Abu: Arabic for "father of".
Al-: The (used to give prominence to a noun).
Bint: Arabic for "daughter of".
Caliph: Title of the head of state in some Muslim countries. It means successor (to the Prophet).
Corsair: Privateer enlisted by a country to perform naval duties and attack shipping and commerce of enemy nations. Although they may use tactics of piracy, they are not pirates (some formerly were); pirates work independently.
Emir: Prince or commander.
Goum: Name for certain Moroccan battalions fighting for the French military during the French occupation of that country. Goumier is the name for the individual soldier. The British soldiers popularize the phrase "gouming it" for any audacious attack due to the stealth and ability of the Goumiers.
Hâjj: denotes a Muslim who has performed the pilgrimage to Mecca, or Hajj.
Ibn or (ben): Arabic for "son of".
Imam: Leader of the prayer, and also leader of the community.
Imamate: Realm or domain of the imam. In some parts of the Muslim world, particularly in the Shiite doctrine, the Imam is a politico-spiritual title.
Ismailite (or Ismaili): A branch of Shiites.The sixth Imam of the Shiites was Jafar al-Sadiq. His eldest son Ismail, who was to have succeeded him, died within Jafar's lifetime. Some Shittes declared that Musa, brother of Ismail, to be the seventh Imam; however, there were those who argued that the Imamate should have passed to Muhammad, the son of Ismail. The Shiites who believed that the lineage of leadership should have been passed through Ismail's line were known as Ismailites.The Qarmatians, the Assassins, and the Fatimids were all Ismailites. On the other hand, Ismailite is the name given in parts of Medieval Europe to describe Muslims due to the dogmatic concept of a lineage from Ismail instead of Isaac.
Janissaries: Young Christian boys from the Balkan conscripted into Ottoman service. They received a martial education allowing many to rise to high positions in Turkish society.
Lascar: Indian sailors who crewed British ships.
Mamluk: "Owned" individual; the term came to refer to soldier slave unit in various Muslim armies including in Egypt, Spain, and India.
Moor: Term traceable to 46 BC used by the Romans who encountered black Africans whom they called Maures; later used in Europe to refer to the Muslim invaders of Spain and then as a blanket term (at times pejoratively) for any Muslim.
Morisco: Muslims who converted to Christianity during the Reconquista or the Inquistion. Many remained crypto-Muslim.
Mudejar: Signifies a Muslim remaining under non-Muslim rule in Spain after the Reconquista. The term is dating back to at least the 15th century Castilians.
Mujaddid: Reviver or reformer.
Muslim: "One who submits to Allah", follower of the Islam.
Qadi: Muslim judge.
Reconquista: Christian re-conquest of Spain from the Muslims.
Regulares: Moroccan regiments fighting within the Spanish Army during the 20th century, especially during the Spanish Civil War (1936-39).
Reis (or rais): Captain or commander in the Ottoman navy.
Renegado: Renegade or apostate; designate mainly Christian Europeans who converted to Islam, especially during the 16th and 17th centuries.
Saracen: A term designating Muslims, typically as represented by Arab powers during the Middle Ages. It originates from the Arabic sharqiyun, meaning easterner.
Shiite, schism: A branch of Muslims who believe that leadership in the Islamic world should have passed from Prophet Muhammad to his cousin Ali and his descendents (known as Imams).
Taqiyya: Religious ruling allowing outward renunciation of faith while maintaining inward loyalty in times of extenuating circumstances (i.e. religious backlash from Reconquista in Spain or Russian conquest in Central Asia).
Umm: Arabic for "mother of".
Table of contents 1. Introduction
2. Conquest of Spain and campaigns into France
3. Andalusian caliphate
4. Post Caliphal Spain through the Reconquista
5. The last Muslim power in Spain
6. Muslims in the Iberian peninsula after Granada's fall
7. Early Excursions into Sicily and Other Mediterranean Islands
8. Muslim Sicily
9. Muslims in non-Muslim Sicily
10. Mediterranean Islands after Sicilian conquest
11. Muslims in Italy
12. Nordic-Muslim relations
13. Muslims in Britain
14. Franco-Muslim relations
15. Muslims in Alpine nations
16. Benelux-Muslim contacts
17. German-Muslim contacts
18. Converts, corsairs, renegades and rebels (14th-20th centuries)
19. Monks, historians, scholars
20. Literary and artistic presence
by: Omar Mubaidin, Tue 19 February, 2008