Muhammad ibn Ibrahim al-Fazari

Died on 777

Ibrahim al-Fazari;

(died 777 CE) was an 8th-century Muslim mathematician and astronomer at the Abbasid court of the Caliph Al-Mansur (r. 754–775). He should not to be confused with his son Muḥammad ibn Ibrāhīm al-Fazārī, also an astronomer. He composed various astronomical writings (“on the astrolabe”, “on the armillary spheres”, “on the calendar”).

The Caliph ordered him and his son to translate the Indian astronomical text, The Sindhind along with Yaʿqūb ibn Ṭāriq, which was completed in Baghdad about 750 CE, and entitled Az-Zīj ‛alā Sinī al-‛Arab. This translation was possibly the vehicle by means of which the Hindu numeral system (i.e. modern number notation) was transmitted from India to Iran.

At the end of the eighth century, while at the court of the Abbasid Caliphate, this Muslim geographer mentioned Ghana, “the land of gold.”