Abu’l-Qasim Ubaydallah ibn Abdallah ibn Khordadbeh;
(Persian: ابوالقاسم عبیدالله ابن خرداذبه) (c. 820 – 912 CE), better known as Ibn Khordadbeh or Ibn Khurradadhbih, was the author of the earliest surviving Arabic book of administrative geography. He was a Persian geographer and bureaucrat of the 9th century. He was the son of Abdallah ibn Khordadbeh, a prominent Abbasid general, who was the son of a Zoroastrian convert to Islam. Ibn Khordadbeh was appointed “Director of Posts and Intelligence” for the province of Jibal in northwestern Iran under the Abbasid Caliph al-Mutammid (ruled 869–885 CE). In this capacity ibn Khordadbeh served as both postmaster general and the Caliph’s personal spymaster in that vital province.