SCHOLARS A - Z

'Abd al-Hamid ibn Turk

ʿAbd al-Hamīd ibn Turk (fl. 830); known also as ʿAbd al-Hamīd ibn Wase ibn Turk Jili was a ninth-century Turkic Muslim mathematician. Not much is known about his biography. The two records of...

'Isa Ibn Zur'a

Ibn Zur'a; (Abu 'Ali 'Isā ibn Ishāq ibn Zur'a, 943–1008) was a medieval physician and philosopher. He was born in Abbasid Baghdad to a Syriac Jacobite Christian family. He was a student of ...

Abd al-Aziz al-Amawi

Although it is unknown whether Abdul al-aziz al-Amawi was sixteen, or eighteen, what is established is that as a teenager, he was entrusted with a highly important position acting as judge of Kilwa. K...

Abd Al-Latif Al-Baghdadi

Muwaffaq al-Din Muhammad 'Abd al-Latif ibn Yusuf al-Baghdadi, 'Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi or 'Abdallatif al-Baghdadi; موفق الدين محمد عبد اللطيف بن يوسف البغدادي, ...

Abd Al-Rahman Al-Shafi’i

'Abd Al-Rhaman Ibn Nasr ibn 'Abdallah ibn Muhammad al-Nabarawi al-Shafi'i (al-Adawi al-Shairazi); is an Egyptian scholar who flourished probably in the time of Salahuddin (sultan 1169-1193). He wro...

Abd Al-Rahman ibn Faqi Mahmud

Abd Al-Rahman ibn Faqi Mahmud was appointed as Qadi (judge) in 1553 CE to the post of Imam (leader of prayer) and Dean of the University of Sankore, Timbuktu. Click here for more information....

Abraham bar Hiyya

Abraham bar Ḥiyya ha-Nasi صاحب الشرطة Abraham bar Hiyya was a Spanish Jewish mathematician and astronomer. Please click here for more information....

Abraham ibn Daud

Abraham ibn Daud (c.1110–1180) can be regarded as a pioneer in Jewish philosophy. Please click here for more information....

Abu Abdullah al-Bakri

Abu Abdullah al-Bakri (1014-1094); Huelva, Spain; geographer and historian. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, Text only. ...

Abu al-Fadl Ja'far ibn 'Ali al-Dimashqi

Abu al-Fadl J‘far ibn ‘Ali al-Dimashqi is the author of Kitab al-Isharah ila Mahasin at-Tijarah wa Marifat Jayyid al-A’rad wa Kadiiha wa Ghush-ush al-Mudallisin fiha (A Guide to the Merits of Co...

Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani

Abū al-Faraj al-Iṣbahānī, in full Abū al-Faraj ʿAlī ibn al-Ḥusayn al-Qurashī al-Iṣbahānī, also called al-Iṣfahānī (born 897, Eṣfahān, Iran—died November 20, 967, Baghdad), lite...

Abu al-Fida’

Abu al-Fida’ (1273-1331); Hama, Syria; geographer and astronomer. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, Text only. . FSTC....

Abu al-Hakam al-Kirmani

Al-Kirmani [from Kirman, Iran] is Abu al-Hakam 'Umar ibn 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Ahmad ibn 'Ali al-Karmani of the city of Cordoba. He was a scientist with a deep understanding of mathematics and geometry. ...

Abu al-Salt

Abū al‐Ṣalt, Umayya ibn ʿAbd al‐ʿAzīz ibn Abī al‐Ṣalt al‐Dānī al‐Andalusī Abū al‐Ṣalt was an accomplished, though not innovative, astronomer whose most important works de...

Abu al-Wafa’, Mohammed al-Bouzjani

Abu al-Wafa’, Mohammed al-Bouzjani (940-998); Buzjani, Baghdad, Iraq; mathematician, astronomer, and geometrician. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Refe...

Abu Bakr al-Hamawi

Abu Bakr ibn al-Sarraj al-Hamawi (d. 1328/9); Hama, Syria; geometer, astronomer, and engineer. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Ann...

Abu Bakr al-Hassar

Al-Hassar was believed to have lived during the 12th century. He specialised in Islamic Inheritance Jurisprudence and was from the Maghreb (region of North Africa). It was believed that he taught ...

Abu Bishr Matta ibn Yunus

Abu Bishr Matta received his Aristotelian education at the monastery of Mar Mari and came to Baghdad, where in the first decades of the 10th century he had al-Farabi, a Muslim, and Yahya ibn ‘Adi, a...

Abu Hayyan al-Tawhidi

Ali ibn Mohammed ibn Abbas علي بن محمد بن عباس Abu Hayyan al-Tawhidi was a professional scribe, secretary, and courtier. Click here for more information....

Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Abd Allah, Al-Hamdani Al-Hamawi, Shihab Al-Din

Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Abd Allah, Al-Hamdani Al-Hamawi, Shihab Al-Din was born in Hama in 1187-8, where he flourished and where he died in 1244-5. He is a Shafiite Qadi (judge) historian who wrote Tari...

Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Ishaq al-Harbi

Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Ishaq al-Harbi (d. 285); Baghdad, Iraq; prominent companion and theologian of the Hanbali School of Thought. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civi...

Abu Ja'far al-Khazin

Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Hasan Khazini Abu Jafar al-Khazin may have worked on both astronomy and number theory. Please click here for more information....

Abu Kamil Al-Hâsib Al-Misrî

Abu Kamil Al-Hâsib Al-Misrî was a mathematician who perfected al-Khwarizmi's work on algebra and whose mathematics included a number of subjects such as determination and construction of both roots ...

Abu l-Khayr al-Ishbili

Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Khair ibn 'Umar ibn Khalifa al-Ishbili is a Hispano- Muslim scholar, born in Seville in 1108-1109, studied in Seville and Cordova, and died in Cordova in 1179. He compiled a bibl...

Abu Muhammad al-Hasan al-Hamdani

Al-Hamdani was a historian, geographer, grammarian and lexicographer who also played a role in South Arabian statesmanship. Click here for more information....

Abu Muqri Mohammed al-Battiwi

Abu Muqri (or Miqra) Mohammed ibn Ali al-Battiwi (fl. 1331) was a Moroccan astronomer who wrote a poem (urzaja) on the calendar, astronomy and the determination of the hours of prayer. It has been c...

Abu Nasr Mansur

Abu Nasr Mansur ibn Ali ibn Iraq was an extremely able astronomer and mathematician. Of Abu Nasr Mansur's works seven are on mathematics, the rest are on astronomy. Click here for more information....

Abu Sahl 'Isa ibn Yahya al-Masihi

Abu Sahl 'Isa ibn Yahya al-Masihi was a Christian physician of Jurjan, he started medicine and took as his tutor Abu Mansur Hassan bin Nuh al-Qamari. Abu Sahl, besides the glory that is rightly his as...

Abu Sahl al-Quhi

Abu Sahl al-Quhi was an astronomer and mathematician. He is said to have been one of the leading figures in a revival and continuation of Greek higher geometry in the Islamic world. Click here for ...

Abu Yahya Ibn al-Batriq

In the eighth century Abu Yahya Ibn al-Batriq worked as a translator for Al-Mansur. Some of the major works he translated include Galen, Hippocrates, Aristotle and Plato. Click here for more in...

Abu'l-Hasan 'Ali ibn Abi l-Rijal

Abu l-Hasan 'Ali ibn Abi l-Rijal, was an Arab astrologer who was active in the first half of the ninth century. He penned the famous, Kitāb al-Mawālīd, or ‘Book of Nativities’. Click here fo...

Abu'l-Hasan al-Uqlidisi

Al-Uqlidisi is a mathematician who is only known to us through two manuscripts on arithmetic, Kitab al-fusul fi al-hisab al-Hindi and Kitab al-hajari fi al-hisab. Despite this he is a figure of some i...

Abul Hasan Al-Misrî

Abul Hasan Al-Misrî, was a physician and author of many medical writings of which the most popular was his commentary on Galen's Ars Parva which was translated by Gherardo Cremonese. For more deta...

Abul Hasan al-Tabari

Abul-Hasan al-Tabari was a 10th century Persian physician born in Tabaristan. He was a creative and innovative physician who avoided emulating treatments without investigating and examining them. ...

Ad-Dakhwar

Ad-Dakhwar (early 13th century); Aleppo, Syria; physician at Al-Nuri Hospital. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, Text on...

Adelard of Bath

Adelard of Bath (ca 1080–ca 1160); Bath, England; mathematician, astronomer, who championed the use of reason and Arabic learning. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Ci...

Ahmad al-Halabi

Ahmad al-Halabi (d. 1455); Aleppo, Syria; astronomer. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, Text only. . FSTC. Kindle Editio...

Ahmad al-Qalqashandi

Shihab al-Din abu 'l-Abbas Ahmad ben Ali ben Ahmad Abd Allah al-Qalqashandi (1355 or 1356 – 1418) was a medieval Egyptian writer and mathematician. Born in a village in the Nile Delta, al-Qalqash...

Ahmad al-Tifashi

Ahmad ibn Yusuf al-Tīfāshī Al-Tifashi, Ahmad Bin Yousef (683 CE) was a geologist. One of his books on geology include, "Flowering Ideas on Gemstones" (Azhar Al-Afkar fi Jawahir Al-Ahjar). Althou...

Ahmad Baba

Ahmed Baba was a Teacher, Philosopher, Arabic grammarian and author of over 40 books and various works – ranging from biographies to commentaries. He was also the last chancellor of the Universit...

Ahmad Efendi Brusi

Ahmed Efendi Brusi from Bursa was a theologian, astronomer and mathematician....

Ahmad ibn Abi al-Ash’ath

Ahmad ibn Abi al-Ash’ath, a famous physician from Mosul, Iraq, described the physiology of the stomach in a live lion in his book al-Quadi wa al-muqtadi, Ahmad ibn Abi al-Ash’ath observed the ...

Ahmad Rida

A prominent writer and linguist. Wrote "Matn al-lugha", first Arabic dictionary since "Lisan al-Arab" that was assembled in the 13th Century....

Aidamir al-Jildaki

'Ali ibn Muhammad Aidamir al-Jildaki Al-Jildaki was one of the most prolific writers on alchemy, practically nothing is known of his life save that he flourished during the eigth century A.H., wrot...

Aisha bint Abu Bakr

Aisha bint Abu Bakr, had special skills in administration. She became a scholar in hadith, jurisprudence, an educator, and an orator....

Al-Abbas ibn Said al-Jawhari

Al-Abbas ibn Said al-Jawhari was an an Arab mathematician. He lived and worked in Damascus and Baghdad. He is known for writing a book, Commentary on Euclid's Elements. We know little of al-Jawhari's...

Al-Adami

Ādamī is noted for his work on instruments. Ibn al‐Ādamī, presumably his son, wrote an influential astronomical handbook with tables (zīj) that was based on Indian sources. The father is mentio...

Al-Asma'i

al-Aṣmaʿī, in full Abū Saʿīd ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Qurayb al-Aṣmaʿī   (born c. 740, Basra, Iraq—died 828, Basra), noted scholar and anthologist, one of the three leading members of the...

Al-Baghdadi, Ibn Tahir

Al-Baghdadi, real name: Abu Mansur Abr al-Qahir ibn Tahir ibn Muhammad ibn Abdallah al-Tamini al-Shaffi, known as Ibn Tahir (980-1037); Baghdad, Iraq; mathematician. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions:...

Al-Baladhuri

Early Muslim historian. Wrote a history of Arab conquests (Futuh al-buldan). Click here for more information....

Al-Baqillani

Ashari theologian and Maliki jurist of Iraq. Instrumental in propagation of Ashari kalam, though his own doctrinal contribution is difficult to distinguish. Debated at Buwayhid and Byzantine courts. W...

Al-Battani, Abu ’Abdallah Muhammad ibn Jabir

Al-Battani, Abu ’Abdallah Muhammad ibn Jabir, known as Albategnius (858-929); born in Harran, Turkey, and worked in Baghdad, Iraq; astronomer and mathematician. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: Th...

Al-Birjandi

Birjandī, a pupil of Manṣūr ibn Muʿīn al‐Dīn al‐Kāshī (who was a staff member of the Samarqand Observatory) and of Sayf al‐Dīn Taftāzānī, was known for his numerous astronomical com...

Al-Biruni

Al-Biruni, Mohammed ibn Ahmed Abul Rayhan (973-1050); born in Khwarizm, died in Gazna; mathematician, geographer, pharmacist, medical scholar, physicist, and earth science scholar. Ltd, FSTC. 1...

Al-Bitruji

Al-Bitruji, Nur al-Din ibn Ishaq (d. 1204), also known as Alpetragius; Morocco and Seville; astronomer. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) E...

Al-Dimashqi

Al-Dimashqi (1256-1327); Damascus, Syria; traveler, explorer and geographer. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, Text only...

Al-Dinawari

Al-Dinawari, Abu Hanifa (d. 895); Andalusia, Spain; botanist. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, Text only. . FSTC. Kindl...

Al-Farabi

Al-Farabi, Abu Nasr (870-950), also known as Alpharabius; near Farab, Khazakhstan, but flourished and worked in Iraq; philosopher and music theorist. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Le...

Al-Farghani, Alfraganus

Al-Farghani, Abu-al-Abbas Ahmad ibn Kathir, known as Alfraganus (d. 861); Farghana, Transoxiana; astronomer and surgeon. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Refe...

Al-Fazari

Al-Fazari, Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ibrahim (d. ca 777); Kunduz, Afghanistan; mathematician, philosopher, poet, and astronomer. The first astronomer of the Muslim world to construct astrolabes. ...

Al-Firdawsi

Al-Firdawsi, Abu al-Qasim Mansur (940-1020); Korasan, Iran; historian and chronicler. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, ...

Al-Ghafiqi

Al-Ghafiqi, Muhammad ibn Qassum ibn Aslam (d. 1165); physician, eye surgeon, and herbalist. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annota...

Al-Ghazali

Al-Ghazali, Abu Hamed, known in the West as Algazel (1058-1128); Khorasan, Iran; philosopher and theologian. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4...

Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf ibn Matar

Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf ibn Matar was one of the most influential translators of the late 8th and early 9th centuries in Baghdad, then the capital of the ʿAbbāsid Empire. Click here for more informat...

Al-Hakam II

Al-Hakam II (915-978); Córdoba, Spain; son of Abderrahamn III; ruled Al-Andalus from 961 to 978; famous for his large library. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civiliz...

Al-Hanbali, Taqi al-Din

Al-Hanbali, Taqi al-Din (1236-1328); Harran, Turkey; theologian; Quranic exegesis (tafsir); hadith and jurisprudence. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Ref...

Al-Hashimi

Al-Hashimi was a Muslim astronomer who is known for penning the Kitāb fīʿilal al‐zījāt (Book of the reasons behind astronomical tables)....

Al-Idrisi

Al-Idrisi (1099-1166); Ceuta (Morocco) and Palermo, Sicily; geographer and cartographer. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotate...

Al-Isfizari, Abū Ḥātim al-Muẓaffar ibn Ismā'īl

Al-Isfizari, Abū Ḥātim al-Muẓaffar ibn Ismā'īl (flourished 11th-12th centuries CE); Khurasan, engineering mechanics. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilizatio...

Al-Jabarti

The multi-volume chronicle of the Cairo scholar Abd al-Rahman al-Jabarti (1754-1825), known in Arabic as cAja-’ib al-atha-r fi- al-tara-jim wa-al-akhba-r, which translates roughly as The Most Wo...

Al-Jahiz

Al-Jahiz, Abu Uthman Amr ibn Bahr (ca 776-868); Basra, Iraq; philosopher, sociologist, and zoologist. He was the author of many books, including the Book of Animals. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: ...

Al-Jaldaki

Aydamur al-Jaldaki was an alchemist from Jaldak, a town eighteen kilometres away from Mashad in Khurasan. He lived in Damascus, and then moved to Cairo, where he died between 750 AH/1349-1350 CE and 7...

Al-Jawbari

'Abd al-Rahman al-Jawbari provided a long inventory of shady alhchemical dealings. Around the year 1220, al-Jawbari wrote a book called The Revelation of Secrets that details a variety of cheats and s...

Al-Jazari

Al-Jazari, Badi’al-Zaman Abu al-’Izz Isma’il b al-Razzaz (early 13th century); Diyarbakir, Turkey; engineer. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Referen...

Al-Jurjani, Abu Ruh Muhammad ibn Mansur ibn Abdullah

Al-Jurjani, Abu Ruh Muhammad ibn Mansur ibn Abdullah (ca 1088); Astarabad, Iran; oculist and surgeon. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edit...

Al-Juzjani

Jūzjānī was one of the earliest Islamic scientists to provide an alternative to Ptolemy's equant model. Very little is known about his life. He probably was already a jurist ( faqīh) in Jurjān ...

Al-Karaji, Abu Bekr ibn Muhammad ibn al-Husayn

Al-Karaji, Abu Bekr ibn Muhammad ibn al-Husayn, also known as Al-Karkhi (953-1029); Baghdad, Iraq; mathematician and engineer. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilizat...

Al-Kashghari, Mahmud

Al-Kashghari, Mahmud (1073); Turkey; geographer and lexicographer. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, Text only. . FSTC. K...

Al-Kashi, Ghiyat al-Din

Al-Kashi, Ghiyat al-Din (1380-1429); Kashan, Iran; mathematician and astronomer. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, Text o...

Al-Khalil ibn Ahmad

Al Khalil Ibn Ahmed (b.Baghdad 718 CE), a philologist, categorised the metres of classical Arabic poetry into sixteen distinct types (Taf‘ila) of eight-word units. A systemof scanning was used, wher...

Al-Khalil ibn Ahmad al-Farahidi

In the year 248 AH (862-3 CE), a bookseller arrived in Basra from the province of Khurasan in North-east Persia, bringing with him a dictionary of the Arabic language in forty-eight parts or copy-book...

Al-Khalili

Khalīlī was an astronomer associated with the Umayyad Mosque in the center of Damascus. A colleague of the astronomer Ibn al‐Shāṭir, he was also a muwaqqit – i. e., an astronomer concerne...

Al-Khazini

Abu al-Fath Abd al-Rahman Mansour al-Khāzini أبو الفتح الخازني Without a doubt, the greatest of all scholars to come from Merv was al-Khazini. Abderahman al-Khazini flourished ca...

Al-Khujandi

Al-Khujandi, Abu Mahmud Hamid ibn al-Khidr (940-1000); Khudzhand, Tajikistan; astronomer, constructed a large sextant for improved accuracy. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Mu...

Al-Khwarizmi

Al-Khwarizmi, Muhammad ibn Musa (780-850); Khwarizm, Iran; mathematician, astronomer, and geographer from whose name the word “algorithm” comes. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Lega...

Al-Kindi

Al-Kindi, Abu Yusuf Yaqub ibn Ishaq al-Sabbah (801-873); Kufa, Iraq; cryptanalyst, mathematician, astronomer, physician, and geographer. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim...

Al-Kuhi

Al-Kuhi, Abu Sahl Wijan ibn Rustam (tenth century); born in Kuh in Tabaristan, in north Iran but worked and flourished in Baghdad around 988; mathematician and astronomer. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Invent...

Al-Mahani

Abu-Abdullah Muhammad ibn Īsa Māhānī ابوعبدالله محمد بن عیسی ماهانی Al-Mahani's work in astronomy from Ibn Yunus's astronomical handbook al-Zij al-Hakimi al-kabir. ...

Al-Majusi

Al-Majusi, ’Ali ibn al-’Abbas (tenth century); Ahwaz, Iran; medical scholar. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, Text o...

al-Mansur Qalawun

Qalawun, Saif ad-Din al-Alfi al-Mansur (1222-1290); Mamluk sultan who ruled Egypt (1279-1290); in 1284 he built the famous Al-Mansuri Hospital. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of...

Al-Mansur, Abu Jafar

Al-Mansur, Abu Jafar Abdullah ibn Muhammad al-Mansur (712-775); Abbasid caliph who ruled from Baghdad (754-775); the founder of Baghdad in 762. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of...

Al-Mansur, Yaqub

Al-Mansur, Yaqub (1160-1199); Marrakech, Morocco; Almohad sultan who ruled from Marrakech (1184-1199). Great army commander, sponsor of scholars, and builder of famed edifices. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 I...

Al-Maqrizi, Taqi al-Din

Al-Maqrizi, Taqi al-Din Ahmad ibn ’Ali ibn ’Abd al-Qadir ibn Muhammad (1364-1442); Cairo, Egypt; historian. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference ...

Al-Masudi, Abul-Hassan

Al-Masudi, Abul-Hassan Ali ibn al-Hussain (871-957); Baghdad, Iraq; explorer, geographer, and historian. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) E...

Al-Mawsili

Al-Mawsili, Ammar ibn Ali (tenth century); Mosul, Iraq; eye surgeon and ophthalmologist. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated...

Al-Maʿarri

Al-Maʿarrī, in full Abū al-ʿAlāʾ Aḥmad ibn ʿAbd Allāh al-Maʿarrī  (born December 973, Maʿarrat al-Nuʿmān, near Aleppo, Syria—died May 1057, Maʿarrat al-Nuʿmān) was an Arab poet...

Al-Ma’mun, Abu Jafar

Al-Ma’mun, Abu Jafar al-Ma’mun ibn Harun (786-833); Abbasid caliph, who ruled from 813 until 833; he expanded the House of Wisdom. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim C...

Al-Muktafi

Al-Muktafi (d. 908); Abbasid caliph who ruled from Baghdad (902-908). Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, Text only. . FSTC...

Al-Muqaddasi

Al-Muqaddasi, Muhammad ibn Ahmad Shams al-Din (ca 945-1000); Jerusalem; historian and geographer. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition ...

Al-Muradi

Alī Ibn Khalaf al-Murādī, (11th century) Al-Andalus, was a Mechanical engineer and author of the unique technological manuscript entitled Kitāb al-asrār fī natā'ij al-afkār (The Book of Secret...

Al-Mutawakkil

Al-Mutawakkil; Abbasid caliph who ruled from Samarra, Iraq (847-861), which was the short-lived Abbasid capital founded by his father, Al-Mu’tassim. Great sponsor of scholars. Ltd, FSTC. 1001...

Al-Mu’izz, Li-din Allah

Al-Mu’izz, Li-din Allah (930-975); a powerful Fatimid caliph who expanded the Fatimid rule from North Africa to Egypt; the founder of Cairo, Al-Qahirah, in 972/3 and the mosque of Al-Azhar. Lt...

Al-Nasawi

Al-Nasawi was an Islamic mathematician who wrote summaries of some of Euclid's Elements. Click here for more information....

Al-Nuwayri

Al-Nuwayri, Abu al-Abbas Ahmad (1278-332); Cairo, Egypt; historian. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, Text only. . FSTC. ...

Al-Qalasadi

Al-Qalasadi was a Spanish Islamic mathematician who took the first steps toward the introduction of algebraic symbolism by using letters in place of numbers. Click here for more information....

Al-Qashari

Toledo was the residence of a great number of able architects. Fath B. Ibrahim (Fl. 934; d. 1013) was known as al-Qashari, a scholar, pious man and architect who, although flourishing in the Caliph co...

Al-Qazwini

Al-Qazwini, Zakariya’ ibn Muhammad (1203-1283); Qazwin, Iran; traveler, explorer, and judge (qadi). Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edit...

Al-Qurashi

The best known are Nihayat al-rutba fi talab al-hisba by ‘Abd-al-Rahman al-Shayzari (d. 589/1193), and Ma’alim al-qurba fi ahkam al-hisba, by Diyya’ al-Din al-Qurashi, known as Ibn al-Ukhuwwa (d...

Al-Razi

Al-Razi, Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariya (865-925); Ray, Iran; physician and chemist known in the West as Rhazes. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference...

Al-Rudani

Rudānī, also known as al‐Maghribī, was a 17th‐century scholar who lived in the Ottoman territories and was known for his work on astronomical instruments. In addition to astronomy, he was a po...

Al-Saghani

Al-Saghani was a mathematician and astronomer attached to the Buyid observatory in Baghdad. Mathematically, he followed up the work of the Banu Musa, tackling the problem of trisecting the angle, whic...

Al-Sakhawi

Shams al-dim al-Sakhawi as a historian of the 9th/15th century : with an edition of that section of his chronicles (Wajiz al-kalam) covering the period 800-849 / 1397-1445. Click here for more info...

Al-Samawal al-Maghribi

Al-Samawal, Ibn Yahia al-Maghribi (d. 1180); Baghdad, Iraq; mathematician and astronomer. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotate...

Al-Saqati

Al-Saqati, wrote an essential treatise on Hisba (roughly commercial practice and law) and the other, Ibn al-Baytar, wrote the greatest treatise of medieval times on botany and herbals. Al-Saqati’s w...

Al-Shifa bint Abdullah

The companion Al-Shifa bint Abduallah al Qurashiyah al-'Adawiyah had a strong presence in early Muslim history as she was one of the wise women of that time. She was literate at a time of illiteracy. ...

Al-Sijzi

Al-Sijzī, well known for his contributions to geometry, was also a prolific astrologer and astronomer. Click here for more information....

Al-Sufi

Al-Sufi, ’Abd al-Rahman (903-986); Isfahan, Iran; astronomer. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, Text only. . FSTC. Kind...

Al-Suyuti

Al-Suyūṭī, in full Jalāl al-Dīn Abū al-Faḍl ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn Abī Bakr al-Suyūṭī (born 1445, Cairo, Egypt—died October 17, 1505, Cairo), Egyptian writer and teacher whose work...

Al-Tamimi

Al-Tamimi was a Palestinian physician who conducted pharmaceutical experiments and wrote various medical works chiefly on Materia medica. For more detail click here....

Al-Tighnari

Abu 'Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Malik al-Murri, called al-Tighnari, flourished in the twelfth century and served the taifa prince of Granada before moving to the court of the Almoravid governor Abu-l-Tahi...

Al-Tusi, Nasir al-Din

Al-Tusi, Nasir al-Din (1201-1274); Maragha (Tus), Khorasan, Iran; astronomer, mathematician, and philosopher. He served Hulagu, who destroyed Baghdad and Syria. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The E...

Al-Urdi

Mu’ayyad al-Din al-’Urdi معيد الدين الوردي Al-'Urdî is a Syrian architect. He constructed the water installations of Damascus. He has also constructed astronomical instrument...

Al-Walid ibn Marwan

Al-Walid ibn ’Abdulmalik ibn Marwan (668-715); Umayyad caliph who ruled from Damascus, Syria (705-715); he built the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy...

Al-Waqidi

Muhammad b. 'Umar al-Waqidi was a historian, born in Medina in the 8th Century. Of his several writings the most significant is the Kitab al-Maghazi, one of the earliest standard histories of the lif...

Al-wazir Abu Al- 'Ala' Zuhr

Abu Al- 'Ala' studied at Cordova at the school of Abu Al-Aina, a doctor who came from the Orient to Spain. He was even more successful as a physician than his father. He was attached to the court of a...

Al-Zahrawi

Al-Zahrawi, Abul Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas, known in the West as Abulcasis (936-1013); Córdoba, Spain; physician and surgeon. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilizat...

Al-Zamakhshari

Abu al-Qāsim Maḥmūd ibn ʿUmar al-Zamakhsharī, also called Jār Allāh (Arabic: “God’s Neighbour”)   (born March 8, 1075, Khwārezm [now in Turkmenistan or Uzbekistan]—died June 14, 1...

Al-Zarqali (Arzachel)

Al-Zarqali, Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Yahya, also known as Arzachel (1029-1087); Toledo, Spain; astronomer who compiled the Toledan Tables. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim ...

Alam Al-Din

ʿAlam al-Dīn al-Ḥanafī,  (born 1178?, Egypt—died 1251, Egypt), Egyptian mathematician, astronomer, and engineer. He wrote a treatise on Euclid’s postulates, built water mills and fortifi...

Albertus Magnus

Albertus Magnus, also known as Albert the Great (1206-1280); Bavaria; scientist, philosopher, and theologian. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4...

Alfonso X

Alfonso X, also known as Alfonso the Wise (1221-1284); Spanish king of Castile and León (1252-1284); son and successor of Ferdinand III. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Musl...

Ali Eftekhari

In electrochemistry, Iranian scientist Ali Eftekhari is regarded as a founder of electrochemical nanotechnology, particularly for his development of carbon nanotubes. He also carries out scientific ...

Ali ibn al-Athir

Historian who recorded history as a sequence of military engagements, such as the Mongol invasion of the Islamic Empire. Believed history had both religious and mundane value and that moral lessons co...

Ali ibn Isa al-Asturlabi

ʿAlī ibn ʿĪsā al-Asṭurlābī, author of an early Arabic treatise on the astrolabe and an opponent of astrology, enjoyed renown as an astronomical instrument maker and contributed to observation...

Ali ibn Isa al-Kahhal

One of the most highly regarded of ophthalmological manuals was that covering 130 eye ailments writte by 'Ali ibn 'Isa al-Kahhal (d. 1010/400 H) who practiced in Baghdad. Click here for more inform...

Ali ibn Khalaf al-Shakkaz

Ali ibn Khalaf al-Shakkaz (11th century); Toledo, Spain; an apothecary or herbalist, astronomer. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition ...

Ali Qushji

Ala al-Dīn Ali ibn Muhammed علی قوشچی Ali Al-Qushji was one of the most noteworthy and important scientists in the Islamic world. He wrote valuable works especially on astronomy and mat...

Amina of Zaria

In Muslim Africa, several women excelled in various fields. Among them, Queen Amina of Zaria (1588-1589). She was the eldest daughter of Bakwa Turunku, who founded the Zazzau Kingdom in 1536. Amina ca...

Archimedes

Archimedes (287-212 BCE); Syracuse, Sicily; astronomer, physicist, and mathematician. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, ...

Aristotle

Aristotle (383-322 BCE); Stagirus, Greece; philosopher, scientist. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, Text only. . FSTC. ...

Athir al-Din al-Abhari

Athir al-Din al-Abhari, an Islamic scholar of the seventh / thirteenth century, was born in the city of Mosul sometime around the year 597 CE. Click here for more information....

Baba Hassay Muhmud

Baba Hassay Muhmud was an Imam, a master of jurisprudence, Arabic grammar, the biography of the Prophet and logic. He also acted as teacher and ensured that his students knew and understood his teach...

Badr al-Din al-Ayni

Mahmud b. Ahmad Badr al-Din al-'Ayni or al-'Ayntabi, was in addition to being cheif judge (qadi al-qudat) for several years, also frequently held the lucrative posts of controller of trust properties ...

Bahaʾ al-din al-ʿAmili

Muhammad bin Husayn bin Abdul Samad, called Baha' al-Ddin al-Harithi al-'Amili was born in Ba'labak in 953 H/1547CE. He died in Isfahan in 1031 H/1622 CE. He wrote in many subjects such as mathema...

Bahya ibn Paquda

Bahya ibn Paquda was a Jewish philosopher known for his major work Kitab al-Hidaya ila Fara'd al-Qulub. Please click here for more information....

Banu Musa brothers

Banu Musa brothers (ninth century); Baghdad, Iraq; Ibn Musa, Jafar Muhammad ibn Shakir (800-873); geometry and astronomy; Ibn Musa, Ahmed ibn Shakir (805-873); mechanics; Ibn Musa, Al-Hasan ibn Sh...

Bar Hebraeus

Bar Hebraeus was a medieval Syrian scholar noted for his encyclopaedic learning in science and philosophy and for his enrichment of Syriac literature by the introduction of Arabic culture. Click h...

Bardaisan

One of the earliest known figures of Syriac Christianity was the philosopher-theologian Bardaisan of Edessa (c. 154-222 CE). Click here for more information....

Baybars, al-Malik al-Zahir Rukn al-Din Baybars al-Bunduqdari

Baybars, al-Malik al-Zahir Rukn al-Din Baybars al-Bunduqdari (1223-1277); Solhat, Turkey; Mamluk sultan who rose to power from being a slave, ruled Egypt and Syria (1260-1277); defeated the Mongol...

Baylak al-Qibjaqi

Baylak al-Qibjaqi (ca 1282); Istanbul, Turkey; explorer, seafarer, and geographer. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, Text...

Benjamin of Tudela

Benjamin of Tudela was a Spanish rabbi who was the first known European traveler to approach the frontiers of China and whose account of his journey, Massaʿot (The Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela, 19...

Dawud al-Antaki

Dawud was born in Antioch. He was blind and paraplegic and was nick-named AI-Basir (the non-seeing), as his paraplegia had improved. He studied Medicine and excelled. He travelled to Alep, Damascus an...

Dhayfa Khatun

Dhayfa Khatun, the powerful wife of the Ayyubid ruler of Aleppo al-Zahir Ghazi, was the Queen of Aleppo for six years. She was born in Aleppo in 1186 CE. Her father was King al-Adel, the brother of Sa...

Djamal Eddin Ibn Al-Qifti

Djamal Eddin Ibn Al-Qifti was a vizier around whom much scholarship thrived in Aleppo. He was born in Egypt, in the year 1172. At a young age, his father took him to Cairo to learn to read and write, ...

Dunash ben Labrat

Dunash Ben Labrat,  Labrat also spelled Librat, also called Al-abrad, or Adonina Ha-levi (born c. 920, Fès, Mor.?—died c. 990, Córdoba?), Hebrew poet and grammarian who was the first to use Ara...

Dunash ibn Tamim

Jewish physician and one of the first scholars to make a comparative study of the Hebrew and Arabic languages. He practiced medicine at the Fatamid court of al-Qayrawan, (now in Tunisia) and, like...

Edward I

Edward I (1239-1307); king of England (1272-1309); went on Crusades to Acres (1271-1272); on his return he built castles according to Muslim designs. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Le...

Euclid

Euclid (325-265 BCE); Alexandria, Egypt; Greek mathematician, and scholar of optics. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, T...

Fakhr ad-Din ar-Razi

Fakhr ad-Din ar-Razi was a philosopher and Muslim theologian....

Farouk El-Baz

Farouk El-Baz is an Egyptian American scientist who worked with NASA to assist in the planning of scientific exploration of the Moon, including the selection of landing sites for the Apollo missions a...

Fatima al-Fehri

Fatima al-Fehri has played a great role in the civilization and culture in her community. She migrated with her father Mohamed al-Fehri from Kiroan in Tunisia to Fez. She grew up with her sister in an...

Fatima al-Fihriya

Fatima al-Fihriya (ninth century); nicknamed Um al-Banin or “the mother of children”; Fez (Fes), Morocco; art and building patron, founder of Al-Qarawiyin Mosque, Fez, which became the oldest ...

Fatima bint al-Mundhir

Although she was a scholar of Hadith specifically, is Fatima bint al-Mundhir al-Qurayshiyya (b. 668 CE), from the generation of tabi'in in the Medina, who was her husband's ustadh, his authoritative t...

Frederick II

Frederick II (1194-1250); king of Sicily (1198-1250); emperor, Holy Roman Empire (1220-1250). Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Ann...

Galen, Claudius

Galen, Claudius (ca 131–206); Pergamum/Bergama, Turkey; physician. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, Text only. . FSTC. Ki...

Gerard of Cremona

Gerard of Cremona (ca 1114-1187); Lombardy, Italy; translator. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, Text only. . FSTC. Kind...

Gregory Bar Hebraeus

Gregory Bar Hebraeus was a catholicos (bishop) of the Syriac Orthodox Church in the 13th century. He is noted for his works addressing philosophy, poetry, language, history, and theology; he has been...

Habash al-Hasib al-Marwazi

Merv produced one of the earliest and greatest scientists of Islam Ahmad ibn 'Abdallah al-Marwazi (Marwazi means from Merv) best known as Habash al-Hasib (the calculator) who flourished in Bagdad ...

Hamdallah Mostawfi

ḤAMD-ALLĀH MOSTAWFI, historian and geographer of the Ilkhanid period (b. Qazvin, ca. 680/1281, d. ca. 744/1344). There is some disagreement over whether his name was Ḥamd or Ḥamd-Allāh (Na...

Hanoch ben Moses

Hanoch ben Moses (d. 1014) was a rabbi and talmudist in early eleventh-century al-Andalus. He was the son of Moses ben Hanoch, who came to Iberia probably from southern Italy and was one of the schola...

Harbi al-Himyari

Jabir himself says to have learned with Harbi al-Himyari, Udhun al-Himar and a monk. After this, he maintains, he joined Ja'far al-Sadiq (d. 765) who taught him the whole of alchemy. Click here for...

Harun al-Rashid

Harun al-Rashid (766-809); the fifth Abbasid caliph, who ruled from Baghdad (786-809); sent to Charlemagne a delegation with gifts including a hydraulic organ. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The E...

Hasan al-Rammah

Hasan al-Rammah was a thirteenth century military engineer (d. 1294-1295 CE) who, described in his book al-furusiyya wa al-manasib al-harbiyya (The Book of, Military Horsemanship and Ingenious War De...

Hassan Al-Rammah

Al-Rammah, al-Hassan Najm al-Din (ca 1285); Syria; engineer and military historian. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, Tex...

Hazarfen Ahmed Celebi

Hazarfen Ahmed Celebi (17th century); Istanbul, Turkey; flying in 1638 from the Galata tower near the Bosporus in Istanbul, landing on the other side of the Bosporus. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions...

Hezârfen Ahmed Çelebi

Hezârfen Ahmed Çelebi was a legendary Ottoman of 17th-century Istanbul, purported to have achieved sustained unpowered flight. Click here for more information....

Hippocrates

Hippocrates (ca 460–377 BCE); Kos Island, Greece; physician. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, Text only. . FSTC. Kind...

Hisdai ibn Shaprut

Ḥisdai ibn Shaprut was Jewish physician, translator, and political figure who helped inaugurate the golden age of Hebrew letters in Moorish Spain and who was a powerful statesman in a number of majo...

Hunayn ibn Ishaq, al-’Ibadi

Hunayn ibn Ishaq, al-’Ibadi (808-873); Baghdad, Iraq; member of the House of Wisdom; translator of Greek works into Arabic; physician. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Musli...

Ibn Abi Al-Hawafar

Ibn Abi Al-Hawafar wrote a treatise on ophthalmology, Natijat al-Fikar`alaj Amrad al Bassar (The Thoughtful Conclusions on the Treatment of the Diseases of Visions). For more detail click here....

Ibn Abi Ishaq

ʿAbd-Allāh ibn Abī Isḥāq al-Ḥaḍramī (Arabic, عبد الله بن أبي اسحاق الحضرمي), (died AD 735 / AH 117) is considered the first grammarian of the Arabic language.[3] He ...

Ibn Abi Usaybi’ah

Ibn Abi Usaybi’ah (d. 1270); Damascus, Syria (practiced in Egypt); chronicler of physicians and pharmacists; physician and oculist. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim C...

Ibn al-Ahnaf

Abu al-Fadl al-Abbas Ibn al-Ahnaf, of the clan Hanifa, was a famous love poet. His family had emigrated to Khurasan, but probably returned to Basra before he was born (about 133/750). He began his car...

Ibn al-Akfani

Muḥammad ibn Ibrāhīm ibn al-Akfani, is mostly remembered by Arabic bibliographers as a physician and an encyclopedic mind. He was born in 1286 in the city of Sinjār (present-day northern Iraq) an...

Ibn al-Awwam

Ibn al-Awwam (12th century); Seville, Spain; writer on agriculture. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, Text only. . FSTC....

Ibn al-Banna' al-Marrakushi

Ibn al-Banna, whose full name was Abu 'l-Abbas Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Uthman al-Azdi, was born in 1256 in Marrakech. There is a claim that Ibn al-Banna was born in Grenada in Spain and moved to North ...

Ibn al-Baytar

Ibn al-Baytar, Abu Muhammad Dia’ al-Din Abdullah ibn Ahmad (1197-1248); Málaga, Spain; physician, herbalist, pharmacist, and botanist. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Musl...

Ibn al-Durayhim

Ibn al-Durayhim was a noted 14th Century Sunni scholar, merchant, and official. Click here for more information. ...

Ibn al-Faqih, al-Hamadhani

Ibn al-Faqih, al-Hamadhani (tenth century); Baghdad, Iraq; geographer and traveler. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, Te...

Ibn Al-Furat

Ibn Al-Furat was born in Cairo and lived between the years 1334-1405. He was a Hanafite scholar of Cairo, where he studied with notable scholars of the time. For more detail click here....

Ibn al-Hajj, Muhammad ibn Muhammad, Abu Abdullah

Ibn al-Hajj, Muhammad ibn Muhammad, Abu Abdullah (1258-1336); Fez (Fes), Morocco; educationalist and theologian. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Referenc...

Ibn al-Haytham, Abu Ali al-Hasan

Ibn al-Haytham, Abu Ali al-Hasan (965-1039); Basra, Iraq, also known as Alhazen; Syria, Egypt; physicist and mathematician. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilizatio...

Ibn al-Jazzar, Abu Ja’far Ahmad ibn Abi Khalid

Ibn al-Jazzar, Abu Ja’far Ahmad ibn Abi Khalid (ca 855-955); Al-Qaryawan, Tunisia; physician. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition A...

Ibn al-Khammar

The Nestorian Ibn al-Khammar, whose complete name is Abu l-Khayr al-Hassan ibn Suwar Ibn Baba Ibn al-Khammar, was born in 331/942 or 943 in Baghdad and died around 421/1030. He was a pupil of Yahy Ibn...

Ibn al-Khatib

Muhammad ibn Abd Allah ibn Said ibn Ali ibn Ahmad al-Salmani Ibn al-Khatib, known as Lisan al-din, 1313-1374, was the greatest Muslim writer of Granada and the last great intellectual, writer, ...

Ibn Al-Lubudi

Ibn al-Lubudi was a physician, mathematician, astronomer and philosopher, born in Aleppo in 1210; died after 1267. He studied medicine in Damascus under the famed al-Dakhwar, then Ibn al-Lubudi entere...

Ibn al-Muqaffa

Abū Muhammad ʿAbd Allāh Rūzbih ibn Dādūya Ibn al-Muqaffa (d. 142/759) was attempting to make Islamic law the law of the state. But the law itself was then still in its formative period. Cl...

Ibn al-Nadim, Abu al-Faraj Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn Muhammad ibn Ishaq

Ibn al-Nadim, Abu al-Faraj Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn Muhammad ibn Ishaq (tenth century); Baghdad, Iraq; bibliographer and the author of the Kitab al-Fihrist; bookseller and calligrapher. Ltd, FSTC...

Ibn al-Nafis, Abu-Alhassan Alauldin Ali ibn Abi Hazm al-Qurashi

Ibn al-Nafis, Abu-Alhassan Alauldin Ali ibn Abi Hazm al-Qurashi (1210-1288); Damascus, Syria, and flourished and worked in Cairo, Egypt; physician and discoverer of the pulmonary circulation of th...

Ibn al-Quff, Abu’l-Faraj ibn Yacqub ibn Ishaq Amin al-Dawla al-Karaki

Ibn al-Quff, Abu’l-Faraj ibn Yacqub ibn Ishaq Amin al-Dawla al-Karaki (1233-1286); Damascus, Syria; physician. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Referenc...

Ibn al-Saffar, Abu al-Qasim Ahmed ibn Abdallah ibn Omar al-Ghafiqi

Ibn al-Saffar, Abu al-Qasim Ahmed ibn Abdallah ibn Omar al-Ghafiqi, best known under the name of Ibn al-Saffar, meaning “son of copper-smith” (d. 1035); Córdoba, Spain; mathematician and astr...

Ibn Al-Shater Al-Dimashqi

Ibn Al-Shater was among the select group of geniuses in astronomy. He learned the art of ivory inlaying when he was a small boy and was, therefore, known as Al-Mottaem (the inlayer). He also collected...

Ibn al-Shatir al-Muwaqqit

Ibn al-Shatir al-Muwaqqit (1304-1375); Damascus, Syria; astronomer and timekeeper at the Umayyad Great Mosque of Damascus. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization...

Ibn al-Thahabi, Abu Mohammed Abdellah ibn Mohammed al-Azdi

Ibn al-Thahabi, Abu Mohammed Abdellah ibn Mohammed al-Azdi (d. 1033); Suhar, Oman; physician and encyclopedist. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference...

Ibn al-Wafid, Abu al-Mutarrif abd al-Rahman

Ibn al-Wafid, Abu al-Mutarrif abd al-Rahman (1008-1074); also known as Abenguefit; Toledo, Spain; physician and pharmacologist. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civiliz...

Ibn al-Yasamin al-Ishbilli

Abu Muhammad 'Abdallah ibn Muhammad ibn Hajjaj al-Adrini, more commonly known as Ibn al-Yasamin. As his name indicates, he was originally from a Berber tribe from the Maghreb (North Africa). Although ...

ibn Ali al-Dimishqi

Abū al-Faḍl Jaʻfar ibn ʻAlī al-Dimashqī أبو الفضل جعفر بن علي الدمشقي‎ Al-Dimishqi was an economist who flourished in Damascus and other places in Syria. He comp...

Ibn al‐Ha'im al‐Ishbili

Abu Muhammad Abd al-Haqq al‐Ghafiqi al‐Ishbili ابن الهائم In addition to his own astronomical accomplishments, Ibn al‐Hāʾim provides important historical information on earlier ...

Ibn al‐Samh

Ibn al-Samh was born in Cordoba (979) and died in Granada (1035). He grew up in a learned milieu: he was a disciple of Maslama of Madrid (d. 1007), and became a prominent astronomer and mathematic...

Ibn Asakir

Ibn Asakir distinguished himself with his great History of Damascus: Tarikh Dimashq. He lived in Damascus and taught tradition at the Ummayad Mosque. For more detail click here....

Ibn Athal

Ibn Athal ابن أثال Ibn Athal served as physician to Caliph Mu'awiya. He originated from a Christian family. Click here for more information....

Ibn Babawayh

Al-Shaykh al-Saduq is the title given to Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn 'Ali ibn Babawaih al-Qummi (علي بن بابويه القمي), or commonly known in English as Ibn Babawayh. He was the leading trad...

Ibn Badis, al-Mu’izz

Ibn Badis, al-Mu’izz (1007-1061); Tunisia; historian, scientist, and chemist. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, Text o...

Ibn Bajjah, Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Yahya ibn as-Say’igh

Ibn Bajjah, Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Yahya ibn as-Say’igh, known as Avempace in the West (d. 1138); Saragossa, Spain; philosopher and physician. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy o...

Ibn Bassal, Abu ’Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Ibrahim al-Tulaytuli

Ibn Bassal, Abu ’Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Ibrahim al-Tulaytuli (1085); Toledo, Spain; botanist, agriculturist, and gardener. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilizati...

Ibn Battuta, Abu Abdullah Muhammad

Ibn Battuta, Abu Abdullah Muhammad (1304-1368/70); Tangier, Morocco; traveler, explorer, and chronicler. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) ...

Ibn Butlan

The physcian Ibn Butlan - or to give him his full name, Abu'l Hasan Al Mukhtar ibn Abdun ibn Sa'dun Ibn Butlan - was a Nestorian Christian Arab who lived and practiced in Baghdad in the first half of ...

Ibn Duraid

Ibn Durayd, in full Abū Bakr Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥasan al-Azdī ibn Durayd (born 837/838, Basra, Iraq—died Aug. 13, 933, Baghdad), Arab philologist who wrote a large Arabic dictionary, Jamharat al-...

Ibn Fadlan, Ahmed

Ibn Fadlan, Ahmed (tenth century); Baghdad, Iraq; explorer, traveler, and chronicler. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, ...

Ibn Firnas, ’Abbas

Ibn Firnas, ’Abbas (d. 887); Korah, Takrna, Spain; humanitarian, technologist, and chemist. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Ann...

Ibn Ghazi al-Miknasi

Abu Abdallah Muhammad b. Ahmad b. Muhammad Ibn Ghazi al-'Utmani al-Miknasi Ibn Ghazi al-Miknasi was a scholar from Morocco who specialised in history, Islamic law, Arabic philology and mathematics....

Ibn Habib

Abū Marwān ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Ḥabīb ibn Sulaymān ibn Hārūn/Marwān ibn Julhuma ibn ʿAbbās ibn Mirdās al-Sulamī ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Ḥabīb was born in kūrat Ilbīra, a small village ne...

Ibn Hawqal, Abu Al-Qasim Muhammad

Ibn Hawqal, Abu Al-Qasim Muhammad (920-990); Nisibin, Iraq; explorer, traveler, and chronicler. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition A...

Ibn Hazm, Abu Muhammad ’Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Sa‘id

Ibn Hazm, Abu Muhammad ’Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Sa‘id (994-1064); Córdoba, Spain; theologian and man of letters. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference...

Ibn Hubal

'Muhad̲h̲d̲h̲ib al-Dīn Abu ’l-Hasan ʿAlī B. Aḥmad, a physician, born in Bag̲h̲dād 515 (1122), studied grammar and fiḳh at the Niẓāmīya but later turned to medicine. He became court...

Ibn Isa, Ali

Ibn Isa, Ali (tenth century); also known as Jesu Haly; Baghdad, Iraq; physician and oculist. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annot...

Ibn Jazla

Ibn Jazla was born of Christian parents at Baghdad in 1074 and converted later to Islam. His dispositio corporum de constittutione hominis, Tacuin agritudinum, as the name implies, was translated into...

Ibn Jubayr, Abu al-Husayn Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Jubayr

Ibn Jubayr, Abu al-Husayn Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Jubayr (12th century); Granada, Spain; traveler, explorer, and chronicler. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilizatio...

Ibn Juljul al-Andalusi

Ibn Juljul al-Andalusi (ca 943); Córdoba, Spain; physician, herbalist, and pharmacist. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated,...

Ibn Karnib

Muslim Abu Ahmad al-Husayn b. Ishak Ibn Karnib, a mutakallim (a scholar of the study of Kalam or Islamic scholastic theology) interested in natural philosophy (Fihrist, 263). Click here for more i...

Ibn Khaldun, Abd al-Rahman ibn Mohammad

Ibn Khaldun, Abd al-Rahman ibn Mohammad (1332-1406); Tunis, Tunisia; sociologist, historian, philosopher, and economist. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: ...

Ibn Khallikan

Ibn Khallikan undertook work on his dictionary whilst acting as a man of the law in Damascus and then in Cairo. From 1260 to 1270 and also after 1277, he was chief Qadi of Syria with residence in Dama...

Ibn Khatima

Abu Dja‘far Ahmad ibn ‘Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Khatima Al-Ansari, known as Ibn Khatima, is one of the most important intellectuals of the Medieval Moorish Spain. He wrote works in different fields, s...

Ibn Khordadbeh

Abu'l-Qasim Ubaydallah ibn Abdallah ibn Khordadbeh was the author of the earliest surviving Arabic book of administrative geography, and Persian geographer and bureaucrat of the 9th century. He was t...

Ibn Khurradadhbih

Ibn Khurradadhbih (820-912); Baghdad, Iraq; geographer and director of the government postal service in Baghdad. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Referenc...

Ibn Luyun

Towards the middle of the 8th/14th century, a scholar of Almeria, Abū Uthmān Sa'd b. Abū Ja'far Ahmad Ibn Luyūn al-Tujjbī (d. 750/1349) wrote his Kitāb Ibdā' al-malāha wa-inhā' al-rajāha f...

Ibn Majid, Shihab al-Din Ahmed al-Najdi

Ibn Majid, Shihab al-Din Ahmed al-Najdi (1432-1500); Ras Al-Khaimah (formerly known as Julfar), Arabia; navigator and scholar. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civiliza...

Ibn Mammati Abul Makarim Assad ibn Khatir ibn Mammati

Ibn Mammati wrote an account of the Egyptian government under the Ayyubid Sultan Salah Al-Din, the Kitâb Qawanin al-Dawawin (Statutes of the Councils of State). For more detail click here....

Ibn Miskawayh

Abu 'Ali Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Ya'qub Miskawayh (also known as Ibn Miskawayh) was born. It is established now that his name is actually Miskawayh, yet we find a number of his works, especially those no...

Ibn Munim

Ahmad ibn Ibrahim ibn Ali ibn Munim al-Abdari Ibn Munim from Marrakech used Khayyam's earlier studies to plot a triangular numerical grid that allowed him to figure permutations and combinations. T...

Ibn Muqla, Abu-Ali Mohammed

Ibn Muqla, Abu-Ali Mohammed (866-940); Baghdad, Iraq; Abbasid vizier, calligrapher, and one of the inventors of the Naskhi script. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civil...

Ibn Rushd, Abu’l Walid Muhammad al-Qurtubi

Ibn Rushd, Abu’l Walid Muhammad al-Qurtubi, also known as Averroes (1126-1198); Córdoba, Spain; philosopher, physician, humanist, and judge. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of...

Ibn Rustah, Ahmed

Ibn Rustah, Ahmed (tenth century); Isfahan, Iran; explorer and geographer. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, Text only. ....

Ibn Sahl

Ibn Sahl was a geometer who worked in the late 10th century. Although he is not mentioned in the known biobibliographical sources from the medieval period, Ibn Sahl is mentioned by Ibn al‐Haytham, ...

Ibn Samajun

Ibn Samajun (d. 1002); Andalusia, Spain; herbalist, botanist, and pharmacologist. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, Text ...

Ibn Sarabiyun, Yuhanna

Ibn Sarabiyun, Yuhanna, also known as Serapion (ninth century); Syria; physician and pharmacist. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition ...

Ibn Sa‘id al-Maghribi

Ibn Sa‘id al-Maghribi (1214-1274); Granada, Spain; historian, poet, traveler, and geographer. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition An...

Ibn Sina, Avicenna

Ibn Sina, also known as Avicenna (980-1037); Bukhara, Uzbekistan; physician, philosopher, mathematician, and astronomer. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: R...

Ibn Tufayl, Abu Bakr ibn Abd al-Malik ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Tufayl al-Qaysi

Ibn Tufayl, Abu Bakr ibn Abd al-Malik ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Tufayl al-Qaysi, also known as Abubacer (d. 1185); Granada, Spain; philosopher, physician, and politician. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inv...

Ibn Tulun, Ahmad

Ibn Tulun, Ahmad (835-884); originally was in the service of the Abbasid caliph and moved to become governor of Egypt as part of the Abbasid Caliphate. He built the famous Ibn Tulun Mosque in Cairo...

Ibn Wahshiyya

Abu Bakr Ibn Washiyya (alive in 218/930), the author or translator of many «Nabatean» books, among them the famous al-Filaha an-Nabatiyya, «the Nabatean Agriculture». Click here for more inform...

Ibn Yunus, Abu’l-Hasan Ali ibn Abd al-Rahman ibn Ahmad al-Sadafi

Ibn Yunus, Abu’l-Hasan Ali ibn Abd al-Rahman ibn Ahmad al-Sadafi (950-1009); Fustat, Cairo, Egypt; mathematician and astronomer who compiled the Hakemite Tables. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: Th...

Ibn Zuhr, Abu Marwan

Ibn Zuhr, Abu Marwan (1091-1161); also known as Avenzoar; Seville, Spain; physician and surgeon. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition A...

Ibn ’Aqil, Abu al-Wafa Ali

Ibn ’Aqil, Abu al-Wafa Ali (1040-1119); Baghdad, Iraq; theologian of the Hanbali School of Thought and humanist. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Refere...

Ibrahim al-Fazari

Ibrahim al-Fazari (d. 777 CE) was an 8th-century mathematician and astronomer at the Abbasid court of the Caliph Harun al-Rashid. He composed various astronomical writings ("on the astrolabe", "on th...

Ibrahim al-Kanemi

Due to his late 12th/early 13th century writings, known and read in Morocco, Ibrahim al-Kanemi, carries the distinction - as the first sub-Saharan scholar, to have written in Arabic. He was a gramm...

Ibrahim ibn Hilal al-Sijilmasi

Ibrahim Ibn Hilal as Sijilmassi (d. 903 h.) did a classification and an exegesis of these fatwas in his book ad Durru an Nathîr ‘ala Ajwibat Abi al Hasan as Sughayir. Click here for more inf...

Ibrahim ibn Sinan

Ibrahim ibn Sinan ibn Thabit ibn Qurra (908-946); Harran, Turkey; geometer, astronomer, and mathematician. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th)...

Ibrahim ibn Sinan

Ibrāhīm ibn Sinān was a creative scientist who, despite his short life, made numerous important contributions to both mathematics and astronomy. Click here for more information....

Ikhwan al-Safa’, Brothers of Purity

Ikhwan al-Safa’, also known as Brothers of Purity (ca 983); Basra, Iraq; group of philosophers. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition ...

Ishak Efendi

Hoca Ishak Efendi was an Ottoman mathematician and engineer....

Jaafar As-Sadiq

Jaafar As-Sadiq did not excel only in Islamic studies. He was keenly interested in other sciences, particularly chemistry, physics and astronomy. One of his main students in these disciplines was Jabi...

Jabir ibn Aflah

Jabir ibn Aflah (1100-1145); Seville, Spain; mathematician and astronomer. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, Text only. ....

Jabir ibn Hayyan, Abu Musa

Jabir ibn Hayyan, Abu Musa, also known as Geber (722-815); Tus, Iran, and lived and worked in Kufa, Iraq; chemist, druggist, and physician. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Mus...

Jabril ibn Bukhtishu

Jabril ibn Bukhtishu, (Jibril ibn Bakhtisha) also written as Bakhtyshu, was an 8-9th century physician from the Bukhtishu family of Assyrian Nestorian physicians from the Academy of Gundishapur. He sp...

Jacob ben Machir ibn Tibbon

Jacob ben Machir ibn Tibbon, known as Don Profeit or Profatius Judaeus (ca. 1236-1305). Profatius studied medicine at Montpellier and seems to have lived in Spain for a year. He translated from Arabic...

Jacob of Edessa

Ya‛qūb Al-Rruhāwī ܝܥܩܘܒ ܐܘܪܗܝܐ Jacob Of Edessa, (born c. 640, ʿEn-deba, Antioch province, Syria [now Antioch, Tur.]—died 708), distinguished Christian theologian, historia...

Jaghmini

Mahmud ibn Muhammad ibn Umar Jaghmini Jaghmīnī is the author of the ubiquitous elementary astronomical text al‐Mulakhkhaṣ fī al‐hayʾa al‐basīṭa (Epitome of plain theoretical astro...

Jamshid Al-Kashi

Ghiyath al-Din Jamshid Masud al-Kashi جمشيد الكاشي Al-Kashi remains to this day known for his great mathematical output. He produced his treatise Risala al-Muhitiya (Treatise ...

Johannes Kepler

Johannes Kepler (1571-1630); near Stuttgart, Germany; mathematician and astronomer. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, Tex...

Jordanus de Nemore

Jordanus de Nemore, a European scholar of the 13th century, to whom various scientific works are ascribed in the fields of mathematics, astronomy and theoretical mechanics. Several of these texts reve...

Judah Halevi

Judah Halevi (c. 1075–1141) was one of the most gifted Hebrew poets and talented philosophical theologians of medieval Spain. He was born to an enlightened family of means living in Tudela, a town i...

Kaatib Musa

Kaatib Musa was a jurist, judge and imam (leader of prayers) of Malinke origin who held the post of scholar during the early 15th century. The title kaatib indicates that he was perhaps a scribe in...

Kamal al-Din, Abu’l Hasan Muhammad al-Farisi

Kamal al-Din, Abu’l Hasan Muhammad al-Farisi (ca 1260-1319); Tabriz, Iran; mathematician and physicist. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) ...

Kamal Eddin Ibn al-Adim

Kamal Eddin Ibn al-Adim (1192-1262) is the historian of his native city, Aleppo, most especially through his enormous biographical work, not yet published in modern times: Bughyat al-Talab (The studen...

Katip Çelebi

Kâtip Çelebi was arguably the most important Ottoman intellectual figure of the 17th century. Being the author of many works in the fields of bio-bibliography, geography, history and economics, he h...

Khalifa Ben Abi Al-Mahassin

Khalifa Ben Abi Al-Mahassin (13th century) of Aleppo, who is the author of a large work of 564 pages in which he describes and gives drawings of various surgical instruments including 36 instruments f...

Koca Mimar Sinan

Sinan, Koca Mimar Sinan (1489-1588); Istanbul, Turkey; architect and designer. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, Text onl...

Kushyar ibn Labban

From his works we know that Kushyar was primarily an astronomer who wrote texts on astronomy and geography. He produced astronomical tables and also wrote a work on the astrolabe. Most significant...

Labana of Cordoba

Labana of Cordoba was thoroughly versed in the exact sciences; her talents were equal to the solution of the most complex geometrical and algebraic problems, and her vast acquaintance with general lit...

Lady Mary Wortley Montagu

Lady Mary Wortley Montagu (1689-1762); London, England; prominent member of society and wife of the British ambassador to the Ottoman Empire; brought smallpox inoculation from Turkey. Ltd, FSTC....

Lagâri Hasan Çelebi

Lagâri Hasan Çelebi was an Ottoman aviator. According to Evliya Çelebi the voyager, he made a successful manned rocket flight....

Leonardo da Vinci

Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519); Venice, Italy; painter, draftsman, sculptor, architect, and engineer. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Editi...

Leonardo Fibonacci

Leonardo Fibonacci (1170-1250); Pisa, Italy; mathematician. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, Text only. . FSTC. Kindle ...

Ma Yize

The Ying Tian Li (Heavenly Accordance Calendar) prevalent in the early Song Dynasty, was influenced by a Muslim scholar named Ma Yize. Ma Yize is said to have lived through the years 921 - 1005 CE. In...

Mahmoud Hessaby

Sayyed Mahmoud Hessaby was an Iranian scientist, researcher and professor of University of Tehran. During the congress on "60 years of physics in Iran" the services rendered by him were deeply appreci...

Mardi bin Ali al-Tarsusi

Al-Tarsusi wrote a military manual for Salah al-Din titled "Instruction of the Masters on the Means of Deliverance in Wars from Disaster, and the Unfurling of the Banners of Information: On Equipm...

Maryam Al-Zinyani

In chemistry, historical sources quote the name of Maryam Al-Zinyani. Some scholars suggested that Maryam Al-Zinyani is Maryam bint Abdullah al-Hawary who died in year 758 CE in Kairouan. In addition ...

Masawaih al-Mardini

Masawaih al-Mardini was a Syrian physician. He was born in Mardin, Upper Mesopotamia. After working in Baghdad, he entered to the service of the Fatimid caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah. He died in 1015 i...

Masha’Allah ’Ali ibn ’Isa’

Masha’Allah ’Ali ibn ’Isa’ (d. 815); Cairo, Egypt; astronomer and mathematician. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated...

Maslama al-Majriti

Abu al-Qasim al-Qurtubi al-Majriti أبو القاسم مسلمة بن أحمد المجريطي Maslama al‐Majrīṭī was considered by his Andalusian contemporaries as the foremost auth...

Maslama ibn Ahmad al-Majriti

Maslama ibn Ahmad al-Majriti (d. 1007); Madrid, Spain; astronomer and mathematician. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, Te...

Menahem ben Saruq

Menahem ben Saruq was a Spanish-Jewish philologist of the tenth century CE. He was a skilled poet and polyglot. He was born in Tortosa around 920 and died around 970. Menahem produced an early d...

Michael Scott

Michael Scott (ca 1175–ca 1236); Scotland; physician, astrologer, and translator. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, Tex...

Michelangelo

Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti (1475-1564); Tuscany, Italy; Italian Renaissance sculptor, painter, architect, and poet. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilizatio...

Miriam al-Asturlabi

Miriam Al-'Ijliyah bint al-'Ijli al-Asturlabi مريم الاجليا الاسطرلاب The making of astrolabes, a branch of applied science of great status, was practiced by one woman, Al-'Ij...

Moses ben Hanoch

Moses ben Hanoch or Moses ben Enoch (in Hebrew language, Moshe ben Hanoch) was a medieval rabbi who inadvertently became the preeminent Talmudic scholar of Spain. He died about 965....

Moses ibn Ezra

Moses ibn Ezra,  (born c. 1060, Granada, Spain—diedc. 1139), Hebrew poet and critic, one of the finest poets of the golden age of Spanish Jewry (900–1200). He was one of the first Jewish p...

Muhamad B. Ali Rustum Al-Khurasani

Muhamad B. Ali Rustum Al-Khurasani was an engineer, who between 1146 and 1169, constructed the clock placed at the Bab Jairun (often called the bab as'aa, (door of the clock) of the Umayyad Mosque in ...

Muhammad al-Fatih

Muhammad al-Fatih, known as Mehmed II or al-Fatih (1432-1481); Adrianople, Thrace, Turkey; Ottoman sultan who ruled from Constantinople (1451-1481); conqueror of Constantinople, who built many last...

Muhammad Baqir Yazdi

Muhammad Baqir ibn Zayn al-'Abidin Yazdi, or Muhammad Baqir Yazdi as he is commonly referred to, wrote over a dozen works on astronomy and mathematics.Apparently, he was still active until 1637 CE. ...

Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr al‐Farisi

Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr al-Farisi was an Islamic astronomer born in Aden. He is the author of al-Tuḥfa, which includes a treatise containing important information for the history of Islamic astronomy...

Muhammad ibn Ahmad Al-Mizzi

Muhammad b. Ahmad al-Mizzi lived in Damascus and worked there as a muwaqqit (time keeper) of the rabwa, and then of the Umayyad Mosque. He is the author of several works on astrolabes and quadrants. H...

Muhammad ibn Ibrahim al-Fazari

Abu abdallah Muhammad ibn Ibrahim al-Fazari أبو عبدالله محمد إبن ابراهيم الفزاري Credited to have built the first astrolabe in the Islamic world....

Muhammed Bagayogo

“He was a source of blessing, a jurist, an accomplished scholar, a pious and ascetic man of God, who was amongst the finest of God's righteous servants and practising scholars.” The above is an e...

Muhammed ibn Muhammed al-Fulani al-Kishnawi

Although we are unsure of the date of his birth, due to his name, we know of his ethnicity and place of residence. He was from the Fulani people, the great herders of West Africa, who produced some...

Muhammed ibn Umail al-Tamimi

Muhammad ibn-Umail al-Tamimi was often referred to as al-Sadik. In English al-Sadik becomes "Zadith" and ibn-Umail is translated as "son of Hamuel." He wrote three treatises on alchemy, the mos...

Muhyi al-Din al-Maghribi

Muḥyi al-Dīn al-Maghribī was a Muslim astronomer and mathematician who worked in Damascus, Syria. He later worked under the guidance of Nasir al-Din Tusi in the Maragha observatory in Maragha, Il...

Muhyi Al-Din ibn Abd Al-Zâhir

One of the historians of Mamluk Egypt was Muhyi Al-Din Ibn Abd Al-Zâhir (1223-92) who wrote a contemporary biography of Baybars (ruled 1260-1277). He also wrote biographies of his successors, Qalawun...

Mulla Nasruddin Khodja

Nasruddin Khodja, known also as Mulla Nasruddin or simply Nasruddin, is the starring character in a vast number of amusing tales told in regions all over the world, particularly in countries in or nea...

Mulla Sadra

Sadr al-Din Muhammad b. Ibrahim b. Yahya Qawami Shirazi (ca. 1571–1636) is arguably the most significant Islamic philosopher after Avicenna. Best known as Mulla Sadra, he was later given the tit...

Musa bin Maymun (Maimonides)

Musa bin Maymun (Maimonides); (born 1135 in Cordoba Al-Andalus); philosopher, theologian and physician; brought up in Cordoba; studied in Fez (Fes) and in Cairo. He was appointed head rabbi of the ...

Muwaffaq Al-Din Yaqub Ben Saklan

Muwaffaq Al-Din Yaqub Ben Saklan was a Christian doctor of Jerusalem (d. 1229). He was an Oriental Christian who served as a manager of the hospital of Jerusalem under Muaddam the Ayyubid ruler. Muadd...

Muwaffaq, Abu al-Mansur

Muwaffaq, Abu al-Mansur (tenth century); Herat, Afghanistan; pharmacist. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, Text only. . ...

Nazif ibn Yumn

Abū ʿAlī Naẓīf ibn Yumn is variously identified in the primary sources as al-mutaṭabbib (the medical practitioner), al-qass al-Rūmī (the Melkite priest), and al-Baghdādī (from Baghdad). ...

Nicolas Copernicus

Nicolas Copernicus, Mikolaj Kopernik or Nicolaus Koppernigk (1473-1543); Thorn (Torun), Poland; astronomer and mathematician. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilizat...

Nizam al-Din Nishapuri

Niẓām al‐Dīn al‐Aʿraj al‐Nīsāpūrī composed several widely studied astronomy texts in the 14th century, Click here for more information. ...

Nur al-Din ibn Zangi

Nur al-Din ibn Zangi (1118-1174); sultan who ruled Aleppo and Damascus, Syria; built one of the earliest hospitals, Al-Nuri Hospital. Also united Egypt and Syria. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The...

Nusayba bint Harith al-Ansari

Nusayba bint Harith al-Ansari, also called Umm ‘Atia, took care of casualties on the battlefields and provided them with water, food and first aid. In addition, she performed circumcisions. Click...

Nusayba Bint Kaab Al-Mazeneya

Nusayba Bint Kaab Al-Mazeneya was one of the Muslim women who provided nursing services to warriors at the battle of Uhud (625 H). Click here for more information....

Omar Alfraganus

Umar ibn Farrukhan al-Tabari, also known as Omar Alfraganus (ninth century); Tabaristan, Iran; astrologer; compiled the Liber universus. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim...

Palladio, Andrea

Palladio, Andrea (1505-1580); Padua, Italy; architect and painter. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, Text only. . FSTC. K...

Pierre Omidyar

Pierre Morad Omidyar is a French-born Iranian American entrepreneur and philanthropist, who is the founder and chairman of the eBay auction site. He became a billionaire at the age of 31 with eBay's ...

Piri Reis

Piri Reis, Ibn Haji Muhammad (1465-1554); Gallipoli, Turkey; sea admiral, geographer, explorer, and cartographer. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Referenc...

Plato

Plato (427-347 BCE); Athens, Greece; philosopher. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, Text only. . FSTC. Kindle Edition....

Pope Sylvester II

Pope Sylvester II, Gerbert of Aurillac (940/950-1003); Auvergne, France; pope (999-1003), philosopher, mathematician, and translator, brought Arabic numerals to Europe. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Invention...

Ptolemy

Claudius Ptolemaeus, also known as Ptolemy (85-165); Alexandria, Egypt; geographer and astronomer. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition...

Qabus ibn Wushmagir

"Amir Qabus": Shams al-Ma'ali Qabus ibn Wushmagir (978-1012 CE), a poet and patron of poets and scholars, he took part in the dynastic struggles between the Buyids and the Samanids for control of Khur...

Qadi Zada al-Rumi

Qadi Zada al-Rumi (1364-1440 C.E.) Qadi Zada studied mathematics and astronomy in Transoxiana; then a great cultural centre. In 1383, Qadi Zada gained a great reputation as a mathematician by completi...

Qusta ibn Luqa

Qusṭā ibn Lūqā (Constantine, son of Loukas), a scholar of Greek Christian origin working in Islamic lands in the 9th century, did work in astronomy that included translations of Greek astronomica...

Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi

Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi (1236-1311); Shiraz, Iran; astronomer. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, Text only. . FSTC. Kindle...

Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi

Qutb al-Dīn Al-Shirāzī was born in Shirāz in 1236 CE and died in Tabrīz in 1311. He came from a family with a medical background. He received his preliminary medical education from his father, wh...

Raja ibn Haywah

Raja ibn Haywah was one of the two engineers who were instructed to design the Dome of the Rock. Click here for more info....

Raphael, Raphaello

Raphael, Raphaello (1483-1520); Urbino, Italy; painter and architect. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, Text only. . FSTC...

Rashid Al-Din ibn Essury

Rashid Al-Din was a well-recognised botanist and his passion and knowledge of the subject places him amongst the greatest botanists. For more detail click here....

Rashidun al-Suri

Al-Suri was born and brought up in Tyre, then part of Lebanon and derives his name al-Suri from the name of the city in Arabic"Sur". After completing his preliminary education in Tyre, he moved ...

Ridhwan Al-Sa'ati

Fakhr al-Dīn Ridhwān ibn Rustam al-Sā'ātī (d. between 618-626 H/1220-1229 CE) was a scholar and mechanical engineer, author of the book ‘Ilm al-sā'āt wa 'l-'amal bihā in which he described t...

Ridwan al-Sa’ati

Ridwan al-Sa’ati; an early 13th-century clockmaker/repairer who flourished in Damascus. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotat...

Robert Boyle

Robert Boyle (1627-1691); England; natural philosopher and chemist. One of the founders of modern chemistry and a pioneer of the modern experimental scientific method. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Invention...

Robert of Chester

Robert of Chester's activities lies in the decade from 1140 to 1150. He was an Englishman by birth and variously known as Robert of Ketton, Robertus Retinensis, and Robert of Chester. In 1141, already...

Roger Bacon

Roger Bacon (1214-1292); Ilchester, England; physicist, chemist, philosopher, and mathematician. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition ...

Roger II

Roger II (1093-1154); Palermo, Sicily; Norman king who ruled Sicily (1130-1154); son and successor of Roger I, famous for his interest in geography and support of the Muslim geographer Al-Idrisi. ...

Rufayda al-Aslamiyyah

Rufayda bint Sa'ad, also known as Rufayda al-Aslamiyyah, considered the first nurse in Islamic history, lived at the time of the Prophet Muhammad. She nursed the wounded and dying in the wars with the...

Rumi

Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhī, was a 13th-century Persian poet, jurist, theologian, and Sufi mystic. Rumi's importance is considered to transcend national and ethnic borders. Iranians, Turks, Afgh...

Sa'id ibn Batriq

Sa'id ibn-Batriq, was a Christian scholar who specialised in history. He wrote the book al-Tarikh al-Mamu 'ala al-Tahqiq w-al Tasdiq. Click here for more information....

Sabur ibn Sahl (Shapur)

Sabur ibn Sahl, also spelled Shapur (d. 869); Jundishapur, Iran; physician and pharmacist. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotat...

Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi

Ṣadr al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Isḥāq b. Muḥammad b. Yūnus Qūnawī was a scholar who wrote multiple works on philosophy. Click here for more information....

Sahl ibn Bishr

Sahl ibn Bishr (fl. 205 AH/AD 821–235 AH/AD 850) was an astrologer and mathematician at the service of the governor of the Khurāsān Ṭāhir ibn al-Ḥusayn al-Aʽwar (205/821–207/822) and who l...

Saif al-Dawla

Saif al-Dawla, Abu al-Hasan ibn Hamdan (916-967); ruler of Aleppo and founder of the Hamadanid dynasty of Aleppo. He was famous for his patronage of scholars. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The End...

Sake Dean Mahomed

One enterprising Asian who became a great success in his day was Sake Dean Mahomed. A soldier in the East India Company’s Bengal Regiment, he had first settled in Ireland in 1784, in the service of ...

Salah Al-Din ibn Yusuf Al-Kahhal bi-Hama

Salah Al-Din ibn Yusuf Al-Kahhal bi-Hama (i.e. the eye doctor of Hama) was a Syrian oculist who flourished in Hama in 1296. He wrote for his son a very elaborate treatise of ophthalmology entitled Nur...

Samuel ibn Naghrillah

Samuel ibn Naghrillah was the first major Hebrew poet, prime minister and commander-in-chief or the Muslim city-kingdom of Granada. He was at the same time an important Jewish scholar and skilled in a...

Samuel ibn Naghrillah

Samuel ibn Naghrillah was the first major Hebrew poet, prime minister and commander-in-chief or the Muslim city-kingdom of Granada. He was at the same time an important Jewish scholar and skilled in a...

Sanad al-Yahoudi

Sanad ibn Ali al-Yahoudi (ninth century); Baghdad, Iraq; Jew converted into Islam, chief astronomer of Al-Ma’mun; distinguished member of the House of Wisdom. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The E...

Sanad ibn ʿAli

Sanad bin Ali Al-Yahoudi who was known as Al-Ma'moun's Astronomer (Munajjim Ma'mouni), and to Yahya bin Abi Mansour, and Khalid bin Abdil Malak. As a result of his observations and those of his collea...

Severus Sebokht

Severus Sebokht was one of the leading figures of ecclesiastical, philosophical, and scientific culture of late antique Syria. It was in astronomical matters, however, that Severus was preeminent. ...

Shajarat al-Durr

Another Queen bearing the title of Sultana was Shajarat al-Durr, who gained power in Cairo in 1250 CE. In fact, she brought the Muslims a victory during the Crusades and captured the King of France, L...

Shams al-Din al-Khafri

Khafrī's fame as an astronomer rests mainly on his astronomical treatise al‐Takmila fī sharḥ “al‐Tadhkira” (The completion of the commentary on the Tadhkira). This was a commentary on...

Shams al-Samarqandi

Shams al-Samarqandi was an Islamic mathematician who wrote works on theology, logic, philosophy, mathematics and astronomy....

Shapur ibn Sahl

Sābūr ibn Sahl was a 9th-century Persian Christian physician from the Academy of Gundishapur. Among other medical works, he wrote one of the first medical books on antidotes called Aqrabadhin (ا...

Sharaf al-Tusi

Although Sharaf al‐Dīn al‐Ṭūsī is known especially for his mathematics (in particular his novel work on the solutions of cubic equations), he was also the inventor of the linear astrolabe, a...

Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor

Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor is a Malaysian orthopaedic surgeon and was the first Malaysian to go into space. He was launched to the International Space Station aboard Soyuz TMA-11 with the Expedition 16 c...

Shihab Al-Din Ahmed ibn Abd Al-Wahhab Al-Nuwairi

Shihab Al-Din Ahmad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab Al-Nuwayri was an encyclopaedist. The son of a civil servant, Al-Nuwayri was born in Upper Egypt but studied in Cairo, where he distinguished himself in jurisp...

Shihab Al-din Ahmed ibn Abi Bakr as-Sarraj Al-Hamawi

Shihab Al-din Ahmed ibn Abi Bakr as-Sarraj al-Hamawi was the author of several books on scientific instruments and geometrical problems. For more detail click here....

Sibawaih

Sibawaih (760-793); Bayza or Bayda, Iran; grammarian, considered the most important Arabic grammarian upon whose work all other Arabic grammars are based. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Endurin...

Sibt al-Maridini

Sibt al-Maridini, full name Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Ghazal, was an Egyptian-born astronomer and mathematician. His father came from Damascus. The word "Sibt al-Maridini" m...

Sinan ibn al-Fath

Sinan ibn al-Fath was a mathematician....

Sinan ibn Thabit

Sinān ibn Thābit, the son of Thābit ibn Qurra, was a renowned mathematician and physician in Baghdad during the 10th century. Click here for more information....

Sind ibn Ali

Sind ibn Ali-Musa, Sind ibn ʿAlī was a renowned Sindhi Muslim astronomer, translator, mathematician and engineer. His father Ali-Musa was a convert to Islam and an aristocrat who lived in Mansura, ...

Sir Christopher Wren

Sir Christopher Wren (1632-1723); London, United Kingdom; architect, astronomer, and mathematician. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Editio...

Sitt al-Mulk

In Muslim civilisation, no woman who had held power had borne the title of caliph or imam. Caliph has been a title exclusively reserved to a minority of men. However, although no woman ever became a c...

Solomon ibn Gabirol

Abu Ayyūb Suleiman ibn Yahya ibn Jabirūl أبوأيوب سليمان بن يحيى بن جبيرول Solomon ibn Gabirol was an Andalusian Hebrew poet and Jewish philosopher....

Sulaiman Al Mahri

Sulaiman Al Mahri ibn Ahmad ibn Sulayman was a 16th-century Arab navigator. He was called "Al-Mahri" because he was a descendant of the Arabic tribe of Mahara. He was a student of the philosopher and...

Sultana Raziya

On the other extremity of the Muslim world and almost in the same time as Shajarat al-Durr, another woman held power, but this time in India. Razia (or Raziyya) Sultana of Delhi took power in Delhi fo...

Sutayta Al-Mahāmali

Sutayta did not specialize in just one subject but excelled in many fields such as Arabic literature, hadith, and jurisprudence as well as mathematics. It is said that she was an expert in hisab (arit...

Taqi Al-Din Ahmad Ibn Taymiyya

Taqi Al-Din Ahmad Ibn Taymiyya (1263-1328) belongs to a family which has provided well known scholars such as his uncle Fakhr Eddin (d. 1225) and his paternal grandfather, Majid Eddin, (d. 1255). It w...

Taqi al-Din al-Rasid

Taqi al-Din al-Rasid, Muhammad ibn Ma’rouf al-Shami al-Asadi (ca 1526-1585); Damascus, Syria; astronomer, engineer, and mechanic. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civ...

Thabit ibn Qurra

Thabit ibn Qurra (ca 836–901); Harran, Turkey; geometer, mathematician, astronomer, and translator of Greek work into Arabic. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civiliza...

Thomas Bradwardine

Thomas Bradwardine was an English cleric, scholar, mathematician, physicist, courtier and, very briefly, Archbishop of Canterbury. As a celebrated scholastic philosopher and doctor of theology, he is ...

Tycho Brahe

Tycho Brahe (1546-1601); Skane, Denmark; astronomer and engineer. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, Text only. . FSTC. K...

Ulugh Beg

Ulugh Beg, Muhammed Taragai (1394-1449); Samarkand, Uzbekistan; ruler and astronomer. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, T...

Umar al-Khayyam

Umar al-Khayyam, Ghiyath al-Din Abu’l-Fath Umar ibn Ibrahim Al-Nisaburi (1048-1122); Nishapur, Iran; astronomer and mathematician. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Ci...

Umar ibn al-Khattab

Umar ibn al-Khattab, ibn Nufayl ibn ’Abd al-’Uzza ibn Rayyah (ca 581-644); companion of Prophet Muhammad and second caliph, ruling from Medina, Saudi Arabia (634-644). Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Invent...

Umm Matawe' Al-Aslamiyya

Umm Matawe' Al-Aslamiyya, who volunteered to be a nurse in the army after the opening of Khaybar....

Umm Sinan Al-Islami

Umm Sinan Al-Islami (known also as Umm Imara), would go out with the warriors to nurse the injured and provide water to the thirsty....

Umm Waraqa Bint Hareth

Umm Waraqa Bint Hareth, who participated in gathering the Quran and providing her nursing services to the warriors at the battle of Badr....

Usama ibn Munqidh

Usama ibn Munqidh wrote an autobiography entitled Kitab al-Ittibar (Learning by Example), which is regarded as being historically important and is one of the first larger works of its kind. Usama witn...

Uthman ibn Affan

Uthman ibn Affan, ibn Abi Al-’As ibn Umayyah (577-656); companion of Prophet Muhammad and third caliph (644-656). Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Refere...

Vitruvius, Marcus Pollio

Vitruvius, Marcus Pollio (ca 70-ca 25 BCE); Rome, Italy; architect and engineer. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, Text o...

Waddah al-Yaman

Waddah al-Yaman was a poet of the middle Umayyad period. 'Abd al-Rahman or ('Abd Allah) ibn Isma'il, 'the Bright from the Yemen', is said to have been of Southern Arabian origin or, according to other...

Wallada

Wallada (known as Valada in Western scholarship), a princess of the Almohads, whose personal charms were not inferior to her talents, was renowned for her knowledge of poetry and rhetoric; her convers...

Yahya ibn Abi Mansour

Yahya ibn Abi Mansour (ninth century); Baghdad, Iraq; astronomer at the court of Al-Ma’mun. He compiled the so-called Al-Zij al-Mumtahan, or The Validated Zij. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The ...

Yahya ibn Adi

Abu Zakariyya Yahya ibn Adi b. Hamid, who is said to have lived from 893-974, is said to be one of the greatest of the series of important Arab-Christian theologian-philosophers of the 9th - 11th cent...

Yahya ibn Masawayh, Abu Zakariah

Yahya ibn Masawayh, Abu Zakariah (776-857); Baghdad, Iraq; physician, pharmacologist, earth scientist, and translator. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Ref...

Yahya ibn Saʿid al-Antaki

Yaḥya ibn Saʿīd al-Anṭākī (i.e. of Antioch) was a Melkite Christian historian and physician in the eleventh century. Click here for more information....

Yaqut Al-Hamawi

Yaqut Al-Hamawi's early scholarly activities consisted in copying and selling manuscripts, whilst studying Arabic and grammar. Yaqut could not settle in one place though and travelled much, first as a...

Yaqut al-Hamawi

Yaqut, Ibn-’Abdullah Rumi al-Hamawi (1179-1229); Arab biographer, historian, and geographer. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Ann...

Yaʿish ibn Ibrahim al-Umawi

Al-Umawi, who's full name is Abu Abdallah Yaish ibn Ibrahim ibn Yusuf ibn Simak al-Umawi, is said to have lived from around 1400 to around 1489. Although al-Umawi lived in Damascus in Syria, he cam...

Yaʿqub ibn Tariq

Ya ʿqūb ibn Tāriq was the astronomer most closely connected with al–Fāzarīin introducing the Zīj al–Sindhind to Islamic scientists; he seems, in fact, to have collaborated personally with ...

Yuhanna Ibn Batriq

Yuhanna Ibn Batriq, an Assyrian, who produced the Sirr al-asrar. Click here for more information. ...

Yusuf al-Mu'taman ibn Hud

One of the most interesting documents to come to light in the past decade has been that discovered by Djebbar and Hogendijk, a substantial part of the mathematical compendium, Book of Perfection (Isti...

Yusuf Sinan Pasha

Cigalazade Yusuf Sinan Pasha was one of the most famous Ottoman admirals known by European sailors. Click here for more information....

Zakariya al-Qazwini

Abu Yahya Zakariya' ibn Muhammad al-Qazwini was an Arab or Persian physician, astronomer, geographer and proto-science fiction writer. He belonged to a family of jurists who had long before settled ...

Zheng He

Cheng Ho, Ma He Zheng He (1371-1433), or Cheng Ho, is arguably China's most famous navigator. Starting from the beginning of the 15th Century, he traveled to the West seven times. For 28 years, he ...

Zheng He (Cheng Ho)

Zheng He (Cheng Ho) (1371-1433); Kunming, China; navigator and admiral. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, Text only. . FS...

Ziryab

Abul-Hasan Alí Ibn Nafí, nicknamed Ziryab, was Chief Entertainer of the Court of Cordoba in 822AD. He revolutionised medieval music, lifestyle, fashion, hairstyles, furniture and even tableware. He ...

Ziryab, Abul-Hasan

Ziryab, Abul-Hasan Ali ibn Nafi’ (789-857); Baghdad, Iraq; musician, astronomer, fashion designer, and gastronome. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Refer...

Zubayda bint Ja'far al-Mansur

Zubayda bint Abu Ja'far, the wife of Harun ar-Rashid, was the wealthiest and most powerful woman in the world of her time. She was a noblewoman of great generosity and munificence. She developed many ...

’Abd al-Rahman III

’Abd al-Rahman III (891-961); the ruler of Muslim Spain (912-961); patron of arts; founder of Madinat al-Zahra (a city now in ruins) on the outskirts of Córdoba. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: T...

’Izz al-Din al-Wafa’i

’Izz al-Din al-Wafa’i (d. 1469); Cairo,  Egypt; astronomer and mathematician. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, Text...

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