Tag: Ottomans

medicine

Epidemics

by Ali Haydar Bayat Published on: 1st July 2020

Throughout history one of the greatest disasters humankind has seen are epidemics. In their most critical times, they have killed millions, causing people to migrate, paralyzing work forces, agriculture and stockbreeding decline, creating numerous negative…

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Turkish Medical History of the Seljuk Era

by Ali Haydar Bayat Published on: 1st July 2020

The Great Seljuk state was part of the medieval Islamic civilization. Most of its scientific institutions and educational traditions were inherited from previous and contemporary Muslim and Turkish states. In this well documented article, the…

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The Classification of Mental Diseases in the Ottoman Medical Manuscripts

by Nil Sari Published on: 18th May 2020

The Ottomans provided great contributions towards the fields of psychiatry and neurology. Their thoughts and writings delve into many depths and are worthy of recognition by those in the medical sphere.

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Some Thoughts on the Politics of Early Modern Ottoman Science

by Baki Tezcan Published on: 19th March 2020

Beyond Dominant Paradigms in Ottoman and Middle Eastern/ North African Studies. A tribute to Rifa'at Abou-El-Haj.

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Development of Astronomy in Ottomans

by Yavuz Unat Published on: 28th September 2019

Generally, it is possible to study the development of astronomy in the Ottomans in three periods; The astronomy from the establishment of Ottomans to Ali Qushji’s arrival in the Ottomans (1299-1472); The astronomy from Ali…

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Malika IV: Hurrem Sultan (Roxolana)

by Tom Verde Published on: 3rd June 2018

From Bangladesh to Pakistan, Kyrgyzstan to Nigeria, Senegal to Turkey, it is not particularly rare in our own times for women in Muslim-majority countries to be appointed and elected to high offices—including heads of state.…

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Introduction to Turkish Motifs in Ottoman Times

by Sairah Yassir-Deane Published on: 23rd January 2018

On 13 and 14 January 2018 Ashfia Ashrif, Manchester based Artist and Student of Traditional Arts, delivered a two day course named “Introduction to Turkish Motifs in Ottoman Times” at FSTC House.

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Science and Engineering in the Islamic Heritage Symposium

by Al-Furqan Published on: 31st August 2017

“Science and Engineering in the Islamic Heritage”, a Symposium organised by Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation – Centre for the Study of Islamic Manuscripts, in co-operation with the Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation (UK), on…

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A Chronology – Turkey’s 700-year long venture in science and technology

by Feza Günergun Published on: 13th April 2017

A chronology on "Science from the East - Techniques from the West: Turkey's 700-year long venture" is compiled by Professor Dr. Feza Günergun, Department of the History of Science, Istanbul University. People sought knowledge for…

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EuroNews.com: Brussels exhibition highlights Ottoman influence

by News Desk Published on: 13th April 2015

"The Sultan’s World exhibition runs in Brussels until 31 May 2015. It then travels to Krakow, Poland."

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The European Jerusalem: Sarajevo, where Muslim heritage flourished in Central Europe

by Sairah Yassir-Deane Published on: 15th May 2014

During Ottoman rule, Sarajevo was heralded as the “European Jerusalem”, as its invaluable contributions to civil engineering, industry, trade and architecture attracted people from various ethnic and religious backgrounds. Aesthetic beauty alongside scientific ingenuity made,…

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East Meets West in Venice

by Richard Covington Published on: 29th February 2012

For much of the millennium before the rise of Portugal and Spain, Venice flourished as the hub of Europe's trade with the lands to its east and south. The profound mutual influences that resulted have…

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Significant Ottoman Mathematicians and their Works

by Salim Ayduz Published on: 19th December 2011

This article aims to give an overview of the formation and development of mathematical studies and the work of famous mathematician in the Ottoman State over a 600 year period, from the period preceding the…

The Institution of Waqf as a Solution to the Economic Crisis

by Cem Nizamoglu Published on: 11th August 2011

The Wall Street Journal, one of the world's most respected newspapers, has suggested recently that the ongoing economic crisis could be resolved in part by the charitable institution of waqf created by the Muslim civilisation…

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The Influence of Nasir al-Din al-Tusi on Ottoman Scientific Literature

by Salim Ayduz Published on: 29th June 2011

The works of Nasir al-Din al-Tusi have always attracted the interest of Ottoman scholars as early as the 14th century. Some of his works were translated into Turkish and various annotations or commentaries were written…

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The 15th Century Turkish Physician Serefeddin Sabuncuoglu Author of Cerrahiyetu ‘l-Haniyye

by Salim Ayduz Published on: 30th December 2010

The Turkish physician Serafeddin Sabuncuoglu (1385–1470) is the author of a famous treatise of surgery, Cerrahiyetü'l Haniyye (Imperial Surgery), composed in Turkish in 1465. It was the first illustrated surgical atlas and the last major…

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Evolution of Attitudes Towards Human Experimentation in Ottoman Turkish Medicine

by Nil Sari Published on: 3rd September 2010

Attitudes and expectations towards medical knowledge and medical practice standards influence and determine the position of health practitioners and the development of medicine. While describing the basic characteristics of the Ottoman Turkish medicine and medical…

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Piri Reis: A Genius 16th-Century Ottoman Cartographer and Navigator

by Salah Zaimeche Published on: 13th February 2010

Piri Reis is a well known Ottoman-Turkish admiral, geographer and cartographer from the 16th century. His famous world map compiled in 1513 and discovered in 1929 at Topkapi Palace in Istanbul is the oldest known…

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Book Review of ‘Ottoman Women – Myth and Reality’ by Asli Sancar

by Qaisra Shahraz Published on: 8th July 2009

Aise Asli Sancar, a renowned writer and lecturer on women's issues has said when she began investigating the subject of Ottoman women, she realized that they were much more complex and multifaceted than they are…

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The Medical Organization at the Ottoman Court

by Nil Sari Published on: 26th March 2009

The Ottoman imperial Palace was quite different from Western palaces and courts, for it was not only the residence of the Ottoman Sultans and their royal household, but also served to various other functions as…

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Ottoman Music Therapy

by Nil Sari Published on: 11th March 2009

Music has been used as a mean of therapy through the centuries to counter all kinds of disorders by various peoples. Physicians and musicians in the Ottoman civilization were aware of the music therapy in…

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Interview with Professor Nil Sari

by Kaleem Hussain Published on: 1st March 2009

Professor Nil Sari Akdeniz, the head of the History of Medicine and Ethics Department of Istanbul University at the Cerrahpasha Medical School since 1983, is a world famous historian of Islamic medicine in general and…

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Women Dealing with Health during the Ottoman Reign

by Nil Sari Published on: 28th February 2009

In the history of Islamic civilization, many hospitals were founded by women, either as wives, daughters or mothers of sultans. All health personnel were male at these hospitals. In the Ottoman period, the female patients…

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The Paracelsian Influence on Ottoman Medicine

by Nil Sari Published on: 25th February 2009

Galen's concept of medicine which dominated the medical world almost nearly for fifteen centuries began to loose its importance in the 16th century. At that time, Paracelsus (1493-1541) introduced a new medical understanding based on…

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Turkish Cuisine: A Book Review

by Arif Bilgin Published on: 13th February 2009

Turkish cuisine is largely the heritage of Ottoman cuisine, which can be described as a fusion and refinement of Central Asian, Middle Eastern and Balkan cuisines. Turkish cuisine also influenced these cuisines and other neighbouring…

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Circumcision Ceremonies at the Ottoman Palace

by Nil Sari Published on: 12th February 2009

Circumcision is widely practiced in all Islamic countries. Festivities pertaining to circumcision vary according to the regions and civilizations. In this report, circumcision festivities at the Ottoman Palace and the socioeconomic importance of the tradition…

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The Simurgh: A Symbol of Holistic Medicine in the Middle Eastern Culture in History

by Nil Sari Published on: 7th February 2009

This article discusses the view that the simurgh, a mythological bird with supernatural characteristics, was also a symbol of miraculous life and treatment, as related in stories and miniature pictures. Such as view is described…

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A Jewel of Ottoman Naval History: The Book of Kâtib Çelebi on Naval Campaigns

by Salim Ayduz Published on: 24th January 2009

This is a review of the book prepared by Prof. Dr. Idris Bostan for the Turkish Undersecretariat of Navigation in order to provide a useful and important scientific resource on the naval history of the…

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Food as Medicine in Muslim Civilization

by Nil Sari Published on: 9th January 2009

The subject of food and diet was very essential in the Islamic Cuisine. Both of them were very important in the most of the medical manuscripts in the Ottoman world. Balanced diet was also important…

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Highly Valued Virtues of Classical Ottoman Turkish Medical Ethics: A View From Past to Future

by Nil Sari Published on: 8th January 2009

Virtues such as modesty, contentedness, fidelity and hopefulness expected from a physician must be perceived as general criteria of ethical standards, since principles are also the criteria for the preference of values, in a sense.…

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The Instruments of Istanbul Observatory

by Sevim Tekeli Published on: 8th June 2008

In this article, Professor Sevim Tekeli, an outstanding scholar in the history of Ottoman science, describes the instruments built by Taqî al-Dîn Ibn Ma'ruf and his team at the Istanbul observatory (was in activity between…

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Principle and Use of Ottoman Sundials

by Atilla Bir Published on: 30th May 2008

Muslim astronomers and engineers invented a variety of dials for timekeeping and for determining the times of the five daily prayers. In this thorough and technical study, Professor Attila Bir analyses the principle and use…

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Nasuh Al-Matrakî, A Noteworthy Ottoman Artist-Mathematician of the Sixteenth Century

by Salim Ayduz Published on: 6th February 2008

Matrakci Nasuh was a famous Ottoman polymath, writer and knight who produced important books in several fields. He made contributions in the fields of mathematics, geography, history and calligraphy. He also invented a military lawn…

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Mulla Nasruddin Khodja a Major Character of Muslim Satiric Literature

by The Editorial Team Published on: 11th January 2008

Mullah Nasruddin Khodja is a wise man famous throughout the Muslim and some parts of the non-Muslim world since the 16th century. Historical documents show that he lived in the 13th century in Anatolia (today…

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Health in the Ottoman Empire: A Collective Achievement in the History of Ottoman Medicine

by Mehmet Ipsirli Published on: 4th January 2008

This is a review of Health in the Ottomans (Osmanlilarda Saglik), a two-volume book concerning Ottoman medical history. The book is a brilliant achievement aiming at the reconstruction of the main aspects of the the…

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Famous Figures of the Modern Turkish Medical School

by FSTC Published on: 23rd October 2007

To throw light on famous figures of the Turkish modern medical school, this article introduces a set of nine posters on the contribution of eight late Ottoman and early Turkish physicians (whose careers spanned from…

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Hindiba: A Drug for Cancer Treatment in Muslim Heritage

by Nil Sari Published on: 6th June 2007

Hindiba is a plant of Middle Eastern lands. Its therapeutic value as a drug for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. The following detailed study by Professor Nil Sari investigates the historical and medical…

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Sinan: A Great Ottoman Architect and Urban Designer

by Rabah Saoud Published on: 3rd June 2007

Sinan, called Mimar Sinan (Architect Sinan) and Mimar Koca Sinan (Great Architect Sinan), is the most celebrated of all Ottoman architects. In this article by Dr. Rabah Saoud, his architectural models are characterised. These models…

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A New Book on the Ottoman Military History: Guns for the Sultan by Gábor Ágoston

by Salim Ayduz Published on: 25th May 2007

Ágoston's book provides new insights into the Ottomans' approach to new innovations and reforms in modern technology, which some scholars had previously claimed improbable due to Islamic conversativism.

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Glances on Calendars and Almanacs in the Islamic Civilisation

by Salim Ayduz Published on: 7th February 2007

From the beginning of the Islamic history, the scholars developed the Islamic hijri calendar as a lunar calendar designed to organize timekeeping for religious and social needs. The development of the Islamic calendar and the…

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Suleymaniye Medical Madrasa

by Salim Ayduz Published on: 3rd February 2007

This article discusses the emergence and origins of institutional Ottoman medical practice and learning, and provides an insight into the trade of expertise between the Ottoman provinces and further a field. It focuses on the…

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Ottoman Maritime Arsenals And Shipbuilding Technology In The 16th And 17th Centuries

by Idris Bostan Published on: 28th January 2007

In this article Prof. Idris Bostan describes Ottoman shipbuilding efforts and achievements within the broader context of the progression of military technology and capability.

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The Art of Calligraphy in the Ottoman Empire

by Ugur Derman Published on: 10th January 2007

Ottoman Turks produced and perfected several varieties of Arabic script. All the various branches of the art of calligraphy, an art greatly loved and respected by the Ottoman Turks, were flourished particularly in the city…

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Better Directions at Sea: The Piri Reis Innovation

by Thomas D. Goodrich Published on: 8th January 2007

The Ottoman Turk Pîrî Reis is truly a great figure in the history of cartography. Pîrî Reis has become well known for his two world maps and for his portolan, the Kitab-i Bahriye. By merging…

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Ethical Aspects of Ottoman Surgical Practice

by Nil Sari Published on: 27th December 2006

Information about the requirements and expectations of medical ethics regarding surgery during the Ottoman period is found in medical manuscripts; while the moral principles based on Islamic Canon Law (Shari'ah) and the oral tradition (the…

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An Overview of Ottoman Scientific Activities

by Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu Published on: 22nd December 2006

The scientific activities observed within the borders of the Ottoman Empire throughout six centuries displayed a unique course of development. Although the Ottomans had many shared elements from the viewpoint of historical heritage and tradition…

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Transfer of Modern Science and Technology to the Ottoman State

by Salim Ayduz Published on: 20th December 2006

This article will provide a short introduction to the history of scientific activities in the Ottoman world until the eighteenth century. Scientific researches show that there are many translation activities in different fields in the…

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The Ottoman Empire and Europe: Cultural Encounters

by Gunsel Renda Published on: 3rd December 2006

This article mainly covers the cultural encounters between Europe and the Ottomans who had become immediate neighbours on the Balkans and the Mediterranean after the Ottoman state expanded into Central Europe.

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Artillery Trade of the Ottoman Empire

by Salim Ayduz Published on: 8th September 2006

Trade has no borders. During times of hostility between the Ottoman Empire and Europe, European traders were not only trading with the Ottomans but trading in contraband war materials. This article provides an insight into…

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Lady Mary Wortley Montagu and the Introduction of Smallpox Vaccination to England

by Salim Ayduz Published on: 24th March 2006

This short article describes Lady Montagu's efforts in introducing a technique of vaccinating against smallpox; a technique that she learnt from Ottoman Turkey and transported, against some resistance, to the shores of Britain. It was…

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Cosmic Motifs & Elements in Seljuk and Ottoman Architecture

by Nakis Akgul Published on: 29th September 2005

The structure of Mosques and other buildings draw inspiration from descriptions in the Qur'an as well as pre-Islamic motifs. Here we look at how some of the resulting motifs and elements reflect the idea of…

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Educating Ottoman Physicians

by Nil Sari Published on: 2nd September 2005

Medical doctors in the time of the Ottomans had various routes into professional life depending on their specialty. Some were trained on the model of master and apprentice, others studied courses at madrasas and at…

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Primary Schools under the Ottomans

by Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu Published on: 10th August 2005

Primary schools have a long history in Islamic civilisation. Children were taught to memorise the entire Qur'an usually at primary school for example. Here is a look at how the primary schools under the Ottomans…

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Astrology for the Ottomans

by Salim Ayduz Published on: 29th September 2004

Among the Ottomans there was constant controversy over whether astrology violated the principles of reason and religion. Although many Islamic scholars judged astrology to contravene religion, astronomers continued to interpret the heavens, and sultans to…

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Turkish Contributions to Scientific Work in Islam

by Aydin Sayili Published on: 10th September 2004

Turks have played an active part in the pursuit of science and learning in the Islamic World throughout its history. This activity is outlind here from the very formative stages of the islamic civilization down…

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Ottoman Palace Architecture: The Topkapi Palace

by Rabah Saoud Published on: 8th July 2004

Construction of a palace to accommodate the Ottoman administration and royal household began in 1459, lasting most of the reign of Sultan Mehmed II. The palace included gardens reflecting the Muslim traditional love of nature…

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Sultan Ahmet Cami or Blue Mosque

by Rabah Saoud Published on: 8th July 2004

Commissioned by Sultan Ahmed (1606-1617), the mosque was built by Mehmet Agha who is said to have toured key Ottoman monuments before he drew the plan of the blue mosque. This can be affirmed by…

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The Ottoman Madrassa

by Rabah Saoud Published on: 8th July 2004

The Madrassa was one of the main venues of education in the Muslim World under the Ottoman Caliphate until 1924 when Ataturks' law abolished it in favour of modern schools and universities. In planning terms…

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The Ottoman Han (Caravanserai) and Bazaars

by Rabah Saoud Published on: 7th July 2004

The expansion of commerce in the Ottoman world necessitated the introduction of new types of buildings to accommodate various trade types. The han or caravanserai consisted of cells arranged around a courtyard, providing all the…

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The Ottoman Ulema

by Mehmet Ipsirli Published on: 12th May 2004

The word ulema, which is widely used in the Islamic world, is used to refer to community based scholars. Ottoman ulema had been a basic element of the state and the society, presenting progressive visions…

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Ottoman Educational Institutions during the Reform Period

by Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu Published on: 26th April 2004

The Imperial Tanzimat Rescript (Tanzimat Fermani) announced on 3 November 1839 provided state protection for basic rights and freedoms. Following this, programs of educational reform made the reorganization of secondary education a priority and the…

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Madrasas of the Ottoman Empire

by Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu Published on: 26th April 2004

Ottoman Madrasas, were generally the continuation of traditional Islamic Madrasas, but they created their own curriculum and education tradition with the passing of centuries.

Madrassa Education during the Early Ottoman Period

by Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu Published on: 21st April 2004

The madrasas of the early Ottoman period can be considered as institutions which continued the established educational tradition of the Seljuk Turks but also augmented by the contributions of the Ottomans.

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Curricula in Ottoman Madrasas

by Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu Published on: 21st April 2004

It is possible to provide a basic (though only partial) outline of what was taught at Ottoman madrasas. Students would study from the books of (sarf), syntax (nahiv) and logic (mantik) and then hadith and…

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Ranking of the Ottoman Madrasas

by Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu Published on: 21st April 2004

Following the conquest of Istanbul, Mehmed the Conqueror initiated a campaign of construction. A new era in Ottoman education began with the establishment of the Fatih madrasas and the hierarchical structure of the madrasas was…

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The Development and Decline of Ottoman Madrasas

by Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu Published on: 21st April 2004

The development of madrasas was greatly influenced by the impact of a strengthened central state authority and the resulting political stability and economic well-being it brought to the society. Toward the end of the sixteenth…

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Science and Institutions within Ottoman Administration

by Salim Ayduz Published on: 19th April 2004

The Ottomans conserved the fundamental features of Islamic civilisation in their scientific institutions as they also did in social and cultural areas. Three of the six Ottoman state scientific institutions dealt with here are in…

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The Muslim Carpet

by Rabah Saoud Published on: 13th April 2004

The Muslim carpet has long been a luxury commodity sought by textile museums, rich collectors and wealthy merchants all over the world. The fame of the flying carpet of 'Al'a Al-Din (Aladdin) added some emotional…

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The Cannon of Mehmed II

by Salim Ayduz Published on: 4th June 2003

In the Fort Nelson Museum a huge bronze cannon sits in the court yard. Cast in two peices in 1464 by the order of the Sultan Mehmed II, no such split guns existed in Europe…

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Piri Reis and his Place in Ottoman Maritime History

by Salah Zaimeche Published on: 1st June 2002

When dealing with Turkish history, whether during the Ottoman period or after, one comes across horrendous claims and errors by countless historians which utterly distort the subject. To try and write correctly Turkish history is…