Abu ‘Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Malik al-Murri, called al-Tighnari, flourished in the twelfth century and served the taifa prince of Granada before moving to the court of the Almoravid governor Abu-l-Tahir Tamim b. Yusuf Ibn Tashufin (r. 501/1107-512/118) to whom he dedicated his opus, Zahrat al-bustan wa-nuzhat al-adhhan (The flower of the garden and the pleasure of the intellect). The fact that al-Tighnari worked in Granada meant that he knew an agricultural system different from that Toledo or of Seville, which were considerably farther north and far less mountainous. However, he observed agricultural practice in other regions as well and met Ibn Bassal in Seville in 494/1100-1. The agricultural work of Ibn Abu-l-Jawad (or Jawwad) was cited by other agronomes as a risala (literally “letter”), which indicates that it was only a short and relatively minor summary of agricultural information from other sources.

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