The Paracelsian Influence on Ottoman Medicine in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries
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Nil Sari* and M. Bedizel Zulfikar**
Table of contents
2. The textual sources of the Tibb-i Jadîd
3. Influence of the Paracelsusian medicine
4. Medical practice in the light of the Parcelsian influence
5. Evaluation of the Parcelsian influence
7. Medical Manuscripts
This article was first published in the Transfer of Modern Science & Technology to The Muslim World. Proceedings of The International Symposium On "Modern Sciences and the Muslim World", Science and Technology from the West to the Muslim World from the Renaissance to the Beginning of the XXth Century, (Istanbul 2-4 September 1987) (Edited by Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu), Istanbul 1992, pp. 157-179. We are grateful to Nil Sari, the main author of the article, for allowing publication.
Galen's concept of medicine which dominated the medical world almost nearly for fifteen centuries began to loose its importance in the 16th century. Paracelsus (1493-1541)  who tried to eliminate the old medical concept, introduced a new medical understanding, based on chemical principles.
Figure 1: Portrait of Galen. Lithograph by Pierre Roche Vigneron. (Paris: Lithographie de Grégoire et Deneux, ca. 1865) (Source).
Besides, iatrochemists , iatropysichians  mechanists  and spiritualists  introduced new theories based on anatomy and other natural sciences. Their trends were popular during various periods  and consequently medical practice changed as well. Yet in the 18th century, the two fields of study, medicine and philosophy, were not definitely separated from each other .
Among these trends, the one that influenced the Ottoman medicine to a great extent was the trend started by Paracelsus and his followers. Paracelsus, whose name was spelled differently, such as "Barakelsus", "Baracelsus" and "Baraklisus", in the Ottoman medical writings, was introduced as a "Cermanî" (German) philosopher, or "hakîm"  from "Namca" (German or Austrian peoples) . Paracelsus, a Swiss doctor, who was the representative of Renaissance chemistry, influenced Turkish medicine in many ways. We will try to describe these influences by means of examples.
2. The textual sources of the Tibb-i Jadîd
Although the Tibb-i Jadîd (New medicine) of that period has not yet been specifically studied, the Arabian copies of Sâlih bin Nasrullah's (d. 1669)  works have been studied . Considering the importance and influence of the tradition of writing medical works in Turkish, which began in the 14th and 15th centuries and continued all through Ottoman medical history, we based our study on Turkish copies and so studied 17th and 18th centuries medical works highly influenced by Paracelsus . Besides translations, amongst these works, there are also collections from different authors and also compilations and commentaries arranged and classified differently. When Tibb-i Cedîd is concerned, Paracelsus and his followers solely should not be considered. In the Tibb-i Cedîd literature many writers, be they followers of Paracelsus or not, such as Oswald Croll , Daniel Floravante , Sennert , some of them quite well known, others not heard about, were dictated.
Figure 2: Presumed portrait of Phillip von Hohenheim, known as Paracelsus (1493-1541), attributed to the school of Quentin Matsys (1466-1530). (Image in the public domain).
Sâlih b. Nasrullah who was highly influenced by Paracelsus, translated Fî hâzâ Kitâbu't-Tibb al-Jadîd el-Kimyâvî allazî ihtiraa-i Baraklisus  from him . But his work Nuzhat al-Abdân fî Tarcuma-i Gâyat al-'ltkân may be taken as an exception in this respect, not any Paracelsusian influence being observable on it . Because in the whole manuscript of 500 pages, in four long chapters, only one or two compositions of Paracelsus were quoted. In Nuzhat al-Abdân, new and old medicines are given comparatively. There are quotations from the representatives of the new medicine and European doctors and chemical doctors, along with those (such as bleeding) from Galen and Avicenna, the master of all . Although there are a lot of quotations from German authors, such as "Senartus" (Sennert) , French "Gorduniyus" , and "Ferniliyus" , Austrian "Erfil Saksonî" , and "Felis"
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