Tag: Social-sciences

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R&D Lessons from Muslim Civilisation

by Salim Al-Hassani Published on: 27th February 2023

This short article is a highlight of an online lecture recently given on 19 February 2023 by Professor Salim Al-Hassani, organised by FARDA (Future Awareness through Rational and Actions), Uppsala University, Sweden).

©MidJourney CC BY-NC 4.0

Private Sector’s Role in Muslim Civilization Development

by Marwan Haddad Published on: 22nd June 2022

This paper examines the role of the private sector in the development of Muslim civilization. For over fourteen centuries, the private sector has remained active in the development of Muslim civilization, although to various degrees.…

The Mystery of Hayy Ibn Yaqzan

by Salim Al-Hassani - 1001 Book Chief Editor Published on: 19th August 2020

In early 12th-century Muslim Spain, a gifted philosopher, mathematician, poet, and medical doctor was born. Ibn Tufayl, or Abu Bakr ibn Abd al-Malik ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Tufayl al-Qaysi, to give his full name,…

Peregrination and Ceremonial in the Almohad Mosque of Tinmal

by Susana Calvo Capilla Published on: 1st August 2020

The Tinmal mosque was built by the first Almohad caliph, ʿAbd al-Muʾmin, around 1148 next to the tomb of the mahdī Ibn Tūmart, the founder of the Almohad creed (d. 1130). The official pilgrimages (ziyāra)…


The Principles of Animal Advocacy in Islam: Four Integrated Ecognitions

by Nadeem Haque Published on: 4th June 2020

The Qurān—the scripture of the Muslims, which purports to be from the Creator of the Universe—presents a rational, holistic, and integrated view of life, where the human being is considered an integral, coexistential part of…


Some Thoughts on the Politics of Early Modern Ottoman Science

by Baki Tezcan Published on: 19th March 2020

Beyond Dominant Paradigms in Ottoman and Middle Eastern/ North African Studies. A tribute to Rifa'at Abou-El-Haj.

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Video: Ibn Khaldun – Greatest Medieval Thinker?

by Media Desk Published on: 11th February 2020

The life story and lessons of a one of a kind person in history, Ibn Khaldun!


Science Institutionalization in Early Islam

by Moneef Rafe Zoubi Published on: 29th January 2020

“Bayt al-Hikma of Baghdad as a Model of an Academy of Sciences” from Dirasat, Human and Social Sciences, Volume 44, No. 3, 2017: This study aims to introduce academy-type institutions of the pre-Islamic era. To…


Arab Translators of Egypt’s Hieroglyphs

by Tom Verde Published on: 8th May 2018

Carved in the 13th century bce, fine bas-reliefs on the walls of the tomb of Seti i in Egypt’s Valley of the Kings show elaborately carved hieroglyphs, a term that comes from the Greek for…


An introduction to Early Islamic Society and Social Sciences

by Salah Zaimeche Published on: 28th June 2017

...in order to know or appreciate most developments of Muslim society and civilization, or to understand the very foundations of Islamic society and civilization, we have to go to the very early history of Islam.…

UNESCO: The Islamic Golden Age of Science for today’s knowledge-based society

by News Desk Published on: 16th September 2015

From the 14th to 15th September 2015, UNESCO representatives, worldwide researchers, academics, science historians and political decision makers gathered in Paris to explore UNESCO’s International Year of Light by visiting the progression along with contributions…


Ibn Wasil

by The Editorial Team Published on: 19th April 2013

Abu ‘Abd Allah Muhammad Ibn Wasil was an historian and man of letters, born in Hamat in Syria on 2 Shawwal 604/20 April 1208 and died in 697/1298. Visiting Iraq and Egypt, he witnessed the…


Reason and Rationality in the Quran

by Ibrahim Kalin Published on: 14th September 2012

In this long and well written article, Dr Ibrahim Kalin, based on his thorough study of the history of philosophy, analyzes the categories of reason and rationality within the Islamic intellectual context as it was…


Natural Philosophy in the Islamic World

by Peter Adamson Published on: 24th June 2011

In the following short report, we present a summary of the lecture presented by Professor Peter Adamson in the Muslim Heritage Awareness Group (MHAG) meeting organized by FSTC in London on 30 March 2011. In…


Trevor Hilder: A Story About Sustainable History

by Trevor Hilder Published on: 13th June 2011

After briefly describing his work background, Trevor Hilder tells the story of the young man who set out to seek his fortune.


Cairo: A Millennial

by Irene Beeson Published on: 7th March 2011

In this article, published originally in Saudi Aramco World in 1969, focus is laid on the history of Cairo, the capital city of Egypt, founded in 969 by General Gawhar, in the name of the…


Teaching and Researching on Arabic-Islamic Science at the University of Barcelona (1931-2010)

by Emilia Calvo Published on: 14th September 2010

Proceedings of the conference 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World organised by FSTC, London, 25-26 May 2010. Professor Emilia Calvo, a member of the Barcelona Team working since decades on the history of Islamic…


The Next Golden Age? Using History to Inspire Science Today

by Natalie Day Published on: 4th August 2010

[Proceedings of the conference 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World organised by FSTC, London, 25-26 May 2010]. This presentation will reflect on the modern state of science in the Islamic-world and the potential of…


Al-Muqaddasi and Human Geography: An Early Contribution to Social Sciences

by Salah Zaimeche Published on: 21st September 2009

Recent scholarly interest in the genesis of social sciences in Islamic culture is a noteworthy shift. Until recent times, the development of these fields was credited exclusively to the modern Western tradition, especially to the…


Ibn Khaldun’s Concept of Education in the ‘Muqaddima’

by Abdesselam Cheddadi Published on: 15th May 2009

At first sight, the place held by education in Ibn Khaldun's sociology appears uncertain to say the least. What today we understand by the term ‘education'—the replication of individuals and groups, firstly at the level…


Al-Ghazali’s Theory of Education

by Nabil Nofal Published on: 16th March 2009

Al-Ghazali (1058-1111) was one of the most influential Muslim thinkers. A jurist, logician, theologian, and philosopher, he was honoured in the history of Islam with title of Hujjatul-Islam (the Proof of Islam)." Among his numerous…


Okasha El-Daly Lectures at Leeds on Muslim Heritage in Our World

by Okasha El Daly Published on: 5th March 2009

The Leeds University Islamic Awareness Week organised by students, invited Dr. Okasha El Daly to deliver the opening lecture on Monday 16th February 2009 which took place at Rupert Beckett Theatre, University of Leeds.


Al-Farabi’s Doctrine of Education: Between Philosophy and Sociological Theory

by Ammar al-Talbi Published on: 14th February 2009

Throughout the ages thinkers have raised the question of what the human being ought to learn in order to be in tune with his own epoch, to live intelligently in society, and to be a…


The Ethical Theory of Education of Ahmad Miskawayh

by Nadia Jamal al-Din Published on: 31st January 2009

Abu `Ali Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Ya'qub Miskawayh (932-1030) is a brilliant intellectual and philosopher of 10th-century Buwayhid Baghdad. His effect on Islamic philosophy is mainly concerned with ethical issues. His book Tadhib al-akhlaq (Ethical…


Ibn Sina on Education

by Abd Al-Rahman Al Naqib Published on: 17th January 2009

This study presents the theory of education in the philosophy of Ibn Sina, considered by ancient and modern scholars alike as the most famous of the Muslim philosophers. In his philosophical system, Ibn Sina outlined…


Science and Rationalism in 9th Century Baghdad

by Jim Al-Khalili Published on: 12th November 2008

Text of the Lecture of Professor Jim Al-Khalili in the Conference Muslim Heritage in our World: Social Cohesion marking the 1001 Inventions Exhibition at the House of Parliament, 15th of October 2008, Church House, London,…


George Sarton and the History of Science

by Aydin Sayili Published on: 4th August 2008

George Sarton was a pioneer scholar who played a decisive role by his scholarship, methodology and academic career in establishing the history of science as a recognized subject in modern academia. His monumental major work…


The History of Scientific Interaction

by Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu Published on: 30th January 2008

The evolution of world politics since the last decade of 20th century and several substantial events witnessed during this period have modified communities' outlooks towards each other. They sometimes modified our whole perception of global…


Deciphering Egyptian Hieroglyphs in Muslim Heritage

by Okasha El Daly Published on: 12th July 2007

The article surveys some results of Dr. Okasha El Daly's exciting discoveries about the precedence of Muslim scholars of the golden age of Islamic culture in deciphering the hieroglyphs of Ancient Egypt. This ground breaking…


Tolerance or Compatibility? The Search for a Qur’anic Paradigm of Science

by Ahmad Dallal Published on: 11th July 2007

In this illuminating analysis, Prof. Ahmad Dallal produces an authoritative study of some episodes of the scientific exegis of the Holy text of Islam, the Qur'an, focusing on the exegesis (tafsir) of Fakhr


General Organisation of Education and Teaching Methods in Islamic Civilisation

by The Editorial Team Published on: 11th January 2007

Organised learning had been a feature of Islamic Civilisation since the beginning. The Prophet Muhammad would organise the education of a committed group who over time became the people of knowledge that spread Islam far…


Learning Institutions in Islam

by The Editorial Team Published on: 11th January 2007

Learning institutions in various forms have existed for centuries in the Muslim World, the earliest of which are, al-Qarawiyyin, al-Azhar and al-Qayrawan. This short article traces the emergence and spread of madrasas as a popular…


Islamic Science, the Scholar and Ethics

by FSTC Published on: 24th February 2006

The ethics or philosophy of science has in more recent times become an increasingly important subject. This article discusses and compares modern day scientific ethics with the ethics or morality underpinning Islamic Science.


Al-Fârâbî as a Source of the History of Philosophy and of Its Definition

by Mubahat Turker-Kuyel Published on: 11th March 2005

The origins of science lie in the study we call philosophy which itself is traced back through traditions of wisdom. Here a look at al Farabi's description of wisdom and the history of philosophy.

Imam Jaafar As-Sadiq

by Adil Salahi Published on: 14th January 2005

One of the foremost scholars of Islam Imam Jaafar as-Sadiq was a teacher of both Abu Haneefah and Malik, the founders of two of the four schools of Islamic Law.


Muslim Contributions to Philosophy – Ibn Sina, Farabi, Beyruni

by Mehmet Aydin Published on: 14th January 2005

Muslim philosophers were men of science who explored and set the very foundations of knowledge. They had great influence and importance in the history of fundamental ideas.


Al-Qarawiyyin Mosque and University

by FSTC Published on: 20th October 2004

For well over twelve hundred years Al-Qarawiyyin has been one of the leading spiritual and educational centres of the Muslim World, a typical institution, of many, underlining how learning constituted the heart of the religion…


The Ottoman Madrassa

by Rabah Saoud Published on: 8th July 2004

The Madrassa was one of the main venues of education in the Muslim World under the Ottoman Caliphate until 1924 when Ataturks' law abolished it in favour of modern schools and universities. In planning terms…


Ibn Rushd: Harmony of Theological & Philosophical (Scientific) Truth

by The Editorial Team Published on: 27th April 2004

Ibn Rushd is perhaps the best known Muslim scholar of Cordoba who was instrumental in influencing European theology and epistemology. Here is a facinating glimpse into his role in establishing the role of reasoning in…


The Development and Decline of Ottoman Madrasas

by Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu Published on: 21st April 2004

The development of madrasas was greatly influenced by the impact of a strengthened central state authority and the resulting political stability and economic well-being it brought to the society. Toward the end of the sixteenth…


The Little Known Tolerant and Humane Side of Islamic Civilisation

by Salah Zaimeche Published on: 13th October 2003

...it can safely be said that no faith can show as equal sense of brotherhood between diverse colours as in Islam.


The University of Sankore, Timbuktu

by Zulkifli Khair Published on: 7th June 2003

Sankore's achievement in higher education is important to Islamic Civilisation even though it is less known in comparison to Al-Azhar, Al-Qayrawan, Al-Qarawiyyin and Qurtuba Universities.


Contrast between Islamic and Western Science

by Salah Zaimeche Published on: 1st September 2002

The crucial, most fundamental, difference between Islamic and secular Western science is that Islam and Muslim Civilisation both reached their apogee in the same centuries.

Science conflicting with Religion?

by Salah Zaimeche Published on: 1st September 2002

The apparent conflict of science and religion is a uniquely Western creation. Islam, unlike medieval Catholicism, it is observed, 'did nothing to stifle the spirit of scientific enquiry'.


Islam as the Impetus of Scientific Advance

by Salah Zaimeche Published on: 1st September 2002

Islam provided such impetus in the era 800-1200. Islam makes self-improvement of the individual and the betterment of society part of religious duty, inspiring individuals in all manners and forms.


The Islamic Historical Literature

by Salah Zaimeche Published on: 11th November 2001

The narration of historical events and the reflexion upon their causes are old scholarly concerns since ancient times. In Islamic culture, a specific Arabic historiographical tradition emerged very early, since the late 7th century, to…