Tag: Technology

World Water Day

by Cem Nizamoglu Published on: 21st March 2024

Water is life... there are a few things that every human being agrees with. One of them is of course water being essential to our life. It is embedded not just biologically but in every…

A speech by Professor Salim Al-Hassani on the occasion of the “Generation’s 2023 Innovation Fair”, Pakistan

by Aniqa Masroor Published on: 10th October 2023

We were honoured to host Prof. Salim Al-Hassani to address our Innovation’s Fair, 22 September 2023. Here is a recording of his inspirational description of his fascinating journey and experiences. His speech was instrumental to…


Women of Science, Medicine and Management

by Salim Al-Hassani Published on: 26th July 2023

A summarised transcript* of the lecture given for the Ijtimak Ilmuwan Islam Antarabangsa (International Conference of Muslim Scholars). Organised by the Institute of Islamic Understanding Malaysia (IKIM) and Sarawak Islamic Council – MIS on 25-26…

©MidJourney CC BY-NC 4.0

Industrial Revolutions: From Ctesibius to Mars

by Cort MacLean Johns Published on: 4th March 2023

This article introduces the author’s book that demonstrates a long historical chronology of sophisticated technological advances from the Hellenistic Period through to Denis Papin’s first Steam Engine in 1690. A 2-millennium period of little progress…

©MidJourney CC BY-NC 4.0

R&D Lessons from Muslim Civilisation

by Salim Al-Hassani Published on: 27th February 2023

This short article is a highlight of an online lecture recently given on 19 February 2023 by Professor Salim Al-Hassani, organised by FARDA (Future Awareness through Rational and Actions), Uppsala University, Sweden).

The Clocks of the Andalusian Ibn Khalaf al-Muradi

by Salim Al-Hassani Published on: 2nd January 2022

Little known book, Kitab al-Asrar, by the Andalusian engineer Ibn Khalaf al-Muradi. In this treatise, Al-Muradi describes how to construct a wide variety of ingenious mechanical devices. Using written instructions and diagrams, al-Muradi’s work describes…

The Automatic Mechanical Hydraulic Organ of the Banu Musa ibn Shakir

by Mona Sanjakdar Chaarani Published on: 24th June 2021

The works of the Banū Mūsā encompass both translations and original contributions in the fields of geometry, astronomy, mechanics, and music. In the field of music, a large body is attributed to them, although the…

Baghdad Clock in Aachen: Harun al Rashid’s Gift to Charlemagne

by Salim Al-Hassani Published on: 7th May 2021

The water clock that Abbasid Caliph Harun al-Rashid (d. 809 CE), gifted to Charlemagne, the Holy Roman Emperor (d. 814 CE) is investigated. Origins and transfer of the clock technology is reviewed. The water clock…

Al-Jazari’s Peacock Clock (1206 CE)

by Salim Al-Hassani Published on: 29th December 2020

The Peacock Clock is the sixth machine described by al-Jazari in his famous treatise of mechanics Al-Jami‘ bayn al-‘ilm wa 'l-‘amal al-nafi‘ fi sina‘at al-hiyal (A Compendium on the Theory and Useful Practice of the…


Hydraulic Imagery in Medieval Arabic Texts

by Constantin Canavas Published on: 5th July 2020

The Arabic reports about irrigation, dams and water-powered machines form a cultural construction which could be called hydraulic imagery. The term imagery is related to the perception patterns concerning hydraulic constructions inasmuch these patterns are…


Ibn al-Haytham and Psychophysics

by Craig Aaen-Stockdale Published on: 4th July 2020

The famous scientist Ibn al-Haytham (‘Alhazen') has rightly been credited with many advances in optics and vision science, but recent spurious claims that he is the ‘founder of psychophysics' rest upon unsupported assertions, a conflation…


Water innovations in the Muslim world: past glories and future outlook

by Rizwan Nawaz Published on: 25th November 2019

From the eighth century onwards, Muslim societies extending from Cordoba in Spain to Damascus, Baghdad, Fez and through to Marrakech, relied on the world’s most advanced water technologies at the time to serve their communities


Science In India During The Muslim Rule

by Zakaria Virk Published on: 29th October 2019

The scientific cooperation between India and the Arabs dates back to the time of Abbasid Caliphate of Baghdad when a number of books on astronomy, mathematics, and medicine were translated from Sanskrit into Arabic. From…


Manchester Science Festival to Feature Family Event on Ibn Al-Haytham

by 1001 Inventions Published on: 20th September 2018

1001 Inventions Celebrates Ibn Al-Haytham at Manchester’s Iconic Central Library


“1001 Inventions and The World Of Ibn Al-Haytham” Film Released

by 1001 Inventions Published on: 11th July 2017

The film is part of a global educational campaign launched by 1001 Inventions in partnership with UNESCO in 2015 that has engaged more than 30 million people around the world.


Technology in sub-Saharan Cultures

by Khaleel Shaikh Published on: 5th June 2017

Genetic and paleontological findings have concluded that Africa is the birthplace of the entire human race. Africa is often thought of as a continent rich in natural beauty and culture. However, little is known or…


A Chronology – Turkey’s 700-year long venture in science and technology

by Feza Günergun Published on: 13th April 2017

A chronology on "Science from the East - Techniques from the West: Turkey's 700-year long venture" is compiled by Professor Dr. Feza Günergun, Department of the History of Science, Istanbul University. People sought knowledge for…


The Journey of Automatic Machines in Muslim Civilisation

by Salim Al-Hassani Published on: 24th October 2016

This keynote lecture reviews the rise and development of automatic machines within Muslim civilisation. It looks at how inventors from the Muslim civilisation progressively transformed achievements of previous cultures (e.g. ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, Persia,…


Allah’s Automata – A Review of the Exhibition

by Charles Savage Published on: 2nd December 2015

Reflections on: A New Exhibition on Artifacts of the Arab/Islamic Renaissance ZKM, Karlsruhe, Germany: October 30, 2015 - February 28, 2016 http://zkm.de/en/event/2015/10/globale-allahs-automata by Dr. Charles M. Savage Knowledge Era Enterprises International Munich, Germany http://www.kee-inc.com


A Fascinating Journey of Clocks in Muslim Civilisation

by News Desk Published on: 6th November 2015

On 22-23 October 2015, the “3rd International conference on History of Medicine and Cures (Colloque international de l’histoire de medecine)” was opened at Fez university of Sidi Mohammed ben Abdullah (Faculté de Médecine et de…


Lund Astronomical Clock

by Christian Etheridge Published on: 26th August 2015

The genesis of this article lies in a recent visit to the Romanesque cathedral of Lund. While in the cathedral, I walked over to the medieval astronomical clock to await the moving figures and music…


Ingenious Clocks from Muslim Civilisation that Defied the Middle Ages

by Cem Nizamoglu Published on: 21st August 2015

TIME TELLING MACHINES: Revealing marvellous mechanical and water-powered clocks from early Muslim Civilisation. These sophisticated devices that defied the Middle Ages.


The International Year of Light Sheds Light on the Dark Ages

by News Desk Published on: 27th June 2015

The UNESCO International Year of Light and Light-Based Technologies is a multi-faceted celebration of light in its scientific, technological and cultural context. Central to this has been the recognition of Ibn al-Haytham as the founder…


Ibn Yunus and The Pendulum: A History of Errors

by David A King Published on: 29th April 2015

In this article, Professor David A. King explores the authenticity of the statement that tenth-century Egyptian astronomer Ibn Yūnus was the first person to use a pendulum to measure time. After examining evidence originating from…


L’orgue hydraulique des Banu Mûsa (The Hydraulic Organ of Banu Musa)

by Mona Sanjakdar Chaarani Published on: 13th August 2013

(The Hydraulic Organ of Banu Musa (9th Century): An Early Instrument of Mechanical Music) In the following article, Dr Mona Chaarani describes in a short article in French her reconstruction of the hydraulic organ of…


The York Society of Engineers: A Lecture by FSTC Chairman, 6th December, York, UK

by The Editorial Team Published on: 6th December 2012

Upcoming Lecture by Prof. Mohamed El-Gomati, Chairman of FSTC, at The York Society of Engineers, York


Professor Qasim Al-Samarrai Lecture on the The Edition of Arabic Manuscripts

by The Editorial Team Published on: 29th November 2012

On Wednesday 28th November 2012, Al-Furqan Islamic Heritage Foundation in London organised a public lecture on The Critical Edition of Manuscripts: Past, Present and Future, delivered by Professor Qasim Al-Samarrai. The lecture presented an insightful…


Reflections on the Optics of Time

by Charles Savage Published on: 30th May 2011

Based on the outstanding achievement of Ibn al-Haytham's work in optics, which paved the way for the "Optics of Space," Dr. Charles M. Savage develops in this stimulating article a vibrant plea for the need…


Book review: Ibn al-Haytham and the New Optics

by Ruveyda Ozturk Published on: 29th October 2010

This is a book review of Ibn El-Heysem ve Yeni Optik (Ibn al-Haytham and the New Optics) by Huseyin Gazi Topdemir published in 2008 in Turkish as the first book of a series on scientific…


Manuscripts and printing in the spread of Muslim science

by Geoffrey Roper Published on: 15th July 2010

[Proceedings of the conference 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World organised by FSTC, London, 25-26 May 2010]. The following article presents a brief status about the transmission of Muslim scientific texts, and how the…


A Jewel of Ottoman Naval History: The Book of Kâtib Çelebi on Naval Campaigns

by Salim Ayduz Published on: 24th January 2009

This is a review of the book prepared by Prof. Dr. Idris Bostan for the Turkish Undersecretariat of Navigation in order to provide a useful and important scientific resource on the naval history of the…

The Six-Cylinder Water Pump of Taqi al-Din: Its Mathematics, Operation and Virtual Design

by Salim Al-Hassani Published on: 24th January 2009

The main objective of this study is to investigate into the six-cylinder water raising pump described around 1550 by the Ottoman Muslim scientist Muhammad Ibn Ma'ruf, known as Taqi al-Din, in his treatise Al-Turuq al-Saniya…


Islamic Automation: Al-Jazari’s Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices

by Gunalan Nadarajan Published on: 14th November 2008

In the following essay, Dr. Gunalan Nadarajan, Associate Dean of Research and Graduate Studies in the College of Arts and Architecture at Penn State University, draws on the work of al-Jazari, the famous 13th century…


The Invention of Spectacles between the East and the West

by Lutfallah Gari Published on: 12th November 2008

The following article by the expert scholar Lutfallah Gari surveys the historical sources to uncover the ancient history of the invention of spectacles. To the question "where and when were they invented?", and after a…


Ridhwan al-Sa’ati: A Biographical Outline

by Moustafa Mawaldi Published on: 29th June 2008

Fakhr al-Dīn Ridhwān ibn Rustam al-Sā'ātī (d. between 618-626 H/1220-1229 CE) was a scholar and mechanical engineer, author of the book ‘Ilm al-sā'āt wa 'l-'amal bihā in which he described the famous public clock set…


Muslim Printing Before Gutenberg

by Geoffrey Roper Published on: 28th May 2008

Gutenberg in the 15th century. Based on his work on original sources, he states that some of the early printed Arabic documents display quite sophisticated designs involving calligraphic headpieces, transverse lettering, geometric panels, roundels, and…


Al-Jazari’s Third Water-Raising Device: Analysis of its Mathematical and Mechanical Principles

by Salim Al-Hassani Published on: 24th April 2008

Five pumps or water-raising machines are described by al-Jazari in his monumental treatise of mechanics Al-Jami' bayn al-‘ilm wa 'l-‘amal al-nafi' fi sina'at al-hiyal (A Compendium on the Theory and Useful Practice of the Mechanical…


Al-Jazari’s Castle Water Clock: Analysis of its Components and Functioning

by Salim Al-Hassani Published on: 13th March 2008

The first machine described by al-Jazari in his famous treatise of mechanics Al-Jami‘ bayn al-‘ilm wa 'l-‘amal al-nafi‘ fi sina‘at al-hiyal (A Compendium on the Theory and Useful Practice of the Mechanical Arts) is a…


The Self Changing Fountain of Banu Musa bin Shakir

by Salim Al-Hassani Published on: 10th March 2008

Amongst the mechanical devices described by the Banu Musa Brothers in their book of mechanics Kitab al-hiyal, seven models present a variety of sophisticated fountains. This article analyses the geometric and physical principles lying behind…


An 800 Years Old Ancestor: Today’s Science of Robotics and Al-Jazari

by Toygar Akman Published on: 29th February 2008

Introducing al-Jazari's ancestry to modern cybernetics and robotics science, Prof. Toygar Akman narrates in this testimony article his own discovery of the work of the great 13th century Muslim scholar. He shows further how al-Jazari's…


Overview on al-Jazari and his Mechanical Devices

by Yavuz Unat Published on: 25th February 2008

In this article, Professor Yavuz Unat, a known historian of science from Ankara University, draws a general survey on al-Jazari and his treatise. He describes some of his machines and points out the numerous technological…


The List of Al-jazari Articles Published on Muslim Heritage Website

by FSTC Published on: 1st February 2008

Some 800 years in the past, in 1206, a brilliant Muslim scholar died : Badi' al-Zaman Abu al-‘Izz ibn Ismail ibn al-Razzaz al-Jazari. He was one of the most important inventors and mechanical engineers in…


Al-Jazari: 800 Years After

by FSTC Published on: 1st February 2008

Some 800 years in the past, in 1206, a brilliant Muslim scholar died : Badi' al-Zaman Abu al-‘Izz ibn Ismail ibn al-Razzaz al-Jazari. He was one of the most important inventors and mechanical engineers in…


800 Years Later: In Memory of Al-Jazari, A Genius Mechanical Engineer

by Salim Al-Hassani Published on: 30th January 2008

Al-Jazari (1136-1206) was an important Arab Muslim scholar. He was an inventor and mechanical engineer who gained fame and glory with his famous book of mechanics Al-Jami `bayn al-`ilm wa 'l-`amal al-nafi `fi sina `at…


Science under Islam: A Reflection on Past Brilliancy and Future Revival

by Salim Ayduz Published on: 17th January 2008

This is a review of a book by Sayyed Misbah Deen, Emeritus Professor of Computer Science (Keele University), describing the adventure of science and technology in Islam from four standpoints: the rise of science and…


The Mechanics of Banu Musa in the Light of Modern System and Control Engineering

by FSTC Published on: 10th August 2007

This article is a review of the book published recently by Professor Attila Bir (Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Istanbul) on Banu Musa's book of mechanics studied in the framework of…


Abu Ishaq Ibrahim Ibn Yahya Al-Zarqali

by Gunalan Nadarajan Published on: 7th August 2007

This short paper introduces a longer essay by Prof. Gunalan Nadarajan, Associate Dean of Research and Graduate Studies in the College of Arts and Architecture at Penn State University. The essay draws on the work…


The Arabic Partial Version of Pseudo-Aristotle’s Mechanical Problems

by Mohammed Abattouy Published on: 5th June 2007

Based on manuscript evidence, the article presents a study of the historical and textual traditions of a fragment of Arabic mechanics which is also edited in Arabic and translated into English. This fragment, entitled Nutaf…


Sinan’s Acoustical Technology

by Mutbul Kayili Published on: 4th June 2007

This article gives the the results of a research project studying the acoustical properties of several Ottoman mosques designed by Mimar Sinan in the 16th century. The results of measurements concerning several of these mosques…


A New Book on the Ottoman Military History: Guns for the Sultan by Gábor Ágoston

by Salim Ayduz Published on: 25th May 2007

Ágoston's book provides new insights into the Ottomans' approach to new innovations and reforms in modern technology, which some scholars had previously claimed improbable due to Islamic conversativism.


Ottoman Mining, Metal Working and Fire-Arms Technology in South East Europe (15th-17th centuries)

by H.H. Günhan Danisman Published on: 25th May 2007

The article deals with the impact of Ottoman mining and metal working technology in the Balkans region on the fire-arms technology of Southeast Europe during the crucial period going from the 15th century through to…

The Appreciation of Arabic Science and Technology in the Middle Ages

by Charles Burnett Published on: 16th May 2007

This article describes the appreciation of Arabic science and technology in the Middle Ages through the example of Adelard of Bath, an English scholar of the early 12th century, one of the first scholars that…


When Ridhwan al-Sa’ati Anteceded Big Ben by More than Six Centuries

by Abdel Aziz al-Jaraki Published on: 11th April 2007

The following article by Abdel Aziz al-Jaraki, a scholar from Damascus, describes the context of the investigation carried on since several decades on a famous clock built by Fakhr al-Din Ridhwan al-Sa'ati at the beginning…


Ottoman Maritime Arsenals And Shipbuilding Technology In The 16th And 17th Centuries

by Idris Bostan Published on: 28th January 2007

In this article Prof. Idris Bostan describes Ottoman shipbuilding efforts and achievements within the broader context of the progression of military technology and capability.


Attempts of Flight, Automatic Machines, Submarines and Rocket Technology in Turkish History

by Arslan Terzioglu Published on: 2nd January 2007

In the Islamic world, great importance was placed upon the study of natural sciences and technology. This article brings out some of the important works of Turkish Muslim scholars in the fields of automatic machines,…


Pioneers of Automatic Control Systems

by Atilla Bir Published on: 22nd December 2006

Although the feedback concept, which is lying in the foundation of dynamic systems, has been perceived relative recently, the idea was understood and applied correctly by the Muslim scientists.


Transfer of Modern Science and Technology to the Ottoman State

by Salim Ayduz Published on: 20th December 2006

This article will provide a short introduction to the history of scientific activities in the Ottoman world until the eighteenth century. Scientific researches show that there are many translation activities in different fields in the…


Transfer of Islamic Technology to the West

by Ahmad Y. al-Hassan Published on: 13th December 2006

The article covers the avenues which led to the transfer of the Islamic knowledge, from Al Andalus, Sicily and Byzantium to the Wars (crusades on the Islamic World), as well as commercial relations and also…


The Balance: The Core Mental Model of the Islamic Science of Weights

by Mohammed Abattouy Published on: 17th November 2006

This article includes the recent work by Professor Abattouy and his co-workers. The work has revealed the enormous wealth of Islamic literature on the science of weights. Their findings established that there is much larger…


CHILDREN’S ACTIVITY: How to Make a Pinhole Camera

by The Editorial Team Published on: 16th March 2006

Would you like to make a wonderful camera in just five minutes? This short exercise will help you to create your very own pinhole camera! Just follow the simple steps in this exercise and you…


Using an Astrolabe

by Emily Winterburn Published on: 10th August 2005

The history of the astrolabe begins more than two thousand years ago, but it is in the Islamic classical world that the astrolabe was highly developed and its uses widely multiplied. Introduced to Europe from…



by Salah Zaimeche Published on: 24th April 2005

Hama is famed for its huge water wheels and it produced great scholars in geography, mathematics, medicine and much more. Here we look at a few of them.


The Machines of Al-Jazari and Taqi Al-Din

by Salim Al-Hassani Published on: 30th December 2004

Prof. Salim T S Al-Hassani In this pioneering survey of some of the machines of Al-Jazari and Taqi Al-Din, Professor Salim Al-Hassani uses in-depth analysis with the tools of modern technology to make them live…


The Cannon of Mehmed II

by Salim Ayduz Published on: 4th June 2003

In the Fort Nelson Museum a huge bronze cannon sits in the court yard. Cast in two peices in 1464 by the order of the Sultan Mehmed II, no such split guns existed in Europe…


Muslim Rocket Technology

by Mohamed Mansour Published on: 22nd March 2002

Arabic accounts report that Muslims introduced firearms into Islamic Spain, from where they passed to Italy, going from there to France, and finally Germany. Muslims also developed and refined gun powder and aquired rocket making…


Water Management and Hydraulic Technology

by FSTC Published on: 30th December 2001

Water management in all its intricacies, from Andalusia to Afghanistan, was the basis of agriculture, and source of all life. Muslims did much to develop hydraulic technology and deploy water management equipment including hydro-power dams.


Review of Muslim Contribution to Civil Engineering: Dam Construction

by Salah Zaimeche Published on: 30th December 2001

Dams are required in most hydraulic systems, for irrigation, regulating flow of rivers and in modern times for the production of energy. In the classical Islamic world, dam construction received a special attention as an…


Agriculture in Muslim civilisation : A Green Revolution in Pre-Modern Times

by Salah Zaimeche Published on: 25th December 2001

The period from the 9th century to the 13th century witnessed a fundamental transformation in agriculture that can be characterized as the Islamic green revolution in pre-modern times. The economy established in the Arab and…


Al-Jazari: The Mechanical Genius

by Salim Al-Hassani Published on: 9th February 2001

The following short survey presents a rapid overview on the life, work and achievements of Al-Jazari, the most famous mechanical engineer of his time, some 1000 years ago. Al-Jazari brought Islamic technology to a culminant…