Cryptography, Code Breaking and Ciphers

Cryptography paved the way for the development of arguably humanity's…

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The University of Sankore, Timbuktu

Sankore's achievement in higher education is important to Islamic Civilisation…

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The Cannon of Mehmed II

In the Fort Nelson Museum a huge bronze cannon sits…

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Muslim Contribution to Cosmetics

Al-Zahrawi's medical encyclopaedia, used in Europe's Universities from the 12th-17th…

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Recommended Reading for Understanding the Impact of Muslim Science on the West

Amongst the English writing authors who can enlighten the reader…

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Misconceptions about Islamic and Greek Science

According to some, heritage was lost during the Dark Ages…

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The Impact of Translations of Muslim Sciences on the West

Scholars from all Christian lands rushed to translate Muslim science,…

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The Role of the Crusades in the transfer of Islamic science to the West

Local builders employed by the Crusaders revealed the solutions to…

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The Role of Sicily in the transfer of Islamic Science to the West

The role of Sicily in the transfer of Muslim science…

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Aspects of Influence of Muslim Science on the West

To go through the Islamic impact on modern science and…

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The Book of Water (Kitab Al-Ma’a)

Kitab Al-Ma'a, a strange title for the first known Encyclopedia…

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The Beginning of the Paper Industry

Paper, originally, was brought by the Muslims from China. From…

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The Beginning of the Islamic Hospitals

Possibly the earliest hospital in Islam was a mobile dispensary…

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The Al-Nuri Hospital

ln 1154 Nur-al-Din Zangi built a hospital in Damascus. It…

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The Marrakech Hospital

Built by Al-Mansur who rules Morocco and Spain until his…

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The Samarqand Observatory

The observatory of Samarqand dates from 1424AD and was a…

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Distortions in Western Science

The centuries termed as the 'Dark Ages' are the missing…

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The fallacy of the ‘Dark Ages’

There is a major fallacy in the concept of the…

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Contrast between Islamic and Western Science

The crucial, most fundamental, difference between Islamic and secular Western…

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Quran, Hadith and Knowledge

The Quran, repeatedly calls on the believers to seek knowledge,…

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Science conflicting with Religion?

The apparent conflict of science and religion is a uniquely…

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Islam as the Impetus of Scientific Advance

Islam provided such impetus in the era 800-1200. Islam makes…

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Muslim Scholars and Science

Muslim scholars also realised that understanding the complexities of the…

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Quranic Verses on Science

Whilst scientific truths are very regularly questioned and abandoned, the…

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Urinary Stone Disease in Arabian Medicine

Urinary stone disease (urolithiasis) was discussed in great detail in…

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The Impact of Islamic Learning: The spread of Arabic scientific literature to Europe

Paul Tannery said of geometry of the eleventh century in…

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Women and learning in Islam

The female relatives of the khalifs and courtiers vied with…

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Ibn Khaldun on Taxes

Ibn-khaldun enters the frame of Islamic scholarship, associating both intellectual…

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A Review of Early Muslim Control Engineering

During the period of Islamic-Arabic extraordinary activity in Science and…

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Muslim Rocket Technology

Arabic accounts report that Muslims introduced firearms into Islamic Spain,…

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Water Management and Hydraulic Technology

Water management in all its intricacies, from Andalusia to Afghanistan,…

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Review of Muslim Contribution to Civil Engineering: Dam Construction

Dams are required in most hydraulic systems, for irrigation, regulating…

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The Legacy of Ulugh Beg

Kevin Krisciunas writes on The Legacy of Ulugh Beg. Although…

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The impact of Al-Battani on European Astronomy

Al-Battani used the widest variety of instruments: astrolabes, tubes, a…

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The Muslim Pioneers of Astronomy

Most eminent Muslim astronomers include Al-Battani, al-Sufi, al-Biruni, and Ibn…

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Astronomical Observatories in the Classical Islamic Culture

The modern astronomical observatory as a research institute (as opposed…

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An overview of Muslim Astronomers

Al-Battani discovered the notions of trigonometrical ratios used today. Al-Biruni…

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Transmission of Muslim Astronomy to Europe

It was in Muslim Toledo, Spain, where flocked in the…

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Pharmacology in the Making

Advances in Muslim chemistry led to the development of Muslim…

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The Advent of Experimental Chemistry

Experiment is what differentiates science of Muslim Civilisation from Greek…

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Abu al-Qasim Al-Zahrawi the Great Surgeon

Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi (936-1013 CE), also known…

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Eye Specialists in Islamic Cultures

"I invite you... to go back with me 1000 years…

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Introduction to Muslim Science

Whilst the period of Antiquity, the time of Greco-Roman civilisation,…

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Al-Jazari: The Mechanical Genius

The following short survey presents a rapid overview on the…

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Introduction to the History of Medieval Islamic Medicine; Human Anatomy and Physiology in the Medieval Islamic Era

The medical scholars during the medieval Islamic era placed great…

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