Tag: Astronomy

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White Supremacism and Islamic Astronomy in History of Astronomy Texts from the Eighteenth Century to the Present Day

by Joe Lockard Published on: 30th October 2019

This paper reviews manifestations of racism in European and American histories of Arab and Persian astronomy from the eighteenth century to the present day.  Its first section discusses the representation of Islamic astronomy from Adam…

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Science In India During The Muslim Rule

by Zakaria Virk Published on: 29th October 2019

The scientific cooperation between India and the Arabs dates back to the time of Abbasid Caliphate of Baghdad when a number of books on astronomy, mathematics, and medicine were translated from Sanskrit into Arabic. From…

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Development of Astronomy in Ottomans

by Yavuz Unat Published on: 28th September 2019

Generally, it is possible to study the development of astronomy in the Ottomans in three periods; The astronomy from the establishment of Ottomans to Ali Qushji’s arrival in the Ottomans (1299-1472); The astronomy from Ali…

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Embedding Scientific Ideas as a Mode of Science Transmission

by George Saliba Published on: 12th September 2018

I used the discipline of astronomy as a template to record the transmitted ideas and hoped that other people, who work on other disciplines, would do the same, all in an effort to paint a…

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The Science of Al-Biruni

by Amelia Carolina Sparavigna Published on: 1st August 2018

Al-Biruni was so far ahead of his time that his most brilliant discoveries seemed incomprehensible to most of the scholars of his days...

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From Baghdad to Barcelona: The Anxiety of Influence in the Transmission of the Greek and Arabic Sciences

by Glen M. Cooper Published on: 2nd April 2018

Drawing on Harold Bloom’s model of poetic influence and supersession in his famous book, “The Anxiety of Influence,” and considering several historical cases of cross-cultural reception of the natural sciences from the Middle Ages that…

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Early Women of Science, Technology, Medicine and Management

by Salim Al-Hassani Published on: 7th March 2018

This article is a paper submitted to and presented at WISE 2018: World Muslim Women's Summit & Exhibition, organised by TASAM, Istanbul, Turkey, from 28th Feb - 4th March 2018.

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Oxford Museum of the History of Science Online Al-Mizan Exhibition

by Sairah Yassir-Deane Published on: 16th November 2017

The Oxford Museum of the History of Science launched an online Al-Mizan Exhibition, this exhibition explores the connections between the sciences and arts in societies from Muslim Civilisation.

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The West Owes a Debt to Islam: Interview with Prof Glen Cooper

by The Editorial Team Published on: 31st October 2017

Professor Glen Cooper discusses the Golden Age of Muslim Civilisation. During the European Dark Ages, when science, art and literature seemed to flounder for centuries, there actually was a lot of discover in places like…

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Islamic Astronomy

by David A King Published on: 24th April 2017

This article was originally published as: “Islamic Astronomy”, in Christopher Walker, ed., Astronomy before the Telescope, London: British Museum Press, 1996, pp. 143-174.

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Al-Khalili and the Culmination of Spherical Astronomy in 14th-Century Damascus

by David A King Published on: 9th June 2016

Syria in the 14th century was the scene of the most sophisticated developments in astronomy anywhere in the world. Shams al-Din al-Khalili was a muwaqqit, or mosque astronomer, in Damascus in the middle of that…

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Nearly 3 Centuries old light system illuminates a sacred grave on Sun’s equinox

by Cem Nizamoglu Published on: 23rd September 2015

This year has been chosen as "International Year of Light (IYL2015)" by UNESCO, what a perfect time to remember these words: “If the first light of the new year doesn’t shine upon my mentor, then…

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BBC Travel: Where algebra got its name from

by News Desk Published on: 11th March 2015

Amazing snapshots from Khiva (formally known as Khawarizm) in Uzbekistan. The birth place of the famous mathematician Al-Khawarizmi (780 – 850 CE). A prosperous centre of learning during the Golden Age of Muslim Civilisation. (Source…

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The Suhayl 2014 Vol 13

by The Editorial Team Published on: 26th February 2015

The Suhayl 2014 Vol 13 - International Journal for the History of the Exact and Natural Sciences in Islamic Civilisation FSTC is pleased to bring to the attention of readers the availability online of the…

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The renaissance of astronomy in Baghdad in the 9th and 10th centuries

by David A King Published on: 19th February 2015

[Note of the editor] This article was published in 2003 as: David A. King, "The renaissance of astronomy in Baghdad in the ninth and tenth centuries: A list of publications, mainly from the last 50…

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FSTC at Second International Conference in Sharjah

by Ayshah Ismail Published on: 30th December 2014

FSTC and CE4tF are very pleased to have participated in the Second International Conference on Arabs’ and Muslims’ History of Science and the eleventh Conference on the Space Sciences and Astronomy. The conference was organised…

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Manuscript Review: Farthest Perception in the Comprehension of Heavens, by Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi

by N.A. Baloch Published on: 1st October 2014

With all the weight of his knowledge, Qutub al-Din preferred to be a man of lively temperament who would engage in jests, play chess and also music on the rehab. He was a highly knowledgeable…

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Abu al-Wafa al-Buzjanî

by The Editorial Team Published on: 8th July 2013

Muḥammad Abūʾl-Wafāʾ al-Būzjānī (10 June 940–997 or 998) was a distinguished Muslim astronomer and mathematician, who made important contributions to the development of trigonometry. He worked in a private observatory in Baghdad, where he made…

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Ulugh Beg

by The Editorial Team Published on: 7th April 2013

Ulugh Beg was a Timurid ruler as well as an astronomer, mathematician. His primary interest was in the sciences and intellectual matters. He built an observatory at Samarkand. In his observations he discovered a number…

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Ibn al-Majdi

by The Editorial Team Published on: 19th January 2013

Shihab al-Din Abu al-'Abbas Ahmad Ibn al-Majdi (1359–1447 CE) was an Egyptian mathematician and astronomer. We publish this short article to celebrate the memory of his passing away in Cairo on 27/28 January 1447.

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Ali Al-Qushji and His Contributions to Mathematics and Astronomy

by Ilay Ileri Published on: 12th August 2011

Ali Al-Qushji was one of the most noteworthy and important scientists in the Islamic world. He wrote valuable works especially on astronomy and mathematics. He was a student and co-worker of the famous statesman and…

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The Origins of Islamic Science

by Muhammad Abdul Jabbar Beg Published on: 30th August 2010

In the following well documented article Dr Muhammad Abdul Jabbar Beg surveys the origins of Islamic science, with a special focus on its interaction with the previous intellectual traditions of the ancient world as well…

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The Transfer of Science Between India, Europe and China via Muslim Heritage

by Charles Burnett Published on: 15th July 2010

[Proceedings of the conference 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World organised by FSTC, London, 25-26 May 2010]. The Islamic realms served as a crucible for scientific learning from the ancient Greek world in the…

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Ottoman Contributions to Science and Technology

by Salim Ayduz Published on: 11th August 2008

The Ottoman contribution to science and technology during their six hundred year rule is beyond measure. This article is a brief outline of just some of the Ottoman scientific activities and related institutions that brought…

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Taqi al-Din ibn Ma‘ruf and the Science of Optics: The Nature of Light and the Mechanism of Vision by Hüseyin Gazi Topdemir

by Hüseyin Gazi Topdemir Published on: 15th July 2008

In this article, some aspects of Kitab Nūr hadaqat al-ibsār wa-nūr haqīqat al-anzār (Book of the Light of the Pupil of Vision and the Light of the Truth of the Sights) of the renowned Ottoman…

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Taqi al-Din Ibn Ma’ruf: Survey on his Works and Scientific Method

by Ihsan Fazlioglu Published on: 4th July 2008

Being in form a bio-bibliographical essay on the life and works of Taqī al-Dīn Ibn Ma'rūf, a well known scholar of 16th-century Istanbul, this article presents the contents of his books and compares his scientific…

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Taqi al-Din Ibn Ma’ruf: A Bio-Bibliographical Essay

by Salim Ayduz Published on: 26th June 2008

This article is a bio-bibliographical essay on the life and works of Taqī al-Dīn Ibn Ma'ruf, a scholar of 16th-century Istanbul, one of the most prolific and original scientists of the Ottoman period of Islamic…

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The Astronomical Clock of Taqi Al-Din: Virtual Reconstruction

by Salim Al-Hassani Published on: 19th June 2008

In his book The Brightest Stars for the Construction of Mechanical Clocks (Al-Kawakib al-durriyya fi wadh' al-bankamat al-dawriyya), Taqi al-Din Ibn Ma'ruf analyses the four main types of time keeping devices known in the 16th…

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The Instruments of Istanbul Observatory

by Sevim Tekeli Published on: 8th June 2008

In this article, Professor Sevim Tekeli, an outstanding scholar in the history of Ottoman science, describes the instruments built by Taqî al-Dîn Ibn Ma'ruf and his team at the Istanbul observatory (was in activity between…

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The Observation Well

by Aydin Sayili Published on: 7th June 2008

Observation wells received much historical interest relating to observatories. In this article Prof. Aydin Sayili describes the history of "observation wells" both in Islamic and European worlds.

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Principle and Use of Ottoman Sundials

by Atilla Bir Published on: 30th May 2008

Muslim astronomers and engineers invented a variety of dials for timekeeping and for determining the times of the five daily prayers. In this thorough and technical study, Professor Attila Bir analyses the principle and use…

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Our Arabic Heritage in the Celestial Vault

by Roland Laffitte Published on: 1st May 2008

In Arabic culture, as in other civilisations, the cultural dimension of the history of astronomy appears in part in the meanings and origins of star and constellation names. This nomenclature was shaped by cultural symbols…

Precious Records of Eclipses in Muslim Astronomy and History

by The Editorial Team Published on: 29th August 2007

On the occasion of the lunar eclipse that occurs on 28 August 2007, we produce a short survey of some records of lunar and solar eclipses reported on in Muslim heritage, drawn from various sources,…

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Copernicus and Arabic Astronomy: A Review of Recent Research

by George Saliba Published on: 23rd May 2007

Some 800 years in the past, in 1206, a brilliant Muslim scholar died : Badi' al-Zaman Abu al-‘Izz ibn Ismail ibn al-Razzaz al-Jazari. He was one of the most important inventors and mechanical engineers in…

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Al-Kindi

by The Editorial Team Published on: 6th May 2007

Ya'qub b. Ishaq al-Kindi was an early Arab scholar of the 9th century, one of the first great scientists that set the stage for the brilliant Islamic tradition of learning. His works in philosophy, cosmology,…

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Sine, Cosine and the Measurement of the Earth

by Mahbub Ghani Published on: 2nd February 2007

Mathematics has long been an area of expertise amongst Muslim mathematicians. This article considers the contributions of Al-Tusi and Al-Battani and others in trigonometry, focusing upon the progress their discoveries represented in comparison with the…

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Al-Urdi’s Article on ‘The Quality of Observation’

by Sevim Tekeli Published on: 31st January 2007

Astronomy has for a long time been of keen interest of Muslims throughout centuries. This article by Professor Sevim Tekeli highlights the quality and precision of observations made by al-Urdi.

Alfraganus and the Elements of Astronomy

by Yavuz Unat Published on: 29th January 2007

Al-Farghânî, known in the West as Alfraganus , was one of the most famous astronomers of the 9th century. His book, Elements of Astronomy, written in 833 CE remained as the most popular text book…

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Scientific Contacts and Influences Between the Islamic World and Europe: The Case of Astronomy

by Paul Kunitzsch Published on: 25th January 2007

For more than a thousand years the Muslim East and the Christian West, notwithstanding the differences in matters of creed, ideology and social traditions and the intervening opposition of defenders of orthodoxy on both sides,…

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Contribution of Al-Khwarizmi to Mathematics and Geography

by N. Akmal Ayyubi Published on: 27th December 2006

Muhammad ibn Musa Al-Khwarizmi is one of the greatest scientific minds of the medieval period and a most important Muslim mathematician who was justly called the 'father of algebra'. Besides his founding the science of…

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The Scholars of Seville – Mathematics and Astronomy

by Salah Zaimeche Published on: 15th August 2005

In Seville, scholars led the science of astronomy, criticising earlier works on the basis of new observations and poetry was used to help people memorise the principles of algebra.

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Using an Astrolabe

by Emily Winterburn Published on: 10th August 2005

The history of the astrolabe begins more than two thousand years ago, but it is in the Islamic classical world that the astrolabe was highly developed and its uses widely multiplied. Introduced to Europe from…

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Astronomical Instruments of Tycho Brahe and Taqi al-Din

by FSTC Limited Published on: 26th April 2005

Tycho Brahe "was a brilliant astronomer and scientist of his time, and has had a big significance on the development of astronomy, science in general, and our view of the world" has been influenced by…

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Observatories In Islam

by Aydin Sayili Published on: 2nd March 2005

The observatory as an organised and state sponsored activity began with in the Islamic world. Much progress was made in this area, particularly in eastern parts of the Islamic world.

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The Scholars of Samarkand

by Salah Zaimeche Published on: 2nd March 2005

Samarkand contributed in particular to the progress of science in astronomy through its observatory. Some of its directors and their achievements are highlighted here.

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Harran

by The Editorial Team Published on: 22nd February 2005

Harran is a very old town situated in the Jazira province of modern Turkey near the sources of the Balkh River. Badly effected by the Crusades, it nevertheless had its production of scientists that are…

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Turkish Contributions to Scientific Work in Islam

by Aydin Sayili Published on: 10th September 2004

Turks have played an active part in the pursuit of science and learning in the Islamic World throughout its history. This activity is outlind here from the very formative stages of the islamic civilization down…

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Modelling the Stars

by Jonathan Chang Published on: 30th June 2004

The measurement of the positions of the stars was developed and refined by scientists of the Muslim world and many kinds of Models were developed. These are described within this article.

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Ziryab, the Musician, Astronomer, Fashion Designer and Gastronome

by The Editorial Team Published on: 13th June 2003

Abul-Hasan Alí Ibn Nafí, nicknamed Ziryab, was Chief Entertainer of the Court of Cordoba in 822AD. He revolutionised medieval music, lifestyle, fashion, hairstyles, furniture and even tableware. He transformed the way people ate, socialised, and…

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The Samarqand Observatory

by FSTC Published on: 20th December 2002

The observatory of Samarqand dates from 1424AD and was a `monumental' building equipped with a huge meridian, made of masonry, a ‘Fakhri sextant’, of a radius of 40.4 metres. It was built By Uluh Beg…

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The Legacy of Ulugh Beg

by FSTC Published on: 27th December 2001

Kevin Krisciunas writes on The Legacy of Ulugh Beg. Although he recognising the crucial role of Islamic observation, he still finds sources of disagreement with the notion that the Samarqand observatory exerted decisive influence on…

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The impact of Al-Battani on European Astronomy

by FSTC Published on: 27th December 2001

Al-Battani used the widest variety of instruments: astrolabes, tubes, a gnomon divided into twelve parts, a celestial globe with five armillaries, parallax rules, a mural quadrant, sundials, vertical as well as horizontal.

The Muslim Pioneers of Astronomy

by FSTC Published on: 27th December 2001

Most eminent Muslim astronomers include Al-Battani, al-Sufi, al-Biruni, and Ibn Yunus. They recorded the position of the sun, moon and the stars.

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Astronomical Observatories in the Classical Islamic Culture

by Salah Zaimeche Published on: 27th December 2001

The modern astronomical observatory as a research institute (as opposed to a private observation post as was the case in ancient times) is a creation of the Islamic scientific tradition. Since the early 9th century,…

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An overview of Muslim Astronomers

by Salah Zaimeche Published on: 26th December 2001

Al-Battani discovered the notions of trigonometrical ratios used today. Al-Biruni claimed the earth rotated around its own axis. Jabir Ibn Aflah made the first portable celestial sphere to measure and explain the movements of celestial…

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Transmission of Muslim Astronomy to Europe

by Salah Zaimeche Published on: 26th December 2001

It was in Muslim Toledo, Spain, where flocked in the 12th century, in particular, scholars from all Christian lands to translate Muslim science, and start the scientific awakening of Europe.

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Madīnat al-Zahrā’ and the Spaces of Knowledge

by Susana Calvo Capilla Published on: 9th January 1700

The Revival of Classical Antiquity in Cordoba in the 10th century: