S. M. Ghazanfar


Capitalist Traditions in Early Arab-Islamic Civilization

by S. M. Ghazanfar Published on: 21st November 2008

In the following article, Professor S. M. Ghazanfar, a specialist in the history of economic thought in the Islamic civilisation, explores the evidence concerning the roots of historical "capitalism" as it evolved in the early…

Spain’s Islamic Legacy

by S. M. Ghazanfar Published on: 15th March 2004

Muslims ruled in Spain and Portugal over a period of 800 years. When the Christians finally forced out the Muslims and instituted the inquisition they encountered some of the great achievements of Islamic science and…