FSTC


AUTHOR'S ARTICLES

FSTC Activity Report 2015

by FSTC Published on: 5th February 2016

Year 2015 has been a busy, challenging and a successful Year. FSTC wishes all our colleagues, supporters and readers a successful and prosperous Year 2016. This report provides information on the projects we have worked…

Breaking News: FSTC to host Women of Science workshop, June 2014

by FSTC Published on: 19th May 2014

The two day workshop, 24th and 25th June 2014

Muslim Founders of Mathematics

by FSTC Published on: 30th October 2013

The 7th to the 13th century was the golden age of Muslim learning. In mathematics they contributed and invented the present arithmetical decimal system and the fundamental operations connected with it addition, subtraction, multiplication, division,…

In Memoriam: Peter Raymond MBE

by FSTC Published on: 1st February 2011

The Trustees of FSTC: Prof. Salim Al-Hassani, Prof. M. El-Gomati, Peter Fell, Ian Fenn, Mohammed Hafiz, Zeki Poyraz It is with great sadness that we announce the passing away of our dear friend and colleague…

Muslim Heritage Awareness Network Turkey (MHANT) is Established

by FSTC Published on: 24th January 2011

On Friday 1st October 2010, thirty Turkish academics and public figures met to launch the Muslim Heritage Awareness Network Turkey (MHANT) at Marmara University in Istanbul.

FSTC Renews Scientific Contacts with Aleppo University

by FSTC Published on: 16th October 2010

Professor Salim Al-Hassani, Chairman of FSTC, has visited the University of Aleppo on 11 October 2010 to greet the new President of the university, Dr Nidal Shehadeh, and to renew the long standing friendly relationship…

Professor Ihsanoglu Lecture on Science in the Muslim World

by FSTC Published on: 13th May 2010

On June 21, 2011, Professor Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu, the Secretary General of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), lectured about the importance of science and technology for Muslim nations at the American University in Sharjah…

1001 Inventions: A Conference to Celebrate the International Launch

by FSTC Published on: 27th April 2010

This academic meeting will be held on the occasion of celebrating the International Launch of the new blockbuster 1001 Inventions Exhibition

Bettany Hughes Presents New Radio and TV Shows

by FSTC Published on: 31st March 2010

Bettany Hughes is an advisor to the Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation (FSTC) and member of its consultant network Muslim Heritage Awareness Group (MHAG). Her Youtube films on East/West understanding produced by FSTC were…

Numbers, Numbers

by FSTC Published on: 14th September 2009

Amicable number, perfect numbers, deficient numbers, abundant numbers, studying numbers was done by many including Ibn Sina better known for work in medicine.

FSTC at the House of Lords in London

by FSTC Published on: 8th May 2009

FSTC was invited to speak at the UK House of Lords for the Every Muslim Child Matters project

Muslim Heritage Shines at Qatar through Ancient Wisdom Exhibition

by FSTC Published on: 15th April 2009

FSTC and Muslim Heritage Consulting (MHC) took part in the high profile opening of the Qatar Science and Technology Park on March 16th 2009. The opening night celebrations were attended by His Highness Sheikh Hamad…

1001 Inventions vs. 1001 nights

by FSTC Published on: 26th March 2009

Professor Rafid Al-Khaddar, Head of Construction and Civil Engineering Department at John Moores University, Liverpool, and Key Associate and Fellow of FSTC, presented a lecture on "Science and Research in the Arab World".

Homage to Professor Salim Al-Hassani in Al-Ithinainiya Literary Forum in Jeddah

by FSTC Published on: 7th February 2009

On 2 February 2009 Professor Salim Al-Hassani, Chairman of the FSTC was given homage by Sheikh Abdul Maqsood Khoja at the Al-Ithnainiya Literary Forum in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Muslim Heritage in Our World: Social Cohesion

by FSTC Published on: 26th September 2008

London Conference tackles 1000 years of amnesia of Muslim science and technology, Wednesday 15th October, 2.30pm, Hoare Memorial Hall, Church House, Westminster.

A Bibliography of the Islamic and Chinese Scientific Relationships in Classical Times

by FSTC Published on: 8th September 2008

In the following bibliography of the Islamic and Chinese scientific relationships in classical times, a list of the main recent works is produced. The researches cover various scientific domains, from mathematics and astronomy to technology,…

Dr. Farouk El-Baz receives 1001inventions book

by FSTC Published on: 21st August 2008

Dr. Farouk El-Baz receives 1001inventions book

Muslim Heritage in the World Conference on Intellectual Capital

by FSTC Published on: 30th May 2008

In the frame of the forthcoming of The World Conference on Intellectual Capital for Communities, Professor Salim Al-Hassani, FSTC Chairman of the Board, presents a keynote lecture on the theme: Innovation in the Islamic World:…

Cultural Understanding through Science Project

by FSTC Published on: 20th May 2008

Cultural Understanding is "Recognising that modern science has its roots in many different societies and cultures, and draws on a variety of valid approaches to scientific practice."ASE has been working with the Foundation for Science…

Ahmad Ibn Fadhlan in Northern Europe: A Survey of his Account of Russian Vikings in the 10th Century

by FSTC Published on: 3rd April 2008

One of the earliest detailed descriptions of Northern Europe is reported in the account written by the Arab Muslim writer and traveler Ahmad Ibn Fadhlan, who was sent in 921 CE as the secretary to…

Presentation on The Muslims’ Great Contributions

by FSTC Published on: 4th March 2008

Prof. Salim Al Hassani, a Muslim Scholar and the chief editor of "1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World" , will deliver his presentation on "The Muslims' Great Contributions during the Golden Age of the…

Lecture at Liverpool Athenaeum

by FSTC Published on: 4th March 2008

800th anniversary and receiving a copy of the 1001i book for the Athenaeum library. The Liverpool Athenaeum has a distinguished membership of proprietors drawn from every walk of life across the city of Liverpool and…

Arabic Eclipse Records Bring Light to Scientific Analysis of the Earth’s Rotation

by FSTC Published on: 18th February 2008

A total eclipse of the Moon occurs during the night of Wednesday, February 20/21, 2008. The entire event is visible from large parts of our globe. On this occasion, we attract the attention of our…

Muslim Heritage in the Knowledge-Economy Conference in Jeddah

by FSTC Published on: 8th February 2008

During "The First Regional Conference on the Knowledge Economy" in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, January 12-13, 2008, attended by over 300 experts and professionals as well as several VIPs, Professor Salim Al-Hassani delivered a key note…

The List of Al-jazari Articles Published on Muslim Heritage Website

by FSTC Published on: 1st February 2008

Some 800 years in the past, in 1206, a brilliant Muslim scholar died : Badi' al-Zaman Abu al-‘Izz ibn Ismail ibn al-Razzaz al-Jazari. He was one of the most important inventors and mechanical engineers in…

Al-Jazari: 800 Years After

by FSTC Published on: 1st February 2008

Some 800 years in the past, in 1206, a brilliant Muslim scholar died : Badi' al-Zaman Abu al-‘Izz ibn Ismail ibn al-Razzaz al-Jazari. He was one of the most important inventors and mechanical engineers in…

The First Regional Event on Knowledge-Based Economy

by FSTC Published on: 3rd January 2008

The Arabian Knowledge Economy Association organises "The First Regional Conference on the Knowledge Economy" that will be organized jointly with Al-Aghar Strategic Think Tank Group and Jeddah Chamber of Commerce & Industry in Jeddah, Saudi…

“Three Times Greater than Venus”: Ibn Ridhwan’s Observation of Supernova 1006

by FSTC Published on: 24th November 2007

1001 years ago, an extraordinary astronomical event occurred in the sky: the most intense supernova ever witnessed and recorded by human beings appeared in the Earth's sky in the year 1006 CE. The blast was…

A Treasure of World Heritage: Islamic Manuscripts in the Kandilli Observatory

by FSTC Published on: 2nd November 2007

This is a review of a book bringing to light a collection of about 1300 Islamic scientific manuscripts on astronomy and various scientific topics in three languages (Turkish, Arabic and Persian). These manuscripts are held…

A Wealth of Scholarship: Recent Publications in Islamic Art, Culture and History

by FSTC Published on: 31st October 2007

This is a general review of some 23 recent publications (books, films, and articles) on various aspects of Islamic culture, history and civilisation. The survey concentrates on titles related to three categories: art and architecture,…

Famous Figures of the Modern Turkish Medical School

by FSTC Published on: 23rd October 2007

To throw light on famous figures of the Turkish modern medical school, this article introduces a set of nine posters on the contribution of eight late Ottoman and early Turkish physicians (whose careers spanned from…

Illustrious Names in the Heavens: Arabic and Islamic Names of the Moon Craters

by FSTC Published on: 28th September 2007

24 craters of the Moon bear names of Arabic and Islamic origin. In majority, these names are those of famous scholars of Islamic civilisation. We present below a list of those crater-names on the Moon,…

The Clock of Civilisations

by FSTC Published on: 10th September 2007

A fascinating presentation on the 800 years old Elephant clock of Al-Jazari which reflects the contributions of Greek, Egyptian, Indian, Chinese and Muslim civilisations.

Precious Records of Eclipses in Muslim Astronomy and History

by FSTC Published on: 29th August 2007

On the occasion of the lunar eclipse that occurs on 28 August 2007, we produce a short survey of some records of lunar and solar eclipses reported on in Muslim heritage, drawn from various sources,…

Latinized Names of Muslim Scholars

by FSTC Published on: 28th August 2007

This article includes the Latinized names of Muslim scholars.

The Mechanics of Banu Musa in the Light of Modern System and Control Engineering

by FSTC Published on: 10th August 2007

This article is a review of the book published recently by Professor Attila Bir (Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Istanbul) on Banu Musa's book of mechanics studied in the framework of…

Abu Ishaq Ibrahim Ibn Yahya Al-Zarqali

by FSTC Published on: 18th July 2007

Al-Zarqali is an eminent Andalusian astronomer of the 11th century who was the foremost astronomer of his time. He excelled in different domains of theoretical and practical astronomy and left works that influenced greatly his…

New Lectures at Thinktank, Birmingham’s Museum of Science

by FSTC Published on: 26th May 2007

1001 Inventions: Discover the Muslim Heritage in Our World launched at Thinktank, Birmingham's Museum of Science, at Millennium Point on 24th May as part of a UK-wide tour. This unique travelling exhibition revealing 1,000 years…

Aleppo Citadel: Glimpses of the Past

by FSTC Published on: 13th January 2007

The Citadel of Aleppo is one of the oldest monuments in the world. It is the most famous historic architectural site in Syria and is built on top of a huge, partially artificial mound rising…

Lecture: Great Men and Women of Science in Muslim Heritage

by FSTC Published on: 21st November 2006

Evening lecture with Professor Salim Al-Hassani. Tuesday 21 November 2006, 6pm-8pm

From Alchemy to Chemistry

by FSTC Published on: 18th May 2006

Until recently, the mainstream history of scientific ideas has failed to acknowledge numerous Islamic scientists and their great efforts and achievements throughout the centuries. This short article seeks to contribute in redressing this injustice by…

Ibn Jubair: Capturing the Decline of Islamic Power

by FSTC Published on: 17th May 2006

Ibn Jubair is widely recognised as one of the greatest travellers and geographers of Muslim history. From excerpts his work, The Travels of Ibn Jubair, as presented in this short article we are able to…

Islamic Science, the Scholar and Ethics

by FSTC Published on: 24th February 2006

The ethics or philosophy of science has in more recent times become an increasingly important subject. This article discusses and compares modern day scientific ethics with the ethics or morality underpinning Islamic Science.

Muslim Contribution to Spanish Agriculture

by FSTC Published on: 23rd February 2006

This article describes some of the numerous Muslim contributions to the development of Spanish agriculture, including the introduction of new crops, more intensive use of irrigation, soil management, and scholarly efforts in farming innovation. Such…

Ibn Battuta and the 14th Century Muslim World

by FSTC Published on: 15th February 2006

Ibn Battuta is regarded by many to be one of the greatest travellers and explorers the world has ever seen. In fact, he was able to travel over 75,000 miles, in twenty years and through…

Animal Care

by FSTC Published on: 15th February 2006

By way of faith, Muslims have a strong regard for the care of animals. This is due to the attention that the Prophet Muhammad encouraged the wellbeing and good-treatment of other creatures of God. Muslims…

Al-Ramhormuzi and the Wonders of India

by FSTC Published on: 15th February 2006

Captain Buzurg ibn Shahriyar, a shipmaster from Khuzistan compiled a collection of stories and accounts of his experiences as a sea farer between 900 and 953. As well as stretching one's imagination, Captain Bazurg's ‘The…

Decimal Arithmetic

by FSTC Published on: 8th September 2005

The introduction of Arabic numbers into Europe involved more than a way of writing numbers down. It also involved new ways of calculating with pen and paper that were faster and easier and the system…

Masjid-i-Jami: the Friday Mosque of Isfahan

by FSTC Published on: 25th May 2005

Iran has made great contributions to Muslim architecture culminating in the introduction of the cylindrical minaret form and the four-iwan plan. The most momentous work that survives in Iran is the Masjid-i-Jami at Isfahan.

Al-Hakim Mosque, Cairo (990-1012)

by FSTC Published on: 27th April 2005

Al Hakim Mosque is the second major Fatimid Mosque and the fourth most important religious edifice in Egypt. The articles provides an elaborate account of the Fatimids contribution to its rich architectural design.

Astronomical Instruments of Tycho Brahe and Taqi al-Din

by FSTC Published on: 26th April 2005

Tycho Brahe "was a brilliant astronomer and scientist of his time, and has had a big significance on the development of astronomy, science in general, and our view of the world" has been influenced by…

Mshatta Palace, Jordan; 743-744 CE

by FSTC Published on: 20th April 2005

Msatta is a renowned Ummayad palace with spectacular architectural and artistic details that continues to attract many. The decorative aspects of the Palace are of immense detail and splendour and thus has become an important…

Karatay Madrasa, Konya 1252

by FSTC Published on: 13th April 2005

Karatay Madrasa can be considered as the apex of Seljuk architectural small space design. Major features of the madarasa are the great dome and the inclusion of elaborate decoration schemes, essentially from mosaics of glazed…

The Great Mosque of Aleppo

by FSTC Published on: 24th March 2005

Built by the Umayyad Caliph Suleyman in 717 CE and altered several times, the Great Mosque of Aleppo remains one of the architectural masterpieces of the Muslim world.

Basra

by FSTC Published on: 4th January 2005

Basra became like many places in the Muslim world a centre for knowledge and commerce. Originally set up on the orders of the Caliph as a military camp, the town had good fortunes but suffered…

Architecture of Al-Azhar

by FSTC Published on: 30th December 2004

Of the many splendours of Egypt, the Al-Azhar stands as a landmark in its architectural and cultural history, marking the beginning of the Fatimid rule and the foundation of its capital Cairo (Al-Qahira, "The Victorious").

The Great Mosque of Tlemcen

by FSTC Published on: 8th December 2004

The Great Mosque of Tlemcen as a whole is an architectural masterpiece however, the techniques introduced in the construction of the mihrab dome are the most innovative. It is one of the oldest and best…

Taj Mahal : The Architecture of Love

by FSTC Published on: 4th November 2004

"The whole together appears like a most perfect pearl on an azure ground. The effect is such as, I confess, I never experienced from any work of art. The fine materials, the beautiful forms, and…

Kutubiya Mosque (1158)

by FSTC Published on: 30th October 2004

Abul Mumin chose to build his mosque adjacent to the main street of booksellers to emphasize the importance of reading and learning as the main source of progress, hence the origin of the name "Kutubiya".

Al-Qarawiyyin Mosque and University

by FSTC Published on: 20th October 2004

For well over twelve hundred years Al-Qarawiyyin has been one of the leading spiritual and educational centres of the Muslim World, a typical institution, of many, underlining how learning constituted the heart of the religion…

Bejaia – Algeria

by FSTC Published on: 1st October 2004

Bejaia - a small town on the north coast of Algeria, was once a trading hub of the Mediteranian trading extensively with many places including Pisa. Through this town, a great deal of Mathematics was…

Khirbat Al-Mafjar, Palace (740 -750)

by FSTC Published on: 12th September 2004

Khirbat Palace remains a unique example of Umayyad luxury and their developed taste for art. The palace gained particular reputation due to the well-preserved floor mosaics.

Marrakech

by FSTC Published on: 26th August 2004

Marrakech became, due to the ambitions and sponsorship of its rulers, the centre of attraction for numerous scholars including Ibn Rushd who served as the Chief Physician and where he pursued many works in science.…

Cordoba, European Jewel of the Middle Ages

by FSTC Published on: 4th April 2003

Cordoba used to be the jewel of Europe dazzling visitors from the North. With over 70 public libraries during the time of Caliph Hakam II, and 900 public baths, Scholars and booksellers flocked there and…

The Great Umayyad Mosque

by FSTC Published on: 9th March 2003

The Great Umayyad Mosque remains one of the great symbols of the glorious period of Muslim civilisation and its pride. It is a master piece of architectural ingenuity having a decisive influence on the maturity…

Ribat of Soussa, Muslim invention of rib vaulting?

by FSTC Published on: 20th February 2003

In the Ribat (defensive engineering structures) of Port Soussa one finds evidence showing the early use of ribbed vaulting by Muslims. Such a technique was not used in Europe until the 11th century, some 200…

Ibn Tulun Mosque

by FSTC Published on: 18th February 2003

Ibn Tulun Mosque is a rare example where Europeans openly admitted its influence on the development of many features of their architecture. Elements such as the pointed arch, the pier, and wall battlements formed the…

A’mr Mosque

by FSTC Published on: 17th February 2003

In year 642AD, A'mr Ibn Al-Aas laid the foundations of the first and oldest Mosque in Egypt and Africa. Measuring 25 meters long by 15 meters wide it was a simple structure and imitated the…

The Book of Water (Kitab Al-Ma’a)

by FSTC Published on: 17th January 2003

Kitab Al-Ma'a, a strange title for the first known Encyclopedia of Medicine arranged according to the alphabet was recently discovered in Algeria and published in Oman. Contains over 900 pages and was written by Ibn…

The Beginning of the Paper Industry

by FSTC Published on: 10th January 2003

Paper, originally, was brought by the Muslims from China. From an art, the Muslims developed it into a major industry. Paper mills flourished across the Muslim World. The impact of Muslim manufacture of paper paved…

The Beginning of the Islamic Hospitals

by FSTC Published on: 10th January 2003

Possibly the earliest hospital in Islam was a mobile dispensary following the Muslim armies, dating from the time of Prophet Mohammed (PBUH). By the 12th century, the hospital had become a very advanced institution.

The Al-Nuri Hospital

by FSTC Published on: 20th December 2002

ln 1154 Nur-al-Din Zangi built a hospital in Damascus. It was called al-Nuri, or al-Zangi.

The Taj Mahal

by FSTC Published on: 20th December 2002

A white marble tomb built in 1631-48 in Agra, seat of the Mugal Empire by Shah Jehan for his wife, Arjuman Banu Begum, the monument sums up many of the formal themes that have played…

The Marrakech Hospital

by FSTC Published on: 20th December 2002

Built by Al-Mansur who rules Morocco and Spain until his death(1184-1199AD). At its time, the hospital had no equal in the world.

The Samarqand Observatory

by FSTC Published on: 20th December 2002

The observatory of Samarqand dates from 1424AD and was a `monumental' building equipped with a huge meridian, made of masonry, a ‘Fakhri sextant’, of a radius of 40.4 metres. It was built By Uluh Beg…

Gardens, Nature and Conservation in Islam

by FSTC Published on: 21st July 2002

The notion, repeated in the Quran, of Paradise as a garden (al-janna, "The Garden") is symbolized in the form of Andalusi gardens, a few of which survive physically and some of which are described in…

Ibn Khaldun on Taxes

by FSTC Published on: 1st July 2002

Ibn-khaldun enters the frame of Islamic scholarship, associating both intellectual might and near perfect organisational skills to set the foundations for our modern social, economic, historical and political sciences.

The Horseshoe and Transverse Arches

by FSTC Published on: 17th January 2002

The first Muslim adaptation and modification of the design of the arch occurred in the invention of the horseshoe type. Further development came in the 8th century when Muslims used, for the first time, the…

Terminological issues of Islamic Architecture

by FSTC Published on: 17th January 2002

Terminological issues are connected with the use of "Muslim" and "Islamic" architecture. The two words are theoretically interconnected but conceptually different. Muslim is a general word referring to religious and geographical setting of Islam.

Theoretical issues of Islamic Architechture

by FSTC Published on: 17th January 2002

Although Muslim architecture has been investigated by both Muslims and non Muslims, it still remains omitted from main stream architecture theories and much of existing works are no more than curiosities undertaken by a group…

Al-Qayrawan Mosque

by FSTC Published on: 15th January 2002

The Qayrawan Mosque contributed a great deal to the development of architecture in the Muslim world. With its original design and harmony of various components it was a prototype model for the rest of North…

Architecture of Muslim Caliphate in North Africa

by FSTC Published on: 13th January 2002

The arrival of Islam to North Africa at the hands of Uqba Ibn Nafi (d.683) transformed region into a construction field resulting in the elaboration and dissemination (to Europe) of building techniques and architectural forms.

Architecture of Muslim Spain and North Africa

by FSTC Published on: 13th January 2002

First in a series of articles on the Architecture of Muslim Spain and North Africa (756-1500AD). A brief historical background on the Muslim architectural achievement concentrating on important historical and architectural monuments.

Piri Reis maps America

by FSTC Published on: 6th January 2002

In 1513 Piri Reis presented his famous map of the New World to the Sultan, giving the Ottomans, well before many European rulers, an accurate description of the American discoveries as well as details about…

Water Management and Hydraulic Technology

by FSTC Published on: 30th December 2001

Water management in all its intricacies, from Andalusia to Afghanistan, was the basis of agriculture, and source of all life. Muslims did much to develop hydraulic technology and deploy water management equipment including hydro-power dams.

The Legacy of Ulugh Beg

by FSTC Published on: 27th December 2001

Kevin Krisciunas writes on The Legacy of Ulugh Beg. Although he recognising the crucial role of Islamic observation, he still finds sources of disagreement with the notion that the Samarqand observatory exerted decisive influence on…

The impact of Al-Battani on European Astronomy

by FSTC Published on: 27th December 2001

Al-Battani used the widest variety of instruments: astrolabes, tubes, a gnomon divided into twelve parts, a celestial globe with five armillaries, parallax rules, a mural quadrant, sundials, vertical as well as horizontal.

The Muslim Pioneers of Astronomy

by FSTC Published on: 27th December 2001

Most eminent Muslim astronomers include Al-Battani, al-Sufi, al-Biruni, and Ibn Yunus. They recorded the position of the sun, moon and the stars.

Farming Manuals

by FSTC Published on: 25th December 2001

Muslim farming manuals developed ways and methods for increasing production and productivity, and maintaining soil fertility. Extensive research detailed descriptions of soils, and their requirements.

Pharmacology in the Making

by FSTC Published on: 24th December 2001

Advances in Muslim chemistry led to the development of Muslim pharmacology. Al-Zahrawi made pioneering developments in the preparation of medicines by using sublimation and distillation. Others excelled in chemical technology.

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