SCHOLARS A - Z

'Abd al-Hamid ibn Turk

ʿAbd al-Hamīd ibn Turk (fl. 830); known also as ʿAbd al-Hamīd ibn Wase ibn Turk Jili was a ninth-century Turkic Muslim mathematician. Not much is known about his biography. The two records of...

'Isa Ibn Zur'a

Ibn Zur'a; (Abu 'Ali 'Isā ibn Ishāq ibn Zur'a, 943–1008) was a medieval physician and philosopher. He was born in Abbasid Baghdad to a Syriac Jacobite Christian family. He was a student of ...

Abd al-Aziz al-Amawi

Although it is unknown whether Abdul al-aziz al-Amawi was sixteen, or eighteen, what is established is that as a teenager, he was entrusted with a highly important position acting as judge of Kilwa. K...

Abd Al-Latif Al-Baghdadi

Muwaffaq al-Din Muhammad 'Abd al-Latif ibn Yusuf al-Baghdadi, 'Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi or 'Abdallatif al-Baghdadi; موفق الدين محمد عبد اللطيف بن يوسف البغدادي, ...

Abd Al-Rahman Al-Shafi’i

'Abd Al-Rhaman Ibn Nasr ibn 'Abdallah ibn Muhammad al-Nabarawi al-Shafi'i (al-Adawi al-Shairazi); is an Egyptian scholar who flourished probably in the time of Salahuddin (sultan 1169-1193). He wro...

Abd Al-Rahman ibn Faqi Mahmud

Abd Al-Rahman ibn Faqi Mahmud; was appointed as Qadi (judge) in 1553 CE to the post of Imam (leader of prayer) and Dean of the University of Sankore, Timbuktu. Click here for more information....

Abraham bar Hiyya

Abraham bar Ḥiyya ha-Nasi; (Hebrew: אַבְרָהָם בַּר חִיָּיא הַנָשִׂיא; c. 1070 – 1136 or 1145), also known as Abraham Savasorda, Abraham Albargeloni, and Abr...

Abraham ibn Daud

Abraham ibn Daud; (Hebrew: אברהם בן דוד; Arabic: ابراهيم بن داود‎) was a Spanish-Jewish astronomer, historian, and philosopher; born at Cordoba, Spain about 1110; ...

Abu Abdullah al-Bakri

Abū ʿUbayd ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn Muḥammad ibn Ayyūb ibn ʿAmr al-Bakrī; (Arabic: أبو عبيد عبد الله بن عبد العزيز بن محمد بن أيوب بن ع...

Abu al-Fadl Ja'far ibn 'Ali al-Dimashqi

Abu al-Fadl J‘far ibn ‘Ali al-Dimashqi; is the author of Kitab al-Isharah ila Mahasin at-Tijarah wa Marifat Jayyid al-A’rad wa Kadiiha wa Ghush-ush al-Mudallisin fiha (A Guide to the Merits o...

Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani

Ali ibn al-Husayn al-Iṣfahānī; (Arabic: أبو الفرج الأصفهاني‎), also known as Abul-Faraj (897–967 CE) was an historian of Arab-Quraysh origin, who is noted for collecti...

Abu al-Fida’

Abu al-Fida; (Arabic: أبو الفداء‎; November 1273 – October 27, 1331), fully Al-Malik Al-Mu’ayyad Imād-ad-Dīn Abu Al-Fida' Isma'il Ibn 'Ali ibn Mahmud and better known in Englis...

Abu al-Hakam al-Kirmani

Abu al-Hakam al-Kirmani; (Arabic: أبو الحكم الكرماني‎; d. 1066 CE) was a prominent philosopher and scholar from the Muslim al-Andalus. A student of Maslamah Ibn Ahmad al-Majrit...

Abu al-Salt

Abū al‐Ṣalt Umayya ibn ʿAbd al‐ʿAzīz ibn Abī al‐Ṣalt al‐Dānī al‐Andalusī; (c. 1068—October 23, 1134), known in Latin as Albuzale, was an Andalusian-Arab polymath who w...

Abu al-Wafa’, Mohammed al-Bouzjani

Abū al-Wafāʾ, Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad ibn Yaḥyā ibn Ismāʿīl ibn al-ʿAbbās al-Būzjānī or Abū al-Wafā Būzhjānī; (Persian: ابوالوفا بوزجانی or بوژگانی‎)...

Abu Bakr al-Hamawi

Abu Bakr ibn al-Sarraj al-Hamawi (d. 1328/9); Hama, Syria; geometer, astronomer, and engineer. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Ann...

Abu Bakr al-Hassar

Al-Hassar or Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Abdallah ibn Ayyash al-Hassar; (Arabic: أبو بكر محمد ابن عياش الحصَار‎)was a Muslim mathematician from Morocco, living in the 12th...

Abu Bishr Matta ibn Yunus

Abū Bishr Mattā b. Yūnus al-Qunnāʾī; (Arabic: ﺍﺑﻮ ﺑﺸﺮ ﻣﺘﺎ ﺑﻦ ﻳﻮﻧﺲ ﺍﻟﻘﻨﺎﻱء‎; c. 870-20 June 940) was a Christian philosopher who played an importa...

Abu Hayyan al-Tawhidi

Ali ibn Mohammed ibn Abbas; (923–1023) (Arabic: علي بن محمد بن عباس‎) also known as Abū Hayyān al-Tawhīdī (Arabic: أبو حيان التوحيدي‎) was one of the mos...

Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Abd Allah, Al-Hamdani Al-Hamawi, Shihab Al-Din

Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Abd Allah, Al-Hamdani Al-Hamawi, Shihab Al-Din was born in Hama in 1187-8, where he flourished and where he died in 1244-5. He is a Shafiite Qadi (judge) historian who wrote Tari...

Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Ishaq al-Harbi

Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Ishaq al-Harbi (d. 285); Baghdad, Iraq; prominent companion and theologian of the Hanbali School of Thought. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civi...

Abu Ja'far al-Khazin

Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Hasan Khazini; (Persian: ابوجعفر خازن خراسانی‎; 900–971), also called Al-Khazin, was an Iranian Muslim astronomer and mathematician from Khoras...

Abu Kamil Al-Hâsib Al-Misrî

Abu Kamil Al-Hâsib Al-Misrî was a mathematician who perfected al-Khwarizmi's work on algebra and whose mathematics included a number of subjects such as determination and construction of both roots ...

Abu l-Khayr al-Ishbili

Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Khair ibn 'Umar ibn Khalifa al-Ishbili is a Hispano- Muslim scholar, born in Seville in 1108-1109, studied in Seville and Cordova, and died in Cordova in 1179. He compiled a bibl...

Abu Muhammad al-Hasan al-Hamdani

Abu Muhammad al-Ḥasan ibn Aḥmad ibn Yaqub al-Hamdani; (279/280-333/334 A.H. / 893-945 A.D; Arabic: أبو محمد الحسن بن أحمد بن يعقوب الهمداني‎) was an Arab...

Abu Muqri Mohammed al-Battiwi

Abu Muqri (or Miqra) Mohammed ibn Ali al-Battiwi; (fl. 1331) was a Moroccan astronomer who wrote a poem (urzaja) on the calendar, astronomy and the determination of the hours of prayer. It has bee...

Abu Nasr Mansur

Abu Nasri Mansur ibn Ali ibn Iraq; (Persian: أبو نصر منصور بن علی بن عراق‎; c. 960 – 1036) was a Persian Muslim mathematician and astronomer. He is well known for his...

Abu Sahl 'Isa ibn Yahya al-Masihi

Abu Sahl 'Isa ibn Yahya al-Masihi al-Jurjani; (Persian: ابو سهل عيسى‌ بن‌ يحيى مسيحی گرگانی‎) was a Persian physician, from Gorgan, east of the Caspian Sea, i...

Abu Sahl al-Quhi

Abū Sahl Wayjan ibn Rustam al-Qūhī; (al-Kūhī; Persian: ابوسهل بیژن کوهی‎ Abusahl Bijan-e Koohi) was a Persian mathematician, physicist and astronomer. He was from Kuh (...

Abu Yahya Ibn al-Batriq

Abu Yahya Ibn al-Batriq (working 796 – 806) was a Syrian scholar who pioneered the translation of ancient Greek texts into Arabic, a major early figure in the transmission of the Classics at ...

Abu'l-Hasan 'Ali ibn Abi l-Rijal

Abū l-Ḥasan 'Alī ibn Abī l-Rijāl; (Arabic: أبو الحسن علي ابن أبي الرجال‎) (commonly known as Haly, Hali, Albohazen Haly filii Abenragel or Haly Abenragel, from...

Abu'l-Hasan al-Uqlidisi

Abu'l Hasan Ahmad ibn Ibrahim Al-Uqlidisi; (Arabic: أبو الحسن أحمد بن ابراهيم الإقليدسي‎) was a Muslim Arab mathematician, who was active in Damascus and Bagh...

Abul Hasan Al-Misrî

Abul Hasan Al-Misrî, was a physician and author of many medical writings of which the most popular was his commentary on Galen's Ars Parva which was translated by Gherardo Cremonese. For more deta...

Abul Hasan al-Tabari

Abu al-Hasan Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Tabari; born in Amol, was a 10th-century Tabari(mazenderani) physician from Tabaristan. He was the physician of Rukn al-Dawla, a Buyid ruler. He was auth...

Ad-Dakhwar

Muhadhdhabuddin Abd al-Rahim bin Ali bin Hamid al-Dimashqi; (Arabic: مهذب الدين عبد الرحيم بن علي بن حامد الدمشقي‎) known as al-Dakhwar (Arabic: الدخو...

Adelard of Bath

Adelard of Bath (ca 1080–ca 1160); Bath, England; mathematician, astronomer, who championed the use of reason and Arabic learning. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Ci...

Ahmad al-Halabi

Ahmad al-Halabi (d. 1455); Aleppo, Syria; astronomer. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, Text only. . FSTC. Kindle Editio...

Ahmad al-Qalqashandi

Shihāb al-Dīn Abū 'l-Abbās Aḥmad ibn ‘Alī ibn Aḥmad ‘Abd Allāh al-Qalqashandī al-Fazari or al-Qalqashandī; (1355 or 1356 – 1418), was a medieval Egyptian encyclopedist, polyma...

Ahmad al-Tifashi

Ahmad al-Tifashi; (or Ahmad ibn Yusuf al-Tīfāchī), born in Tiffech, a village near Souk Ahras in Algeria (1184- died 1253 in Cairo) was a Berber poet, writer, and anthologist, best known fo...

Ahmad Baba

Ahmad Baba al-Massufi al-Timbukti; full name Abu al-Abbas Ahmad ibn Ahmad al-Takruri Al-Massufi al-Timbukti (October 26, 1556 – April 22, 1627), was a Sanhaja Berber writer, scholar, and poli...

Ahmad Efendi Brusi

Ahmed Efendi Brusi from Bursa was a theologian, astronomer and mathematician....

Ahmad ibn Abi al-Ash’ath

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn Muḥammad ibn al-Ashʿath; (Arabic: عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن الأشعث‎), commonly known as Ibn al-Ashʿath after his grandfather was son of the nephew...

Ahmad Rida

Ahmad Rida; (also transliterated as Ahmad Reda) (1872–1953) (Arabic: الشيخ أحمد رضا‎) was a Levantine Arab linguist, writer and politician. A key figure of the Arab Renaissan...

Aidamir al-Jildaki

'Ali ibn Muhammad Aidamir al-Jildaki Al-Jildaki was one of the most prolific writers on alchemy, practically nothing is known of his life save that he flourished during the eigth century A.H., wrot...

Aisha bint Abu Bakr

ʿĀʾishah bint Abī Bakr; (Arabic: عائشة بنت أبي بكر‎ [ˈʕaːʔɪʃa], c. 613/614 – c. 678 CE), also transcribed as Aisha (/ˈɑːiːʃɑː/, also US: /-ʃə, aɪ...

Al-Abbas ibn Said al-Jawhari

Al-ʿAbbās ibn Saʿid al-Jawharī; (c. 800 Baghdad? – c. 860 Baghdad?) was a geometer who worked at the House of Wisdom in Baghdad and for in a short time in Damascus where he made astr...

Al-Adami

ʿAbū ʿAlī al‐Ḥusayn ibn Muḥammad al‐Ādamī; (flourished in Baghdad, c. 925) was a maker of scientific instruments who wrote an extant work on vertical sundials. According to al-Bi...

Al-Asma'i

Al-Asmaʿi; (أبو سعيد عبد الملك ابن قريب الأصمعي, ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Qurayb al-Aṣmaʿī ; c. 740-828/833 CE), or Asmai; an early philologist and one of three l...

Al-Baghdadi, Ibn Tahir

Abū Manṣūr ʿAbd al-Qāhir ibn Ṭāhir bin Muḥammad bin ʿAbd Allāh al-Tamīmī al-Shāfiʿī al-Baghdādī; (Arabic: أبو منصور عبدالقاهر ابن طاهر بن محمد ب...

Al-Baladhuri

ʾAḥmad ibn Yaḥyā al-Balādhurī; (Arabic: أحمد بن يحيى بن جابر البلاذري‎) was a 9th-century Muslim historian. One of the eminent Middle Eastern historians of his ...

Al-Baqillani

Abu Bakr Muḥammad ibn al-Ṭayyib al-Bāqillānī; (Arabic: أبو بكر محمد بن الطيب الباقلاني‎; c. 940 - 5 June 1013), often known as al-Bāqillānī for short, or r...

Al-Battani, Muhammad ibn Jabir

Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Jābir ibn Sinān al-Raqqī al-Ḥarrānī aṣ-Ṣābiʾ al-Battānī; (Arabic: محمد بن جابر بن سنان البتاني‎) (Latinized as Albategniu...

Al-Birjandi

Abd Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Husayn Birjandi; (Persian: عبدعلی محمد بن حسین بیرجندی‎) (died 1528) was a prominent 16th-century Persian astronomer, mathematician and physic...

Al-Biruni

Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al-Bīrūnī; (Persian: ابوریحان محمد بن احمد البیرونی‎ Abū Rayḥān Bērōnī; New Persian: Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī) (973...

Al-Bitruji

Nur ad-Din al-Bitruji; (also spelled Nur al-Din Ibn Ishaq Al-Betrugi and Abu Ishâk ibn al-Bitrogi; another spelling is al Bidrudschi) (known in the West by the Latinized name of Alpetragius...

Al-Dimashqi

Shams al-Din al-Ansari al-Dimashqi; or simply al-Dimashqi (Arabic: شمس الدين الأنصاري الدمشقي‎) (1256–1327) was a medieval Arab geographer, completing his main work ...

Al-Dinawari

Abū Ḥanīfah Aḥmad ibn Dāwūd Dīnawarī; (815–896 CE, Arabic: أبو حنيفة الدينوري‎) was an Islamic Golden Age polymath, astronomer, agriculturist, botanist, metall...

Al-Farabi

Al-Farabi; (/ˌælfəˈrɑːbi/; Persian: ابو نصر محمد بن محمد فارابي‎ Abū Naṣr Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al Fārābī; known in the West as Alpharabius; c. 872 ...

al-Farghani, Abu al-Abbas

Abū al-ʿAbbās Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn Kathīr al-Farghānī.; (800/805-870) also known as Alfraganus in the West, was an astronomer in the Abbasid court in Baghdad, and one of the most fam...

Al-Farghani, Alfraganus

Abū al-ʿAbbās Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn Kathīr al-Farghānī; (800/805-870) also known as Alfraganus in the West, was an astronomer in the Abbasid court in Baghdad, and one of the most fam...

Al-Fazari

Ibrahim al-Fazari; (died 777 CE) was an 8th-century Muslim mathematician and astronomer at the Abbasid court of the Caliph Al-Mansur (r. 754–775). He should not to be confused with his son ...

Al-Firdawsi

Abul-Qâsem Ferdowsi Tusi; (Persian: ابوالقاسم فردوسی طوسی‎; c. 940–1020), or just Ferdowsi was a Persian poet and the author of Shahnameh ("Book of Kings"), which is ...

Al-Ghafiqi

Muhammad ibn Aslam Al-Ghafiqi; (d. 1165 CE) was a 12th-century Andalusian-Arab oculist and author of The Right Guide to Ophthalmology (Al-Murshid fi ’l-Kuhhl). The book shows that the phys...

Al-Ghazali

Al-Ghazali; (full name أَبُو حَامِدٍ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ ٱلطُّوسِيُّ ٱلْغَزَالِيُّ or ٱلْغَزَّالِيُّ, Abū Ḥāmid ...

Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf ibn Matar

Al-Ḥajjāj ibn Yūsuf ibn Maṭar; (786–833 CE) was a mathematician and translator. Almost nothing is known about his life, except that he was active in Baghdad, then the capital of the...

Al-Hakam II

Al-Hakam II; (أَبُو الْعَاصٍ الْمُسْتَنْصِرِ بِاللهِ الْحُكْمِ بْن عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ); January 13, 915 – October 16, 976) was an ...

Al-Hanbali, Taqi al-Din

Al-Hanbali, Taqi al-Din (1236-1328); Harran, Turkey; theologian; Quranic exegesis (tafsir); hadith and jurisprudence. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Ref...

Al-Hashimi

Ali ibn Sulayman al-Hashimi; was a Muslim scholar. His exact date of birth is unknown, but it is known that he flourished in the year 890. Alī ibn Sulaymān al-Hāshimī flourished some time ...

Al-Idrisi

Abu Abdullah Muhammad al-Idrisi al-Qurtubi al-Hasani as-Sabti; or simply al-Idrisi /ælɪˈdriːsiː/ (Arabic: أبو عبد الله محمد الإدريسي القرطبي الحسني ال...

Al-Isfizari

Abū Ḥātim al-Muẓaffar al-Isfazārī; (fl. late 11th – early 12th century CE) was a Persian Muslim mathematician from Khurasan. According to Ibn al-Athir and Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi, he...

Al-Jabarti

Abd al-Rahman al-Jabarti; (1753-1825) (Arabic: عبد الرحمن الجبرتي‎), full name: Abd al-Rahman bin Hasan bin Burhan al-Din al-Jabarti (Arabic: عبد الرحمن بن حسن ...

Al-Jahiz

Abū ʿUthman ʿAmr ibn Baḥr al-Kinānī al-Baṣrī; (Arabic: أبو عثمان عمرو بن بحر الكناني البصري‎), commonly known as al-Jāḥiẓ (Arabic: الجاحظ‎...

Al-Jawbari

'Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Umar Zain al-Din al-Dimashqi; commonly known as Al-Jawbari (Arabic: الجوبري‎; fl. 619/1222) was a medieval Syrian Arab author and scholar known for his denunciat...

Al-Jazari

Badīʿ az-Zaman Abu l-ʿIzz Ismāʿīl ibn ar-Razāz al-Jazarī; (1136–1206, Arabic: بديع الزمان أَبُو اَلْعِزِ إسْماعِيلِ إبْنُ الرِّزاز الجز...

Al-Jildaki

Izz al-Din Aydamir al-Jildaki; (Arabic: عز الدين الجلدكي‎), also written al-Jaldaki (d. 1342/743 H) was an Egyptian alchemist from 14th century Mamluk Sultanate. Despite b...

Al-Juzjani

Abū 'Ubayd al-Jūzjānī; (d.1070), (ابو عبيد جوزجانی) was a Persian physician and chronicler from what is now Jowzjan Province in Afghanistan. He was the famous pupil of A...

Al-Karaji

Abū Bakr Muḥammad ibn al Ḥasan al-Karajī; (Persian: ابو بکر محمد بن الحسن الکرجی‎; c. 953 – c. 1029) was a 10th-century Persian mathematician and engineer who...

Al-Kashgari, Mahmud

Mahmud ibn Hussayn ibn Muhammed al-Kashgari; (Arabic: محمود بن الحسين بن محمد الكاشغري‎ Maḥmūd ibnu 'l-Ḥussayn ibn Muḥammad al-Kāšġarī, Turkish: Kaşgarl...

Al-Kashi, Jamshid

Ghiyāth al-Dīn Jamshīd Masʿūd al-Kāshī; (or al-Kāshānī) (Persian: غیاث الدین جمشید کاشانی‎ Ghiyās-ud-dīn Jamshīd Kāshānī) (c. 1380 Kashan, Iran – 22 J...

Al-Khalil ibn Ahmad

Abu ‘Abd ar-Raḥmān al-Khalīl ibn Aḥmad ibn ‘Amr ibn Tammām al-Farāhīdī al-Azdī al-Yaḥmadī; (Arabic: أبو عبدالرحمن الخليل بن أحمد الفراهيدي‎; 71...

Al-Khalili

Shams al-Dīn Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Khalīlī; (Arabic: شمس الدين عبد الله محمد بن محمد الخليلي‎; 1320–1380) was a Mamluk-era Syrian...

Al-Khazini

Abū al-Fath Abd al-Rahman Mansūr al-Khāzini; or simply al-Khāzini (أبوالفتح عبدالرحمن منصور الخازنی  (Persian), flourished 1115–1130) was an astronomer of ...

Al-Khujandi

Abu Mahmud Hamid ibn Khidr Khojandi; (known as Abu Mahmood Khojandi, Alkhujandi or al-Khujandi, Persian: ابومحمود خجندی, c. 940 - 1000) was a Muslim Central Asian astronomer and...

Al-Khwarizmi

Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī; (Persian: Muḥammad Khwārizmī محمد بن موسى خوارزمی‎; c. 780 – c. 850), Arabized as al-Khwarizmi with al- and formerly Latin...

Al-Kindi

Abu Yūsuf Yaʻqūb ibn ʼIsḥāq aṣ-Ṣabbāḥ al-Kindī; (/ælˈkɪndi/; Arabic: أبو يوسف يعقوب بن إسحاق الصبّاح الكندي‎; Latin: Alkindus; c. 801–873 A...

Al-Kuhi

Abū Sahl Wayjan ibn Rustam al-Qūhī; (al-Kūhī; Persian: ابوسهل بیژن کوهی‎ Abusahl Bijan-e Koohi) was a Persian mathematician, physicist and astronomer. He was from Kuh (...

Al-Mahani

Abu-Abdullah Muhammad ibn Īsa Māhānī; (ابوعبدالله محمد بن عیسی ماهانی, flourished c. 860 and died c. 880) was a Persian mathematician and astronomer born in Mahan, ...

Al-Majusi

'Ali ibn al-'Abbas al-Majusi; (Persian: علی بن عباس مجوسی‎; died 982–994), also known as Masoudi, or Latinized as Haly Abbas, was a Persian physician and psychologist fro...

Al-Mansur, Abu Jafar

Al-Mansur or Abu Ja'far Abdallah ibn Muhammad al-Mansur; (/ælmænˈsʊər/; Arabic: أبو جعفر عبدالله بن محمد المنصور‎‎; 95 AH – 158 AH (714 AD – 6 October ...

al-Mansur, Qalawun

Qalāwūn aṣ-Ṣāliḥī;  (Arabic: قلاوون الصالحي‎, c. 1222 – November 10, 1290) was the seventh Bahri Mamluk sultan; he ruled Egypt from 1279 to 1290.n. Qalawun was a...

Al-Mansur, Yaqub

Abū Yūsuf Yaʿqūb ibn Yūsuf ibn Abd al-Muʾmin al-Manṣūr; (Arabic: أبو يوسف يعقوب بن يوسف بن عبد المؤمن المنصور‎; c. 1160 Morocco – 23 January 1199...

Al-Maqrizi, Taqi al-Din

Al-Maqrīzī or Makrīzī; (Arabic: المقريزي), he was Taqī al-Dīn Abū al-'Abbās Aḥmad ibn 'Alī ibn 'Abd al-Qādir ibn Muḥammad al-Maqrīzī (Arabic: تقي الدين أحم...

Al-Masudi, Abul-Hassan

Al-Mas'udi (Arabic: أَبُو ٱلْحَسَن عَلِيّ ٱبْن ٱلْحُسَيْن ٱبْن عَلِيّ ٱلْمَسْعُودِيّ‎, ʾAbū al-Ḥasan ʿAlīy ibn al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAl...

Al-Mawsili

Abu al-Qasim Ammar ibn Ali al-Mawsili; was an important eleventh-century Arab Muslim ophthalmologist. Despite little being known about his life or education, he has been described as the most or...

Al-Maʿarri

Abū al-ʿAlāʾ al-Maʿarrī; (Arabic: أبو العلاء المعري‎‎, full name أبو العلاء أحمد بن عبد الله بن سليمان التنوخي المعري‎ Abū ...

Al-Ma’mun, Abu Jafar

Al-Ma’mun, Abu Jafar al-Ma’mun ibn Harun (786-833); Abbasid caliph, who ruled from 813 until 833; he expanded the House of Wisdom. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim C...

Al-Muktafi

Abū Muḥammad ʿAlī ibn Aḥmad; (Arabic: أبو محمد علي بن أحمد‎; 877/8 – 13 August 908), better known by his regional name al-Muktafī bi-llāh (Arabic: المكتفي ...

Al-Muqaddasi

Shams al-Dīn Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad ibn Abī Bakr al-Maqdisī; (Arabic: شَمْس ٱلدِّيْن أَبُو عَبْد ٱلله مُحَمَّد ابْن أَحْمَد اب...

Al-Muradi

Alī Ibn Khalaf al-Murādī; (Arabic: أبو جعفر المرادي‎; 11th century) was an Andalusian mathematician and astronomer who belonged to the scientific circle of Ṣāʿid al- Andalu...

Al-Mutawakkil

Abu al-Faḍl Jaʽfar ibn Muḥammad al-Muʽtaṣim billāh; (Arabic: جعفر بن محمد المعتصم بالله‎; March 822 – 11 December 861), better known by his regnal name al-Muta...

Al-Mu’izz, Li-din Allah

Abu Tamim Ma'ad al-Muizz li-Din Allah; (Arabic: ابو تميم معد المعزّ لدين الله‎, romanized: Abū Tamīm Maʿad al-Muʿizz li-Dīn Allāh, lit. 'Glorifier of the Religi...

Al-Nasawi

Alī ibn Aḥmad al-Nasawī; (c. 1011 possibly in Khurasan – c. 1075 in Baghdad) was a Persian mathematician from Khurasan, Iran. He flourished under the Buwayhid sultan Majd al-dowleh,...

Al-Nuwairi, Shihab Al-Din

Al-Nuwayrī; full name Shihāb al-Dīn Ahmad bin 'Abd al-Wahhāb al-Nuwayri (Arabic: شهاب الدين أحمد بن عبد الوهاب النويري‎, born April 5, 1279 in Akhmim, prese...

Al-Nuwayri

Al-Nuwayrī; full name Shihāb al-Dīn Ahmad bin 'Abd al-Wahhāb al-Nuwayri (Arabic: شهاب الدين أحمد بن عبد الوهاب النويري‎, born April 5, 1279 in Akhmim, prese...

Al-Qalasadi

Abū al-Ḥasan ibn ʿAlī ibn Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī al-Qalaṣādī; (Arabic: أبو الحسن علي بن محمد بن علي القرشي البسطي‎; 1412–1486) was a Muslim Arab ma...

Al-Qashari

Toledo was the residence of a great number of able architects. Fath B. Ibrahim (Fl. 934; d. 1013) was known as al-Qashari, a scholar, pious man and architect who, although flourishing in the Caliph co...

Al-Qazwini

Abu Yahya Zakariya' ibn Muhammad al-Qazwini; (Arabic: أبو یحیی زکریاء بن محمد القزویني) ‎(1203–1283) was a physician, astronomer, geographer and writer of Ara...

Al-Qurashi

The best known are Nihayat al-rutba fi talab al-hisba by ‘Abd-al-Rahman al-Shayzari (d. 589/1193), and Ma’alim al-qurba fi ahkam al-hisba, by Diyya’ al-Din al-Qurashi, known as Ibn al-Ukhuwwa (d...

Al-Razi

Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyyā al-Rāzī; (Persian: ابوبكر محمّد زکرياى رازى‎ Abūbakr Mohammad-e Zakariyyā-ye Rāzī, also known by his Latinized name Rhazes (/ˈr...

Al-Rudani

Mohammed al-Rudani; (Abu Abdallah Muhammad ibn Sulayman (Muhammad) al-Fasi ibn Tahir al-Rudani al-Susī al-Maliki al-Maghribi ) (c. 1627 – 1683) was an astronomer born in Taroudannt, Morocco. ...

Al-Saghani

Abu Hamid Ahmed ibn Mohammed al-Saghani al-Asturlabi; (meaning the astrolabe maker of Saghan, near Merv) was a Persian astronomer and historian of science. He flourished in Baghdad, where he...

Al-Sakhawi

Shams al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd al-Raḥmān al-Sakhāwi; (Arabic: شمس الدين محمد بن عبدالرحمن السخاوي‎, 1428/831 AH – 1497/902 AH) was a reputable Shafi‘i...

Al-Samawal al-Maghribi

Al-Samawʾal ibn Yaḥyā al-Maghribī; (Arabic: السموأل بن يحيى المغربي‎, Hebrew: שלמה בן יחיא אלמוגרבי‎; c. 1130 – c. 1180), commonly known as Sama...

Al-Saqati

Abū al-Ḥasan Sarī (al-Sirrī) b. al-Mughallis al-Saqaṭī; (867CE) also known as Sirri Saqti (Arabic:سری سقطی) was one of the early Muslim Sufi saints of Baghdad. He was one of th...

Al-Shifa bint Abdullah

Al-Shifaa bint Abdullah; (Arabic: الشفاء بنت عبد الله‎), whose given name was Layla, was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. She was the daughter of Abdullah ibn ...

Al-Sijzi

Abu Sa'id Ahmed ibn Mohammed ibn Abd al-Jalil al-Sijzi; (c. 945 - c. 1020, also known as al-Sinjari and al-Sijazi; Persian: ابوسعید سجزی‎; Al-Sijzi is short for "Al-Sijistani") ...

Al-Sufi

'Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi; (Persian: عبدالرحمن صوفی‎ (December 7, 903 in Rey, Iran – May 25, 986 in Shiraz, Iran) was a Persian astronomer also known as 'Abd ar-Rahman as-Sufi,...

Al-Suyuti

Abū al-Faḍl ‘Abd al-Raḥmān ibn Abī Bakr ibn Muḥammad Jalāl al-Dīn al-Khuḍayrī al-Suyūṭī; (Arabic: جلال الدين عبد الرحمن بن أبي بكر بن محمد ال...

Al-Tamimi

Al-Tamimi was a Palestinian physician who conducted pharmaceutical experiments and wrote various medical works chiefly on Materia medica. For more detail click here....

Al-Tighnari

Muhammad ibn Malik al-Tighnari, Al-Tighnari; (1073–1118), was an important Arab Agronomist, Botanist, Physician and author. Born into a family of noble Arab lineage in Tignar, a village a...

Al-Tusi, Nasir al-Din

Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Tūsī; (Persian: محمد بن محمد بن حسن طوسی‎‎ 18 February 1201 – 26 June 1274), better known as Nasir al-Din Tusi (Persian: نصی...

al-Tusi, Sharaf al-Din

Sharaf al-Dīn al-Muẓaffar ibn Muḥammad ibn al-Muẓaffar al-Ṭūsī; (Persian: شرف‌الدین مظفر بن محمد بن مظفر توسی‎; c. 1135 – c. 1213) was an Iranian mat...

Al-Urdi

Al-Urdi; (full name: Muʾayyad (al‐Milla wa‐) al‐Dīn (Muʾayyad ibn Barīk [Burayk]) al‐ʿUrḍī (al‐ʿĀmirī al‐Dimašqī) (مؤيد (الملة و) الدين (مؤيد ابن ب...

Al-Walid ibn Marwan

Al-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan; (Arabic: الوليد بن عبد الملك ابن مروان‎, romanized: al-Walīd ibn ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Marwān; circa 674 – 23 February 715), comm...

Al-Waqidi

Abu `Abdullah Muhammad Ibn ‘Omar Ibn Waqid al-Aslami; (Arabic أبو عبد الله محمد بن عمر بن واقد الاسلمي) (c. 130 – 207 AH; c. 747 – 823 AD) was a historian c...

Al-wazir Abu Al- 'Ala' Zuhr

Abu Al- 'Ala' studied at Cordova at the school of Abu Al-Aina, a doctor who came from the Orient to Spain. He was even more successful as a physician than his father. He was attached to the court of a...

Al-Zahrawi

Abū al-Qāsim Khalaf ibn al-‘Abbās al-Zahrāwī al-Ansari; (Arabic: أبو القاسم خلف بن العباس الزهراوي‎;‎ 936–1013), popularly known as Al-Zahrawi (الزه...

Al-Zamakhshari

Abu al-Qasim Mahmud ibn Umar al-Zamakhshari; known widely as al-Zamakhshari (in Persian: محمود زمخشری‎), also called Jar Allah (Arabic for "God's neighbour") (18 March 1075 – ...

Al-Zarqali (Arzachel)

Abū Isḥāq Ibrāhīm ibn Yaḥyā al-Naqqāsh al-Zarqālī al-Tujibi; (Arabic: إبراهيم بن يحيى الزرقالي‎); also known as Al-Zarkali or Ibn Zarqala (1029–1087), was...

Alam Al-Din

Alam al-Din Ibn-Abidin al-Hanafi; (Arabic: علم الدين تعاسيف‎; 1178 - 1251 ) was an Egyptian mathematician, astronomer and engineer during the Ayyubid period. Alam al-Din ...

Albertus Magnus

Albertus Magnus, also known as Albert the Great (1206-1280); Bavaria; scientist, philosopher, and theologian. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4...

Alfonso X

Alfonso X, also known as Alfonso the Wise (1221-1284); Spanish king of Castile and León (1252-1284); son and successor of Ferdinand III. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Musl...

Ali Eftekhari

In electrochemistry, Iranian scientist Ali Eftekhari is regarded as a founder of electrochemical nanotechnology, particularly for his development of carbon nanotubes. He also carries out scientific ...

Ali ibn al-Athir

Historian who recorded history as a sequence of military engagements, such as the Mongol invasion of the Islamic Empire. Believed history had both religious and mundane value and that moral lessons co...

Ali ibn Isa al-Asturlabi

ʿAlī ibn ʿĪsā al-Asṭurlābī; (Arabic: علي بن عيسى‎) was an Arab astronomer and geographer of the 9th century. He wrote a treatise on the astrolabe and was an opponent of ...

Ali ibn Isa al-Kahhal

ʿAlī ibn ʿĪsā al-Kahhal (fl. 1010 AD), surnamed "the oculist" (al-kahhal) was the best known and most celebrated Arab ophthalmologist of medieval islam. He was known in medieval Europe as ...

Ali ibn Khalaf al-Shakkaz

Ali ibn Khalaf al-Shakkaz (11th century); Toledo, Spain; an apothecary or herbalist, astronomer. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition ...

Ali Qushji

Ala al-Dīn Ali ibn Muhammed; (1403 – 16 December 1474), known as Ali Qushji (Ottoman Turkish/Persian language: علی قوشچی, kuşçu – falconer in Turkish; Latin: Ali Kushgii) wa...

Amina of Zaria

Amina; (also Aminatu; d. 1610) was a Hausa warrior queen of the city-state Zazzau (present-day city of Zaria in Kaduna State), in what is now in the north-west region of Nigeria. She rul...

Archimedes

Archimedes (287-212 BCE); Syracuse, Sicily; astronomer, physicist, and mathematician. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, ...

Aristotle

Aristotle (383-322 BCE); Stagirus, Greece; philosopher, scientist. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, Text only. . FSTC. ...

Athir al-Din al-Abhari

Athīr al‐Dīn al‐Mufaḍḍal ibn ʿUmar ibn al‐Mufaḍḍal al‐Samarqandī al‐Abharī; also known as Athīr al‐Dīn al‐Munajjim (d. in 1265 or 1262 Shabestar, Iran) was a phil...

Baba Hassan Muhmud

Baba Hassan Muhmud was an Imam, a master of jurisprudence, Arabic grammar, the biography of the Prophet and logic. He also acted as teacher and ensured that his students knew and understood his teachi...

Badr al-Din al-Ayni

Badr al-Din al-'Ayni; (Arabic: بدر الدين العيني‎) born 762 AH (1360 CE), died 855 AH (1453 CE) was a Sunni Islamic scholar of the Hanafi madh'hab. Al-'Ayni is an abbrevia...

Bahaʾ al-din al-ʿAmili

Bahāʾ al‐Dīn Muḥammad ibn Ḥusayn al‐ʿĀmilī; (also known as Sheikh Baha'i, Persian: شیخ بهایی‎) (18 February 1547 – 1 September 1621) was an Arab Shia Islamic scholar,...

Bahya ibn Paquda

Bahya ben Joseph ibn Paquda; (also: Pakuda, Bakuda, Hebrew: בחיי אבן פקודה, Arabic: بهية بن باكودا‎), c. 1050-1120, was a Jewish philosopher and rabbi who lived a...

Banu Musa Brothers

The Banū Mūsā brothers; ("Sons of Moses"), namely Abū Jaʿfar, Muḥammad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir (before 803 – February 873), Abū al‐Qāsim, Aḥmad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir (d. 9th cen...

Bar Hebraeus

Gregory Bar Hebraeus; (1226 – 30 July 1286), also known by his Latin name Abulpharagius or Syriac name Mor Gregorios Bar Ebraya, was a maphrian-catholicos (Chief bishop of Persia) of the ...

Bardaisan

Bardaisan; (Syriac: ܒܪ ܕܝܨܢ‎, Bardaiṣān), known in Arabic as Ibn Daisan (ابن ديصان) and in Latin as Bardesanes (A.D. 154–222), was a Syriac or Parthian gnostic and ...

Baybars, al-Malik al-Zahir Rukn al-Din Baybars al-Bunduqdari

al-Malik al-Zahir Rukn al-Din Baibars al-Bunduqdari; (Arabic: الملك الظاهر ركن الدين بيبرس البندقداري‎, al-Malik al-Ẓāhir Rukn al-Dīn Baybars al-Bunduqdār...

Baylak al-Qibjaqi

Baylak al-Qibjaqi (ca 1282); Istanbul, Turkey; explorer, seafarer, and geographer. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, Text...

Benjamin of Tudela

Benjamin of Tudela; (Hebrew: בִּנְיָמִין מִטּוּדֶלָה, pronounced [binjaˈmin mituˈdela]; Arabic: بنيامين التطيلي‎ Binyamin al-Tutayli;‎ Tudela, King...

Dawud al-Antaki

Dawud Ibn 'Umar al-Antaki or David of Antioch; (Arabic: داود الأنطاكي ; Antioch - Makkah al-Mukarramah, 1599) was a blind Syrian Christian physician and pharmacist active in Ca...

Dhayfa Khatun

Dhayfa Khatun, the powerful wife of the Ayyubid ruler of Aleppo al-Zahir Ghazi, was the Queen of Aleppo for six years. She was born in Aleppo in 1186 CE. Her father was King al-Adel, the brother of Sa...

Djamal Eddin Ibn Al-Qifti

Djamal Eddin Ibn Al-Qifti was a vizier around whom much scholarship thrived in Aleppo. He was born in Egypt, in the year 1172. At a young age, his father took him to Cairo to learn to read and write, ...

Dunash ben Labrat

Dunash ha-Levi ben Labrat; (920-990) (Hebrew: דוֹנָש הלוי בֵּן לָבְרָט; Arabic: دناش بن لبراط‎) was a medieval Jewish commentator, poet, and grammarian of the...

Dunash ibn Tamim

Dunash ibn Tamim; (Hebrew: דונש אבן תמים‎) was a Jewish tenth century scholar, and a pioneer of scientific study among Arabic-speaking Jews. His Arabic name was أبو سهل Abu...

Edward I

Edward I (1239-1307); king of England (1272-1309); went on Crusades to Acres (1271-1272); on his return he built castles according to Muslim designs. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Le...

Euclid

Euclid (325-265 BCE); Alexandria, Egypt; Greek mathematician, and scholar of optics. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, T...

Fakhr ad-Din ar-Razi

Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī or Fakhruddin Razi; (Persian: فخر الدين رازي‎) was a Sunni Muslim theologian and philosopher from Khorasan. He was born in 1149 in Rey (in modern-da...

Farouk El-Baz

Farouk El-Baz is an Egyptian American scientist who worked with NASA to assist in the planning of scientific exploration of the Moon, including the selection of landing sites for the Apollo missions a...

Fatih Sultan Mehmet (Mehmed II)

Mehmed II; (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى‎, romanized: Meḥmed-i sānī; Modern Turkish: II. Mehmet Turkish pronunciation: [ˈikindʒi mehmet]; 30 March 1432 – 3 May 1481), common...

Fatima bint al-Mundhir

Fatima bint Mundhir; (668-763) is 8th hadith scholar from Madinah, who belonged to the generation of tabi'un. Fatima bint Mundhir obtained her knowledge on hadiths from Asma bint Abu Bakr ...

Fatima bint Muhammad Al-Fihriya

Fatima bint Muhammad Al-Fihriya Al-Qurashiya; (Arabic: فاطمة بنت محمد الفهرية القرشية‎) was an Arab Muslim woman who is credited with founding the oldest existing, c...

Frederick II

Frederick II (1194-1250); king of Sicily (1198-1250); emperor, Holy Roman Empire (1220-1250). Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Ann...

Galen, Claudius

Galen, Claudius (ca 131–206); Pergamum/Bergama, Turkey; physician. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, Text only. . FSTC. Ki...

Gerard of Cremona

Gerard of Cremona (ca 1114-1187); Lombardy, Italy; translator. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, Text only. . FSTC. Kind...

Habash al-Hasib al-Marwazi

Ahmad ibn 'Abdallah Habash Hasib Marwazi (766 - d. after 869 in Samarra, Iraq ) was a Persian astronomer, geographer, and mathematician from Merv in Khorasan who for the first time descri...

Hamdallah Mostawfi

Ḥamdallāh Mustawfī Qazvīnī; (1281–1349; Persian: حمدالله مستوفى قزوینی‎) was a Persian historian, geographer and epic poet who was descended from a family of Arab...

Hanoch ben Moses

R. Hanoch ben Moses; (Hebrew: רבנו חנוך ב"ר משה) (d. 1014 CE or 1024 CE) was a Spanish rabbi. Almost all of the information we have about him comes from the Sefer ha-Qabbalah by R...

Harbi al-Himyari

Harbi al-Himyari; (Arabic: حربي الحميري‎ Ḥarbī al-Ḥimyarī), was an Arab scholar from Yemen, who lived between the 7th and 8th century AD. He is the mentor for teaching Kor...

Harun al-Rashid

Harun al-Rashid; (/hɑːˈruːn ɑːlrɑːˈʃiːd/; Arabic: هَارُون الرَشِيد‎ Hārūn Ar-Rašīd; "Aaron the Orthodox" or "Aaron the Rightly-Guided", 17 March 763 or February ...

Hasan al-Rammah

Hasan al-Rammah; (died 1295) was an Arab chemist and engineer during the Mamluk Sultanate who studied gunpowders and explosives, and sketched prototype instruments of warfare, including t...

Hazarfen Ahmed Celebi

Hezârfen Ahmed Çelebi; was a legendary Ottoman aviator of Constantinople (present day Istanbul), reported in the writings of traveler Evliya Çelebi to have achieved sustained unpowered ...

Hippocrates

Hippocrates (ca 460–377 BCE); Kos Island, Greece; physician. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, Text only. . FSTC. Kind...

Hisdai ibn Shaprut

Hasdai (Abu Yusuf ben Yitzhak ben Ezra) ibn Shaprut; (Hebrew: חסדאי אבן שפרוט; Arabic: حسداي بن شبروط‎, Abu Yussuf ibn Shaprut) born about 915 at Jaén, Spain; died a...

Hunayn ibn Ishaq, al-’Ibadi

Hunayn ibn Ishaq al-Ibadi; (also Hunain or Hunein) ( Arabic: أبو زيد حنين بن إسحاق العبادي‎; ʾAbū Zayd Ḥunayn ibn ʾIsḥāq al-ʿIbādī, Latin: Iohannitius, Sy...

Ibn Abi Al-Hawafar

Ibn Abi Al-Hawafar wrote a treatise on ophthalmology, Natijat al-Fikar`alaj Amrad al Bassar (The Thoughtful Conclusions on the Treatment of the Diseases of Visions). For more detail click here....

Ibn Abi Ishaq

ʿAbd-Allāh ibn Abī Isḥāq al-Ḥaḍramī; (Arabic, عبد الله بن أبي اسحاق الحضرمي), (died AD 735 / AH 117) is considered the first grammarian of the Arabic langu...

Ibn Abi Usaybi’ah

Ibn Abī Uṣaybiʿa Muʾaffaq al-Dīn Abū al-ʿAbbās Aḥmad Ibn Al-Qāsim Ibn Khalīfa al-Khazrajī; (Arabic: ابن أبي أصيبعة‎‎; 1203–1270), commonly referred to as Ibn Abi U...

Ibn al-Ahnaf

Abu al-Fadl Abbas Ibn al-Ahnaf; (750 in Basra-809), Arabic, عباس بن الأحنف, was an Arab Abbasid poet from the clan of Hanifa. His work consists solely of love poems (ghazal). It ...

Ibn al-Akfani

Muḥammad ibn Ibrāhīm ibn al-Akfani, is mostly remembered by Arabic bibliographers as a physician and an encyclopedic mind. He was born in 1286 in the city of Sinjār (present-day northern Iraq) an...

Ibn al-Aqba'i

Abd al-'Aziz ibn Muhammad al-Qahiri al-Wafa'i; known as Ibn al-Aqba'i (1408–1471) was an Egyptian astronomer and mathematician in the 15th century. He was born in 811 H.E. (1408 AD) and died ...

Ibn al-Awwam

Ibn al-Awwam; (Arabic: ابن العوام‎), also called Abu Zakariya Ibn al-Awwam (Arabic: أبو زكريا بن العوام‎), was an Andalusian Arab agriculturist who flourished a...

Ibn al-Banna' al-Marrakushi

Ibn al-Banna, whose full name was Abu 'l-Abbas Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Uthman al-Azdi, was born in 1256 in Marrakech. There is a claim that Ibn al-Banna was born in Grenada in Spain and moved to North ...

Ibn al-Baytar

Ḍiyāʾ Al-Dīn Abū Muḥammad ʿAbdllāh Ibn Aḥmad al-Mālaqī; commonly known as Ibn al-Bayṭār (1197–1248 AD) was an Andalusian pharmacist, botanist, physician and scientist. His ma...

Ibn al-Durayhim

ʿAlī ibn Muḥammad Ibn al-Durayhim; (Arabic: علي بن محمد ابن الدريهم‎; 1312–1359/62 CE) was an Arab cryptologist who gave detailed descriptions of eight cipher systems...

Ibn al-Faqih, al-Hamadhani

Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn al-Faqih al-Hamadani; (Persian: احمد بن محمد ابن الفقيه الهمذانی‎) (fl. 902) was a 10th-century Persian historian and geographer, famou...

Ibn Al-Furat

Nāṣir al-Dīn Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Raḥīm b. ʿAlī al-Miṣrī al-Ḥanafī; (1334–1405 CE), better known as Ibn al-Furāt, was an Egyptian historian, best known for his universal his...

Ibn al-Hajj

Moḥammed ibn al-Hajj al-Abdari al-Fasi; (or Mohammed Ibn Mohammed ibn Mohammed Abu Abdallah Ibn al-Hajj al-Abdari al-Maliki al-Fassi; Arabic: إبن الحاج العبدري الفسي‎) a...

Ibn al-Haytham

Ḥasan Ibn al-Haytham; (Latinized as Alhazen /ælˈhæzən/; full name Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥasan ibn al-Ḥasan ibn al-Haytham أبو علي، الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم; c....

Ibn al-Jazzar

Ahmed Bin Jaafar Bin Brahim Ibn Al Jazzar Al-Qayrawani (895 – 979) (Arabic: أبو جعفر أحمد بن أبي خالد بن الجزار القيرواني‎), was an influential 10th-century...

Ibn al-Khammar

The Nestorian Ibn al-Khammar, whose complete name is Abu l-Khayr al-Hassan ibn Suwar Ibn Baba Ibn al-Khammar, was born in 331/942 or 943 in Baghdad and died around 421/1030. He was a pupil of Yahy Ibn...

Ibn al-Khatib

Lisan Al-Din Ibn Al-Khatib; (Arabic: لسان الدين ابن الخطيب‎) (Born 16 November 1313, Loja– died 1374, Fes; full name in Arabic: محمد بن عبد الله بن سعيد...

Ibn Al-Lubudi

Ibn al-Lubudi was a physician, mathematician, astronomer and philosopher, born in Aleppo in 1210; died after 1267. He studied medicine in Damascus under the famed al-Dakhwar, then Ibn al-Lubudi entere...

Ibn al-Muqaffa

Abū Muhammad ʿAbd Allāh Rūzbih ibn Dādūya; (Arabic: ابو محمد عبدالله روزبه ابن دادويه‎), born Rōzbih pūr-i Dādōē (Persian: روزبه پور دادوی...

Ibn al-Nadim

Abū al-Faraj Muḥammad ibn Ishāq al-Nadīm; (Arabic: ابو الفرج محمد بن إسحاق النديم‎) – nasab (patronymic); ibn Abī Ya'qūb Ishāq ibn Muḥammad ibn Ishāq al...

Ibn al-Nafis

Ala-al-Ddin abu al-Hasan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi; (Arabic: علاء الدين أبو الحسن عليّ بن أبي حزم القرشي الدمشقي), known as Ibn al-Nafis (Ar...

Ibn al-Quff

Amīn-ad-Daula Abu-'l-Faraǧ ibn Yaʻqūb ibn Isḥāq Ibn al-Quff al-Karaki; (Arabic: أمين الدولة أبو الفرج بن يعقوب بن إسحاق بن القف الكركي‎; 1233 A...

Ibn al-Saffar

Abu al‐Qasim Ahmad ibn Abd Allah ibn Umar al‐Ghafiqī ibn al-Saffar al‐Andalusi; (born in Cordoba, died in the year 1035 at Denia), also known as Ibn al-Saffar (literally: son of the bra...

Ibn Al-Shatir

ʿAbu al-Ḥasan Alāʾ al‐Dīn ʿAlī ibn Ibrāhīm al-Ansari; known as Ibn al-Shatir or Ibn ash-Shatir (Arabic: ابن الشاطر‎; 1304–1375) was a Syrian Arab astronomer, mathe...

Ibn al-Thahabi

Abu Mohammed Abdellah Ibn Mohammed Al-Azdi; (Arabic: ابو محمد عبدالله بن محمد الأزدي‎) (ca. ? - 1033 CE), known also as Ibn Al-Thahabi, was an Arab physician, famou...

Ibn al-Wafid

Ali Ibn al-Husain Ibn al-Wafid al-Lakhmi; (c. 997 – 1074), known in Latin Europe as Abenguefit, was an Arab pharmacologist and physician from Toledo. He was the vizier of Al-Mamun of Tole...

Ibn al-Yasamin al-Ishbilli

Abu Muhammad 'Abdallah ibn Muhammad ibn Hajjaj ibn al-Yasmin al-Adrini al-Ishbili; (died 1204) more commonly known as ibn al-Yasmin, was Berber mathematician. His place of birth is unknown, but h...

Ibn Ali al-Dimishqi

Abū al-Faḍl Jaʻfar ibn ʻAlī al-Dimashqī; (Arabic: أبو الفضل جعفر بن علي الدمشقي‎; fl. 12th-century) was a prosperous Muslim merchant from Damascus. He is best k...

Ibn al‐Ha'im al‐Ishbili

Abu Muhammad Abd al-Haqq al‐Ghafiqi al‐Ishbili; (Arabic: ابن الهائم), known as Ibn al‐Hāʾim (fl. c. 1213) was a medieval Muslim astronomer and mathematician from Seville i...

Ibn al‐Samh

Abū al‐Qāsim Aṣbagh ibn Muḥammad ibn al‐Samḥ al‐Gharnāṭī al-Mahri; (born 979, Córdoba; died 1035, Granada), also known as Ibn al‐Samḥ, was an Arab mathematician and as...

Ibn Asakir

Ibn Asakir; (Arabic: ابن عساكر‎, romanized: Ibn ‘Asākir; 1105–1175) was a Sunni Islamic scholar, a historian and a disciple of the Sufi mystic Abu al-Najib Suhrawardi. Bor...

Ibn Babawayh

Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn 'Ali ibn Babawayh al-Qummi; (Arabic: أبو جعفر محمد بن علي بن بابويه القمي‎; c. 923–991 ), commonly referred to as Ibn Babawayh or al-...

Ibn Badis, al-Mu’izz

Al- Muʻizz ibn Bādīs; (Arabic: المعز بن باديس‎); 1008–1062) was the fourth ruler of the Zirids in Ifriqiya, reigning from 1016 to 1062. He is usually thought to be the au...

Ibn Bajjah

Ibn Bājja; Avempace (latin) (c. 1085 – 1138) (Arabic: ابن باجة‎), full name Abū Bakr Muḥammad Ibn Yaḥyà ibn aṣ-Ṣā’igh at-Tūjībī Ibn Bājja (أبو بكر محم...

Ibn Bassal

Ibn Bassal; (Arabic: ابن بصال‎1085 C.E.) was an Andalusian Arab botanist and agronomist in Toledo and Seville, Spain who wrote about horticulture and arboriculture. He is be...

Ibn Battuta

Ibn Battuta; (/ˌɪbənbætˈtuːtɑː/; Arabic: محمد ابن بطوطة‎; fully: Shams al-Dīn ʾAbū ʿAbd al-Lāh Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Lāh l-Lawātī ṭ-Ṭanǧī ibn Baṭūṭah; ...

Ibn Butlan

Ibn Butlan; (Arabic: ابن بطلان‎; 1038, 1075) was an Arab Nestorian Christian physician who was active in Baghdad during the Islamic Golden Age. He wrote the Taqwim al-Sihhah ...

Ibn Duraid

Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Duraid al-Azdī al-Baṣrī ad-Dawsī; (أبو بكر محمد بن الحسن بن دريد بن عتاهية الأزدي البصري الدوسي), or Ib...

Ibn Fadlan

Ibn Fadlan; (Arabic: أحمد بن فضلان بن العباس بن راشد بن حماد‎ Aḥmad ibn Faḍlān ibn al-ʿAbbās ibn Rāšid ibn Ḥammād, fl. 921–22) was a 10th-century...

Ibn Firnas

Abu al-Qasim Abbas ibn Firnas ibn Wirdas al-Takurini; (809–887 A.D.), also known as Abbas ibn Firnas (Arabic: عباس بن فرناس‎), was an Andalusian polymath: an inventor, physi...

Ibn Ghazi al-Miknasi

Abu Abdallah Muhammad b. Ahmad b. Muhammad Ibn Ghazi al-'Utmani al-Miknasi; (1437–1513) was a Moroccan scholar in the field of history, Islamic law, Arabic philology and mathematics. He w...

Ibn Habib

Abū Marwān ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Ḥabīb ibn Sulaymān ibn Hārūn/Marwān ibn Julhuma ibn ʿAbbās ibn Mirdās al-Sulamī ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Ḥabīb was born in kūrat Ilbīra, a small village ne...

Ibn Hawqal

Muḥammad Abū’l-Qāsim Ibn Ḥawqal; (محمد أبو القاسم بن حوقل), also known as Abū al-Qāsim b. ʻAlī Ibn Ḥawqal al-Naṣībī, born in Nisibis, Upper Mesopotamia; was...

Ibn Hazm

Abū Muḥammad ʿAlī ibn Aḥmad ibn Saʿīd ibn Ḥazm; (Arabic: أبو محمد علي بن احمد بن سعيد بن حزم‎; also sometimes known as al-Andalusī aẓ-Ẓāhirī; 7 Nove...

Ibn Hubal

Muhadhdhib al-Dīn Abūʼl-Hasan ʻAlī ibn Ahmad Ibn Hubal; (Arabic: مهذب الدين أبي الحس علي بن أحمد ابن هبل‎) known as Ibn Hubal (Arabic: ابن هبل‎) (c...

Ibn Isa, Ali

ʿAlī ibn ʿĪsā al-Kahhal; (fl. 1010 AD), surnamed "the oculist" (al-kahhal) was the best known and most celebrated Arab ophthalmologist of medieval islam. He was known in medieval Europe ...

Ibn Jazla

Abu ali Yahya ibn Isa Ibn Jazla Al Baghdadi; or Ibn Jazlah (Arabic,أبو يحيى ابن عيسى بن جزله), Latinized as Buhahylyha Bingezla, was an 11th-century Arab physician of Bagh...

Ibn Jubayr

Ibn Jubayr; (1 September 1145–29 November 1217; Arabic: ابن جبير‎), also written Ibn Jubair, Ibn Jobair, and Ibn Djubayr, was an Arab geographer, traveller and poet from al-Andalus....

Ibn Juljul al-Andalusi

Abu Dawud Sulayman ibn Hassan Ibn Juljul; (Arabic: سليمان بن حسان ابن جلجل‎) (c. 944 Córdoba – c. 994) was an influential Andalusian Arab physician and pharmacologist...

Ibn Karnib

Muslim Abu Ahmad al-Husayn b. Ishak Ibn Karnib, a mutakallim (a scholar of the study of Kalam or Islamic scholastic theology) interested in natural philosophy (Fihrist, 263). Click here for more i...

Ibn Khaldun

Ibn Khaldun; (/ˈɪbən kælˈduːn/; Arabic: أبو زيد عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن خلدون الحضرمي‎, Abū Zayd ‘Abd ar-Raḥmān ibn Muḥammad ibn Khaldūn al-Ḥ...

Ibn Khallikan

Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Ibrāhīm Abu ’l-ʿAbbās S̲h̲ams al-Dīn al-Barmakī al-Irbilī al-S̲h̲āfiʿī; ibn Khallikān (أحمد بن محمد بن إبراهيم أبو العباس ش...

Ibn Khatima

Abu Dja‘far Ahmad ibn ‘Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Khatima Al-Ansari, known as Ibn Khatima, is one of the most important intellectuals of the Medieval Moorish Spain. He wrote works in different fields, s...

Ibn Khordadbeh

Abu'l-Qasim Ubaydallah ibn Abdallah ibn Khordadbeh; (Persian: ابوالقاسم عبیدالله ابن خرداذبه‎) (c. 820 – 912 CE), better known as Ibn Khordadbeh or Ibn Khurradad...

Ibn Luyun

Towards the middle of the 8th/14th century, a scholar of Almeria, Abū Uthmān Sa'd b. Abū Ja'far Ahmad Ibn Luyūn al-Tujjbī (d. 750/1349) wrote his Kitāb Ibdā' al-malāha wa-inhā' al-rajāha f...

Ibn Majid

Ahmad ibn Mājid; (Arabic: أحمد بن ماجد‎), was an Arabian navigator and cartographer born in the 1430s in Julfar, present-day Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates. He was raised i...

Ibn Mammati

Ibn Mammati Abul Makarim Assad ibn Khatir ibn Mammati; wrote an account of the Egyptian government under the Ayyubid Sultan Salah Al-Din, the Kitâb Qawanin al-Dawawin (Statutes of the Councils of Sta...

Ibn Miskawayh

Ibn Miskawayh; (Persian: مُسْکُـوْيَه‎ Muskūyah, 932–1030), full name Abū ʿAlī Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn Yaʿqūb ibn Miskawayh was a Persian chancery official of the Buy...

Ibn Munim

Ahmad ibn Ibrahim ibn Ali ibn Munim al-Abdari; (Arabic: أحمد بن ابراهيم بن علي بن منعم الأبداري‎; died 1228) was a mathematician, originally from Dénia in And...

Ibn Muqla

Abu Ali Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Muqla; (Arabic: أبو علي محمد بن علي ابن مقلة‎, romanized: Abū ʿAlī Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī ibn Muqla; 885/6 – 20 July 940/1), commonly kno...

Ibn Rushd

Ibn Rushd; (Arabic: ابن رشد‎; full name in Arabic: أبو الوليد محمد ابن احمد ابن رشد‎, romanized: Abū l-Walīd Muḥammad Ibn ʾAḥmad Ibn Rušd; 1126 ...

Ibn Rustah, Ahmed

Ahmad ibn Rustah Isfahani; (Persian: احمد ابن رسته اصفهانی‎ Aḥmad ibn Rusta Iṣfahānī), more commonly known as Ibn Rustah (ابن رسته, also spelled Ibn Rusta and...

Ibn Sahl

Ibn Sahl; (full name Abū Saʿd al-ʿAlāʾ ibn Sahl أبو سعد العلاء ابن سهل; c. 940–1000) was a Persian mathematician and physicist of the Islamic Golden Age, associated...

Ibn Samajun

Ibn Samajun (d. 1002); Andalusia, Spain; herbalist, botanist, and pharmacologist. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, Text ...

Ibn Sa‘id al-Maghribi

Abū al-Ḥasan ʿAlī ibn Mūsā ibn Saʿīd al-Maghribī; (Arabic: علي بن موسى المغربي بن سعيد‎) (1213–1286), also known as Ibn Saʿīd al-Andalusī, was an Arab g...

Ibn Sina, Avicenna

Ibn Sina; (Persian: ابن سینا‎), also known as Abu Ali Sina (ابوعلی سینا), Pur Sina (پورسینا), and often known in the west as Avicenna (/ˌævɪˈsɛnə, ˌɑːvɪ-...

Ibn Tufayl

Ibn Tufail; (c. 1105 – 1185) (full Arabic name: أبو بكر محمد بن عبد الملك بن محمد بن طفيل القيسي الأندلسي Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Abd al-Malik ibn Mu...

Ibn Tulun, Ahmad

Ahmad ibn Tulun; (Arabic: أحمد بن طولون‎, romanized: Aḥmad ibn Ṭūlūn‎; ca. 20 September 835 – 10 May 884) was the founder of the Tulunid dynasty that ruled Egypt and ...

Ibn Uthal

Ibn Uthal or Ibn Athal; (Arabic: ابن أثال‎) was an Arab Christian who served as the personal physician of the caliph Mu'awiya I and was regarded as the most distinguished of the medic...

Ibn Wahshiyya

Ibn Wahshiyyah the Nabataean; (Arabic: ابن وحشية النبطي‎), also known as ʾAbū Bakr ʾAḥmad bin ʿAlī (Arabic: أبو بكر أحمد بن علي‎) (fl. 9th/10th centuries) ...

Ibn Yunus

Abu al-Hasan 'Ali ibn 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Ahmad ibn Yunus al-Sadafi al-Misri; (Arabic: ابن يونس; c. 950 – 1009) was an important Egyptian Muslim astronomer and mathematician, whose wor...

Ibn Zuhr

Ibn Zuhr; (Arabic: ابن زهر‎; 1094–1162), traditionally known by his Latinized name of Avenzoar, was an Arab physician, surgeon, and poet. He was born at Seville in medieval And...

Ibn ’Aqil

Abu al-Wafa Ali Ibn Aqil ibn Ahmad al-Baghdadi; (1040–1119) was an Islamic theologian from Baghdad, Iraq. He was trained in the tenets of the Hanbali school (madhab) for eleven years under...

Ibrahim al-Fazari

Ibrahim al-Fazari; (died 777 CE) was an 8th-century Muslim mathematician and astronomer at the Abbasid court of the Caliph Al-Mansur (r. 754–775). He should not to be confused with his son ...

Ibrahim al-Kanemi

Due to his late 12th/early 13th century writings, known and read in Morocco, Ibrahim al-Kanemi, carries the distinction - as the first sub-Saharan scholar, to have written in Arabic. He was a gramm...

Ibrahim ibn Hilal al-Sijilmasi

Abu Ishak Ibrahim ibn Hilal al-Sijilmasi; (died circa 1497-1498) was a Moroccan legal scholar well known for his verdicts (fatwas). He is the author of al-Durr al-nathīr alá Ajwibat Abī al-Hasa...

Ibrahim ibn Sinan

Ibrahim ibn Sinan; (Ibrāhīm ibn Sinān ibn Thābit ibn Qurra, ابراهيم بن سنان بن ثابت بن قرة; born 295-296 AH/908 AD in Baghdad, died: 334-335 AH/946 AD in Baghdad, aged ...

Ikhwan al-Safa’, Brothers of Purity

The Brethren of Purity; (Arabic: إخوان‌ الصفا‎, romanized: Ikhwān Al-Ṣafā; also The Brethren of Sincerity) were a secret society of Muslim philosophers in Basra, Iraq, ...

Ishak Efendi

Hoca Ishak Efendi; (c. 1774 in Arta – 1835 in Suez) was an Ottoman mathematician and engineer. Ishak Efendi was born in Arta (now in Greece), probably in 1774, to a Jewish family. His ...

Jaafar As-Sadiq

Jaʿfar ibn Muḥammad aṣ-Ṣādiq; (Arabic: جَعْفَرُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ ٱلصَّادِقُ‎‎; 700 or 702–765 CE), commonly known as Ja‘far al-Ṣādiq or simply a...

Jabir ibn Aflah

Abū Muḥammad Jābir ibn Aflaḥ; (Arabic: أبو محمد جابر بن أفلح‎, Latin: Geber/Gebir; 1100–1150) was an Arab Muslim astronomer and mathematician from Seville, who ...

Jabir ibn Hayyan

Abū Mūsā Jābir ibn Hayyān; (Arabic/Persian جابر بن حيان, often given the nisbas, al-Azdi, al-Kufi, al-Tusi or al-Sufi; fl. c. 721 – c. 815), is the supposed author of an enor...

Jabril ibn Bukhtishu

Jabril ibn Bukhtishu; (Jibril ibn Bakhtisha) also written as Bakhtyshu, was an 8th-9th century physician from the Bukhtishu family of Assyrian Nestorian physicians from the Academy of Gundis...

Jacob ben Machir ibn Tibbon

Jacob ben Machir ibn Tibbon; (Hebrew: יעקב בן מכיר ׳ן תיבון), of the Ibn Tibbon family, also known as Prophatius. Provençal, Jewish astronomer; born, probably at Marseill...

Jacob of Edessa

Jacob of Edessa; (or James of Edessa) (Syriac: ܝܥܩܘܒ ܐܘܪܗܝܐ‎, romanized: Ya'qub Urhoy) (c. 640 – 5 June 708) was one of the most distinguished of Syriac writers. Jacob of Ed...

Jaghmini

Mahmūd ibn Muḥammad ibn Umar al-Jaghmini; or 'al-Chaghmīnī', or al-Jaghmini, was a 14th-century Persian physician, astronomer and author of the Qanunshah (The Canon of Medicine) a short...

Jamshid Al-Kashi

Ghiyāth al-Dīn Jamshīd Masʿūd al-Kāshī (or al-Kāshānī); (Persian: غیاث الدین جمشید کاشانی‎ Ghiyās-ud-dīn Jamshīd Kāshānī) (c. 1380 Kashan, Iran – ...

Johannes Kepler

Johannes Kepler; (/ˈkɛplər/; German: [joˈhanəs ˈkɛplɐ, -nɛs -]; December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German astronomer, mathematician, and astrologer. He is a key figure in...

Jordanus de Nemore

Jordanus de Nemore; (fl. 13th century), also known as Jordanus Nemorarius and Giordano of Nemi, was a thirteenth-century European mathematician and scientist. The literal translation of Jordanus...

Judah Halevi

Judah Halevi; (also Yehuda Halevi or ha-Levi; Hebrew: יהודה הלוי and Judah ben Shmuel Halevi יהודה בן שמואל הלוי; Arabic: يهوذا اللاوي‎; c. 1075 –...

Kaatib Musa

Kaatib Musa was a jurist, judge and imam (leader of prayers) of Malinke origin who held the post of scholar during the early 15th century. The title kaatib indicates that he was perhaps a scribe in...

Kamal al-Din, al-Farisi

Kamal al-Din Hasan ibn Ali ibn Hasan al-Farisi; or Abu Hasan Muhammad ibn Hasan (1267– 12 January 1319, long assumed to be 1320)) (Persian: كمال‌الدين فارسی‎) was a Persian...

Kamal Eddin Ibn al-Adim

Kamal Eddin Ibn al-Adim (1192-1262) is the historian of his native city, Aleppo, most especially through his enormous biographical work, not yet published in modern times: Bughyat al-Talab (The studen...

Katip Çelebi

Muṣṭafa ibn 'Abd Allāh; (مصطفى بن عبد الله), generally known as Kâtip Çelebi (كاتب جلبي, "Gentleman Scribe"; variants: Kātib Çelebi; Katib Tchélébi; ‘Abdall...

Khalifa Ben Abi Al-Mahassin

Khalifa Ben Abi Al-Mahassin (13th century) of Aleppo, who is the author of a large work of 564 pages in which he describes and gives drawings of various surgical instruments including 36 instruments f...

Koca Mimar Sinan

Koca Mi'mâr Sinân Âğâ; (Ottoman Turkish: معمار سينان‎, "Sinan Agha the Grand Architect"; Modern Turkish: Mimar Sinan, pronounced [miːˈmaːɾ siˈnan], "Sinan the Architect...

Kushyar ibn Labban

Abul-Hasan Kūshyār ibn Labbān ibn Bashahri Gilani; (971–1029), also known as Kūshyār Gīlānī (Persian: کوشیار گیلانی‎), was an Iranian mathematician, geographer, and a...

Lady Mary Wortley Montagu

Lady Mary Wortley Montagu; (née Pierrepont; baptised 26 May 1689 – 21 August 1762) was an English aristocrat, letter writer, and poet. Lady Mary is today chiefly remembered for her letters, p...

Lagâri Hasan Çelebi

Lagâri Hasan Çelebi; was an Ottoman aviator who, according to a sole account written by traveller Evliya Çelebi, made a successful manned rocket flight. Evliya Çelebi reported that in ...

Leonardo da Vinci

Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci; (Italian: [leoˈnardo di ˌsɛr ˈpjɛːro da (v)ˈvintʃi] (listen); 14/15 April 1452 – 2 May 1519), known as Leonardo da Vinci (English: /ˌliːəˈnɑː...

Leonardo Fibonacci

Fibonacci; (c 1170 – c 1240–50), also known as Leonardo Bonacci, Leonardo of Pisa, or Leonardo Bigollo Pisano ("Leonardo the Traveller from Pisa"), was an Italian mathematician from ...

Lubna of Cordoba

Lubna of Córdoba; was an Andalusian intellectual and mathematician of the second half of the 10th century famous for her knowledge of grammar and the quality of her poetry. Originally a slave g...

Ma Yize

Ma Yize; (traditional: 馬依澤, simplified: 马依泽, ca. 910 - 1005) was a Muslim Hui Chinese astronomer and astronomer who worked as the chief official of the astronomical observatory for...

Mahmoud Hessaby

Sayyed Mahmoud Hessabi; (or Hessaby, Persian: سید محمود حسابی‎, February 23, 1903 – September 3, 1992) was an Iranian nuclear physicist and senator. He was the Minister of ...

Mardi bin Ali al-Tarsusi

Mardi ibn Ali al-Tarsusi; was a 12th-century Ayyubid-era writer and expert on military matters. He wrote a number of treatises, including a military manual for Saladin in 1187. His writings h...

Maryam Al-Zinyani

In chemistry, historical sources quote the name of Maryam Al-Zinyani. Some scholars suggested that Maryam Al-Zinyani is Maryam bint Abdullah al-Hawary who died in year 758 CE in Kairouan. In addition ...

Masawaih al-Mardini

Masawaih al-Mardini; (Yahyā ibn Masawaih al-Mardini; known as Mesue the Younger) was a Syrian physician. He was born in Mardin, Upper Mesopotamia. After working in Baghdad, he entered to the...

Masha’Allah ’Ali ibn ’Isa’

Masha’Allah ’Ali ibn ’Isa’ (d. 815); Cairo, Egypt; astronomer and mathematician. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated...

Maslama al-Majriti

Maslama al-Majriti; or Abu al-Qasim al-Qurtubi al-Majriti (full name: Abu ’l-Qāsim Maslama ibn Aḥmad al-Faraḍī al-Ḥāsib al-Maj̲rīṭī al-Qurṭubī al-Andalusī; Arabic: أبو ا...

Menahem ben Saruq

Menahem ben Saruq; (also known as Menahem ben Jacob ibn Saruq, Hebrew: מנחם בן סרוק) was a Spanish-Jewish philologist of the tenth century CE. He was a skilled poet and polyglot. H...

Michael Scott

Michael Scott (ca 1175–ca 1236); Scotland; physician, astrologer, and translator. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, Tex...

Michelangelo

Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni; (Italian: [mikeˈlandʒelo di lodoˈviːko ˌbwɔnarˈrɔːti siˈmoːni]; 6 March 1475 – 18 February 1564), known best as simply Michelangelo (Eng...

Miriam al-Asturlabi

Mariam al-Asturlabiyy; (Arabic: مريم الأسطرلابي‎ or al-ʻIjliyyah bint al-ʻIjliyy al-Asturlabiyy (Arabic: العجلية بنت العجلي الأسطرلابي‎), was a 10...

Moses ben Hanoch

Moses ben Hanoch; or Moses ben Enoch (in Hebrew: משה בן חנוך, Moshe ben Hanoch) was a medieval rabbi who inadvertently became the preeminent Talmudic scholar of Spain. He died ab...

Moses ibn Ezra

Rabbi Moses ben Jacob ibn Ezra; known as Ha-Sallaḥ ("writer of penitential prayers") (Arabic: أبو هارون موسى بن يعقوب ابن عزرا‎, Abu Harun Musa bin Ya'acub ibn Ezr...

Muhamad B. Ali Rustum Al-Khurasani

Fakhr al-Din Ridwan ibn Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Rustam al-Khurasani al-Sa'ati; better known as Fakhr al-Din ibn al-Sa'ati (died c. 1230), was an Arab physician and writer known for his knowledge o...

Muhammad Baqir Yazdi

Muhammad Baqir Yazdi was an Iranian mathematician who lived in the 16th century. He gave the pair of amicable numbers 9,363,584 and 9,437,056 many years before Euler's contribution to amicable ...

Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr al‐Farisi

Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr al-Farisi; (d. 1278/1279), an Iranian Islamic astronomer and astrologer born in Aden. He is the author of al-Tuḥfa, which includes a treatise containing important inf...

Muhammad ibn Ahmad Al-Mizzi

Muhammad b. Ahmad al-Mizzi lived in Damascus and worked there as a muwaqqit (time keeper) of the rabwa, and then of the Umayyad Mosque. He is the author of several works on astrolabes and quadrants. H...

Muhammad ibn Ibrahim al-Fazari

Ibrahim al-Fazari; (died 777 CE) was an 8th-century Muslim mathematician and astronomer at the Abbasid court of the Caliph Al-Mansur (r. 754–775). He should not to be confused with his son ...

Muhammed Bagayogo

“He was a source of blessing, a jurist, an accomplished scholar, a pious and ascetic man of God, who was amongst the finest of God's righteous servants and practising scholars.” The above is an e...

Muhammed ibn Muhammed al-Fulani al-Kishnawi

Although we are unsure of the date of his birth, due to his name, we know of his ethnicity and place of residence. He was from the Fulani people, the great herders of West Africa, who produced some...

Muhammed ibn Umail al-Tamimi

Ibn Umayl, Senior Zadith, Muhammed ibn Umail al-Tamîmî; (Arabic: محمد بن أميل التميمي) was an alchemist of the tenth century. He can be dated to 900–960 AD (286-348 AH) on ...

Muhyi al-Din al-Maghribi

Muḥyī al‐Milla wa al‐Dīn Yaḥyā Abū ʿAbdallāh ibn Muḥammad ibn Abī al‐Shukr al‐Maghribī al‐Andalusī; (Arabic: محيي الدين المغربي‎; died 1283 CE) was an An...

Muhyi Al-Din ibn Abd Al-Zâhir

Ibn Abd al-Zahir; (Muḥyī d-Dīn ibn ʿAbd aẓ-Ẓāhir محيي الدين بن عبد الظاهر‎, 1223–1293) was an Egyptian chancery scribe, poet and historian during the Mamluk peri...

Mulla Nasruddin Khodja

Nasreddin; or Nasreddin Hodja or Molla Nasreddin Hooja (/næsˈrɛdɪn/) was a Seljuq satirist, born in Hortu Village in Sivrihisar, Eskişehir Province, present-day Turkey and died in ...

Mulla Sadra

Sadr al-Din Muhammad b. Ibrahim b. Yahya Qawami Shirazi; (ca. 1571–1636) is arguably the most significant Islamic philosopher after Avicenna. Best known as Mulla Sadra, he was later given the ti...

Musa bin Maymun (Maimonides)

Moses ben Maimon, commonly known as Maimonides (/maɪˈmɒnɪdiːz/ my-MON-i-deez) and also referred to by the acronym Rambam, was a medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of th...

Muvaffak, Abu Mansur

Abu Mansur Muvaffak Harawi; (Persian: ابو منصور موفق هروی‎) was a 10th-century Persian physician. He flourished in Herat (modern-day Afghanistan), under the Samanid prin...

Muwaffaq Al-Din Yaqub Ben Saklan

Muwaffaq Al-Din Yaqub Ben Saklan was a Christian doctor of Jerusalem (d. 1229). He was an Oriental Christian who served as a manager of the hospital of Jerusalem under Muaddam the Ayyubid ruler. Muadd...

Nazif ibn Yumn

Nazif ibn Yumn al-qass al-Rūmī al-Baghdādī; (died 990) was a Melkite Christian priest, philosopher and physician. He flourished under the Buyid emir Adud al-Dawla. He was also a trans...

Nicolas Copernicus

Nicolaus Copernicus; (Polish: Mikołaj Kopernik; German: Nikolaus Kopernikus; Niklas Koppernigk; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance-era polymath whose theory of the universe...

Nizam al-Din Nishapuri

Nizam al-Din Hasan al-Nisaburi; (d. 1328/9) (in Persian: نظام الدین حسن نیشاپوری) was a Persian mathematician, astronomer, jurist, exegete, and poet. His full name was Nizam al...

Nur al-Din ibn Zangi

Nūr ad-Dīn Abū al-Qāsim Maḥmūd ibn ʿImād ad-Dīn Zengī; (February 1118 – 15 May 1174), often shortened to his laqab Nur ad-Din (Arabic: نور الدين‎, "Light of the Faith"), ...

Nusaybah bint Ka'ab

Nusaybah bint Ka'ab; (Arabic: نسيبة بنت كعب‎; also ʾUmm ʿAmmarah) was one of the early women to convert to Islam. She was one of the companions of Muhammad. A member of the...

Palladio, Andrea

Andrea Palladio; (Italian: [anˈdrɛːa palˈlaːdjo]; 30 November 1508 – 19 August 1580) was an Italian Renaissance architect active in the Venetian Republic. Palladio, influenced by Roman...

Pierre Omidyar

Pierre Morad Omidyar; (Persian: پیر مراد امیدیار‎, Persian pronunciation: [piːjeɾ muɾɑːd umiːdjɑːɾ] born June 21, 1967) is an American billionaire entrepreneur, compu...

Piri Reis

Ahmed Muhiddin Piri; (1465/70 – 1553), better known as Piri Reis (Turkish: Pîrî Reis or Hacı Ahmet Muhittin Pîrî Bey), was an Ottoman admiral, navigator, geographer and cartogr...

Plato

Plato; (Greek: Πλάτων Plátōn, pronounced [plá.tɔːn] in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BCE) was an Athenian philosopher during the Classical period in Ancient...

Pope Sylvester II

Pope Sylvester II; or Silvester II (c.  946–12 May 1003) was Pope from 2 April 999 to his death in 1003. Originally known as Gerbert of Aurillac (Latin: Gerbertus Aureliacensis or de A...

Ptolemy

Claudius Ptolemy; (Greek: Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos [kláwdios ptolɛmɛ́os]; Latin: Claudius Ptolemaeus; c AD 100 – c 170) was a Greek mathematician...

Qabus ibn Wushmagir

Qabus ibn Wushmagir; (full name: Abol-Hasan Qābūs ibn Wušmagīr ibn Ziyar Sams al-maʿālī, ابوالحسن قابوس بن وشمگیر بن زیار, شمس المعالی; (died 1012) (r....

Qadi Zada al-Rumi

Qāḍī Zāda al-Rūmī; (1364 in Bursa, Ottoman Empire – 1436 in Samarqand, Timurid Empire), whose actual name was Salah al-Din Musa Pasha (qāḍī zāda means "son of the judge", al-...

Qusta ibn Luqa

Qusta ibn Luqa; (820–912) (Costa ben Luca, Constabulus) was a Syrian Melkite Christian physician, philosopher, astronomer, mathematician and translator. He was born in Baalbek. Travelling...

Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi

Qotb al-Din Mahmoud b. Zia al-Din Mas'ud b. Mosleh Shirazi; (1236–1311) (Persian: قطب‌الدین محمود بن ضیاالدین مسعود بن مصلح شیرازی‎) was a 13th-centur...

Raja ibn Haywah

Rajaʾ ibn Ḥaywa ibn Khanzal al-Kindī; was a prominent Muslim theological and political adviser of the Umayyad caliphs Abd al-Malik (r. 685–705), al-Walid I (r. 705–715), Sulayman (r...

Raphael, Raphaello

Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino; (Italian: [raffaˈɛllo ˈsantsjo da urˈbiːno]; March 28 or April 6, 1483 – April 6, 1520), known as Raphael (/ˈræfeɪəl/, US: /ˈræfiəl, ˈreɪf-, ˌr...

Rashid Al-Din ibn Essury

Rashid Al-Din was a well-recognised botanist and his passion and knowledge of the subject places him amongst the greatest botanists. For more detail click here....

Rashidun al-Suri

Rashidun al-Suri; (Arabic: Rashidudin as-Sury رشيد الدين الصوري‎, 1177–1241) was a leading physician and botanist in the Islamic world in the 13th century. He served the leadi...

Robert Boyle

Robert Boyle; (25 January 1627 – 31 December 1691) was an Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor. Boyle is largely regarded today as the first modern chemist (a tit...

Robert of Chester

Robert of Chester; (Latin: Robertus Castrensis) was an English Arabist of the 12th century. He translated several historically important books from Arabic to Latin, by authors such as Abu Mu...

Roger Bacon

Roger Bacon; (/ˈbeɪkən/; Latin: Rogerus or Rogerius Baconus, Baconis, also Frater Rogerus; c. 1219/20 – c. 1292), also known by the scholastic accolade Doctor Mirabilis, was a m...

Roger II

Roger II; (22 December 1095 – 26 February 1154) was King of Sicily and Africa, son of Roger I of Sicily and successor to his brother Simon. He began his rule as Count of Sicily in 1105, ...

Rufaida Al-Aslamia

Rufaida Al-Aslamia; (also transliterated Rufaida Al-Aslamiya or Rufaydah bint Sa`ad) (Arabic: رفيدة الأسلمية‎) (born approx. 620 AD; 2 BH) was an Islamic medical and social worker ...

Rumi

Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Rūmī; (Persian: جلال‌الدین محمد رومی‎), also known as Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhī (جلال‌الدین محمد بلخى), Mevlânâ/Mawlān...

Sa'id ibn Batriq

Eutychius of Alexandria; (Arabic: Sa'id ibn Batriq or Bitriq; 10 September 877 – 12 May 940) was the Melkite Patriarch of Alexandria. He is known for being one of the first Christian Egyptia...

Sabur ibn Sahl

Sābūr ibn Sahl; (شاپور بن سهل گندیشاپوری; d. 869 CE) was a 9th-century Persian Christian physician from the Academy of Gundishapur. Among other medical works, he wrote ...

Sabur ibn Sahl (Shapur)

Sābūr ibn Sahl; (شاپور بن سهل گندیشاپوری; d. 869 CE) was a 9th-century Persian Christian physician from the Academy of Gundishapur. Among other medical works, he wrote ...

Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi

Ṣadr al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Isḥāq b. Muḥammad b. Yūnus Qūnawī; [alternatively, Qūnavī, Qūnyawī], (Persian: صدر الدین قونوی‎), (Turkish: Sadreddin Konevî), (1207-1274 C...

Sahl ibn Bishr

Sahl ibn Bishr al-Israili; (c. 786–c. 845), also known as Rabban al-Tabari and Haya al-Yahudi ("the Jew"), was a Syriac Christian astrologer, astronomer and mathematician from Tabarist...

Saif al-Dawla

ʿAlī ibn ʾAbū l-Hayjāʾ ʿAbdallāh ibn Ḥamdān ibn al-Ḥārith al-Taghlibī; (Arabic: علي بن أبو الهيجاء عبد الله بن حمدان بن الحارث التغلبي‎...

Sake Dean Mahomed

Sake Dean Mahomed; (Bengali: শেখ দেয়েন মুহাম্মদ 1759–1851) was an Indian traveller, surgeon and entrepreneur who was one of the most notable early non-European ...

Salah Al-Din ibn Yusuf Al-Kahhal bi-Hama

Salah Al-Din ibn Yusuf Al-Kahhal bi-Hama (i.e. the eye doctor of Hama) was a Syrian oculist who flourished in Hama in 1296. He wrote for his son a very elaborate treatise of ophthalmology entitled Nur...

Samuel ibn Naghrillah

Samuel ibn Naghrillah; (Hebrew: שמואל הלוי בן יוסף הנגיד, Sh'muel HaLevi ben Yosef HaNagid; Arabic: أبو إسحاق إسماعيل بن النغريلة‎ ʾAbū ʾIsḥ...

Sanad al-Yahoudi

Abu al-Tayyib Sanad ibn Ali al-Yahudi; (died c. 864 C.E.), was an eighth-century Iraqi Jewish astronomer, translator, mathematician and engineer employed at the court of the Abbasid calip...

Sanad ibn ʿAli

Abu al-Tayyib Sanad ibn Ali al-Yahudi; (died c. 864 C.E.), was an eighth-century Iraqi Jewish astronomer, translator, mathematician and engineer employed at the court of the Abbasid caliph...

Severus Sebokht

Severus Sebokht; (Classical Syriac: ܣܘܪܘܣ ܣܝܒܘܟܬ‎), also Seboukt of Nisibis, was a Syrian scholar and bishop who was born in Nisibis, Syria in 575 and died in 667. Although li...

Shajar al-Durr

Shajar al-Durr; (Arabic: شجر الدر‎, lit. 'Tree of Pearls'), also Shajarat al-Durr (شجرة الدر), whose royal name was al-Malika ʿAṣmat ad-Dīn ʾUmm-Khalīl Shajar ad-Durr...

Shams al-Din al-Khafri

Shams al-Din Muhammad b. Ahmad al-Khafri al-Kashi; (died 1550), known as Khafri, was a Persian religious scholar and astronomer at the beginning of the Safavid dynasty, during a period of mass ...

Shams al-Din al-Samarqandi

Shams al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Ashraf al-Ḥusaynī al-Samarqandī; (c. 1250 – c. 1310) was a 13th-century astronomer and mathematician from Samarkand. Nothing is known of al-Samarqandi's l...

Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor

Dato' Dr. Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor Al Masrie bin Sheikh Mustapha; (born 27 July 1972) is a Malaysian orthopaedic surgeon and the first Malaysian astronaut. He launched to the International Spa...

Shihab Al-din Ahmed ibn Abi Bakr as-Sarraj Al-Hamawi

Shihab Al-din Ahmed ibn Abi Bakr as-Sarraj al-Hamawi was the author of several books on scientific instruments and geometrical problems. For more detail click here....

Sibawayh

Sibawayh; (Arabic: سِيبَوَيْه‎; c. 760–796), whose full name is Abu Bishr Amr ibn Uthman ibn Qanbar al-Basri (أَبُو بِشْر عَمْروْ ٱبْن عُثْمَان ٱبْ...

Sibt al-Maridini

Sibt al-Maridini; full name Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Ghazal (1423 – 1506 AD), was an Egyptian-born astronomer and mathematician. His father came from Damascus. The w...

Sinan ibn al-Fath

Sinān ibn al-Fatḥ; was a mathematician from Ḥarrān, who probably lived in the first half of the 10th century. Ibn an-Nadīm lists the following works of his: Kitāb at-Taḫt fi l...

Sinan ibn Thabit

Sinan ibn Thabit ibn Qurra; (Arabic: سنان بن ثابت بن قرة‎‎; 880; † 943) was an Arab Sabian physician, astronomer and mathematician who later converted to Islam. He was...

Sind ibn Ali

Abu al-Tayyib Sanad ibn Ali al-Yahudi; (died c. 864 C.E.), was an eighth-century Iraqi Jewish astronomer, translator, mathematician and engineer employed at the court of the Abbasid calip...

Sir Christopher Wren

Sir Christopher Wren (1632-1723); London, United Kingdom; architect, astronomer, and mathematician. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Editio...

Sitt al-Mulk

Sitt al-Mulk; (Arabic: ست الملك‎, lit. 'Lady of the Kingdom' ; 970–1023), was a Fatimid princess. After the disappearance of her half-brother, the caliph al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, in ...

Solomon ibn Gabirol

Solomon ibn Gabirol; (also Solomon ben Judah; Hebrew: שלמה בן יהודה אבן גבירול‎ Shlomo Ben Yehuda ibn Gabirol, pronounced [ʃe.loˈmo bɛn jɛ.huˈdaː ˈɪ.bn ˌga.bi....

Sulaiman Al Mahri

Sulaiman Al Mahri ibn Ahmad ibn Sulayman; (Arabic: سليمان المهري ابن أحمد ابن سليمان‎) (1480–1550) was a 16th-century Arab navigator. He was called "Al-Mahri" be...

Sultana Raziya

Raziya al-Din; (r. 1236–15 October 1240), popularly known as Razia Sultana, was a ruler of the Delhi Sultanate in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent. She is notable for being the fi...

Sutayta Al-Mahāmali

Sutayta did not specialize in just one subject but excelled in many fields such as Arabic literature, hadith, and jurisprudence as well as mathematics. It is said that she was an expert in hisab (arit...

Taqi Al-Din Ahmad Ibn Taymiyya

Taqī ad-Dīn Ahmad ibn Taymiyyah; (Arabic: تقي الدين أحمد ابن تيمية‎, January 22, 1263 - September 26, 1328), known as ابن تيمية Ibn Taymiyyah for short, medieval...

Taqi al-Din al-Rasid

Taqi al-Din al-Rasid, Muhammad ibn Ma’rouf al-Shami al-Asadi (ca 1526-1585); Damascus, Syria; astronomer, engineer, and mechanic. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civ...

Thabit ibn Qurra

Al-Ṣābiʾ Thābit ibn Qurrah al-Ḥarrānī; (Arabic: ثابت بن قره‎, Latin: Thebit/Thebith/Tebit; 826 – February 18, 901) was a Sabian mathematician, physician, astronomer, ...

Thomas Bradwardine

Thomas Bradwardine was an English cleric, scholar, mathematician, physicist, courtier and, very briefly, Archbishop of Canterbury. As a celebrated scholastic philosopher and doctor of theology, he is ...

Tycho Brahe

Tycho Brahe (1546-1601); Skane, Denmark; astronomer and engineer. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, Text only. . FSTC. K...

Ulugh Beg

Mīrzā Muhammad Tāraghay bin Shāhrukh; (Chagatay: میرزا محمد طارق بن شاہ رخ, Persian: میرزا محمد تراغای بن شاہ رخ‎), better known as Ulugh Beg (...

Umar al-Khayyam

Omar Khayyam; (/kaɪˈjɑːm/; Persian: عمر خیّام‎ [oˈmæɾ xæjˈjɒːm]; 18 May 1048 – 4 December 1131) was a Persian mathematician, astronomer, philosopher, and poet. He wa...

Umar ibn al-Khattab

Umar ibn al-Khattab, ibn Nufayl ibn ’Abd al-’Uzza ibn Rayyah (ca 581-644); companion of Prophet Muhammad and second caliph, ruling from Medina, Saudi Arabia (634-644). Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Invent...

Umm Matawe' Al-Aslamiyya

Umm Matawe' Al-Aslamiyya, who volunteered to be a nurse in the army after the opening of Khaybar....

Umm Sinan Al-Islami

Umm Sinan Al-Islami (known also as Umm Imara), would go out with the warriors to nurse the injured and provide water to the thirsty....

Umm Waraqa Bint Hareth

Umm Waraqa Bint Hareth, who participated in gathering the Quran and providing her nursing services to the warriors at the battle of Badr....

Usama ibn Munqidh

Majd ad-Dīn Usāma ibn Murshid ibn ʿAlī ibn Munqidh al-Kināni al-Kalbi; (also Usamah, Ousama, etc.; Arabic: أسامة بن منقذ‎) (July 4, 1095 – November 17, 1188[2]) was a medie...

Uthman ibn Affan

Uthman ibn Affan, ibn Abi Al-’As ibn Umayyah (577-656); companion of Prophet Muhammad and third caliph (644-656). Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Refere...

Vitruvius, Marcus Pollio

Vitruvius, Marcus Pollio (ca 70-ca 25 BCE); Rome, Italy; architect and engineer. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Reference (4th) Edition Annotated, Text o...

Waddah al-Yaman

Waddah al-Yaman; (Arabic: وضّاح اليمن‎), born Abdul Rahman bin Isma’il al-Khawlani (Arabic: عبدالرحمن بن اسماعيل الخولاني) (died 708), was an Arab poet...

Wallada bint al-Mustakfi

Wallada bint al-Mustakfi; (Arabic: ولادة بنت المستكفي‎) (born in Córdoba in 1001 - died March 26, 1091) was an Andalusian poet. Wallada was the daughter of Muhammad II...

Yahya ibn Abi Mansour

Yahya ibn Abi Mansur; (Arabic: یحیی ابن ابی منصور‎), was a senior Persian official from the Banu al-Munajjim family, who served as an astronomer/astrologer at the court of Ab...

Yahya ibn Adi

Abū Zakarīyā’ Yaḥyá ibn ʿAdī; (John, father of Zachary, son of Adi) known as Yahya ibn Adi (893–974) was a Syriac Jacobite Christian philosopher, theologian and translator working in...

Yahya ibn Masawayh, Abu Zakariah

Yahya ibn Masawayh, Abu Zakariah (776-857); Baghdad, Iraq; physician, pharmacologist, earth scientist, and translator. Ltd, FSTC. 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization: Ref...

Yahya ibn Sarafyun

Yahya ibn Sarafyun; (9th century) a Syriac physician, known in Europe as Johannes Serapion, and commonly called Serapion the Elder to distinguish him from Serapion the Younger, with whom he w...

Yahya ibn Saʿid al-Antaki

Yahya of Antioch; full name Yaḥya ibn Saʿīd al-Anṭākī (Ar. يحيى بن سعيد الأنطاكي), was a Melkite Christian physician and historian of the 11th century. He was most l...

Yaqut al-Hamawi

Yāqūt Shihāb al-Dīn ibn-'Abdullāh al-Rūmī al-Hamawī; (1179–1229) (Arabic: ياقوت الحموي الرومي‎) is famous for his great "geography", Mu'jam ul-Buldān, an encyclopedi...

Yaʿish ibn Ibrahim al-Umawi

Abū ʿAbdallāh Yaʿīsh ibn Ibrāhīm ibn Yūsuf ibn Simāk al-Andalusī al-Umawī; (1400? in Al-Andalus – 1489 in Damascus, Syria) was a 14th-century Spanish-Arab mathematician. *Sourc...

Yaʿqub ibn Tariq

Yaʿqūb ibn Ṭāriq; (يعقوب بن طارق; died c. 796 AD) was an 8th-century Persian astronomer and mathematician who lived in Baghdad. *Source...

Yuhanna Ibn Batriq

Yuhanna Ibn Batriq, an Assyrian, who produced the Sirr al-asrar. Click here for more information. ...

Yusuf al-Mu'taman ibn Hud

Abu Amir Yusuf ibn Ahmad ibn Hud; (Arabic: أبو عامر يوسف إبن أحمد إبن هود‎, romanized: Abū ʿĀmir Yūsuf ibn Aḥmad ibn Hūd; died c. 1085), known by his regnal ...

Yusuf Sinan Pasha

Cığalazade Yusuf Sinan Pasha; (also known as Cağaloğlu Yusuf Sinan Pasha; c. 1545–1605), his epithet meaning "son of Cicala", was an Ottoman Italian statesman who held the office of Gr...

Zakariya al-Qazwini

Abu Yahya Zakariya' ibn Muhammad al-Qazwini; (Arabic: أبو یحیی زکریاء بن محمد القزویني) ‎(1203–1283) was a physician, astronomer, geographer and writer of Ara...

Zarrin-Dast, Gorgani

Abu Ruh Muhammad ibn Mansur ibn abi Abdallah ibn Mansur Jamani (also Gorgani), nicknamed Zarrin-Dast was an eleventh-century Persian oculist. Zarrin Dast means the Golden Hand in Persian, a...

Zheng He

Zheng He; (Chinese: 鄭和; 1371 – 1433 or 1435) was a Chinese mariner, explorer, diplomat, fleet admiral, and court eunuch during China's early Ming dynasty. He was originally born as Ma ...

Ziryab

Abu l-Hasan 'Ali Ibn Nafi'; or Ziryab (789–857; Arabic: أبو الحسن علي ابن نافع, زریاب‎) was a singer, oud player, composer, poet, and teacher who lived and worked ...

Zubayda bint Ja'far al-Mansur

Zubaidah bint Ja`far ibn Mansur; (Arabic: زبيدة بنت جعفر ابن المنصور) (died 26 Jumada I 216 AH / 10 July 831 AD) was the best known of the Abbasid princesses. She is par...

’Abd al-Rahman III

Abd al-Raḥmān III; he was ′Abd al-Rahmān ibn Muḥammad ibn ′Abd Allāh ibn Muḥammad ibn ′Abd al-Raḥmān ibn al-Ḥakam al-Rabdī ibn Hishām ibn ′Abd al-Raḥmān al-Dākhil; (ع...

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