The Nasrids held the only viable Muslim state on the peninsula in the south known as Granada. Early in this period the former Muslim seats of power such as Valencia, Seville, and Cordova all fell to the Castillians. More than ten leaders with the name Muhammad ascended to the throne in this dynasty, some more than once. Granada paid tribute to the Castillians until internal turmoil allowed the latter to take complete control of the last vestige of the Muslim political unit in Spain.
|1230||Muhammad ibn Yusuf ibn Nasr, known as Ibn al-Ahmar (son of the red, due to his red hair), establishes Nasrid dynasty (1230-1492) in southern Spain with Granada as the capital. Muhammad I will begin construction of the famous Alhambra palace. He enters into alliance with the King of Castile Ferdinand III against Ibn Hud. Civil war cripples Muslim Spain.|
|1234||After conquering Chivert, the Knights Templar attempt to lure back Muslims by allowing them to recover all property and possessions.|
|1236||Cordova falls to the Castilians.|
|1238||Valencia falls to the Castilians. Despite the success of the Reconquista, the Spanish end up having to colonize many of their conquered lands with Muslims to keep up productivity and minimum population requirements for military security. Subsequently, many mudejars, Muslims living within Christian domains, receive tax exemptions and freedom of religion in order to continue to contribute to Spanish lands. A push for colonizing Jews also occurs but the population does not meet the quota.|
During this crusading period many festivals will evolve celebrating the Christian re-conquest with mock battles including Fiesta de Moros y Cristianos.
|1239||Castilians take Acira.|
|1242||The Almohade Idris dies. His successors for a time fall to internal dissension and assassination.|
|1245||The Tarragona metropolitan appeals to Pope Innocent IV to excommunicate all those in Valencia who continue to colonize the area with Muslims.|
|1246||With the fall of Murcia, Zayyan is driven to Tunis.|
|1248||Seville falls to the Castillians.|
The Hospitallers, another order of knights, settle a hundred Muslim families at the Albufera lagoon. Bernard of Juneda receives permission from King James I to settle Muslims in the Spanish holdings of Artesa, Tales, and Cavallera. Simon Pérez of Foces receives a charter from King James to establish a village for Muslims in Benejama of the Almizra district. King James exempts from tax the Muslims settled in the village of Alcocer.
|1256||Alfonso X orders the translation of the Picatrix. This book of magic originates from the Ghayat al-Hakim fi'l sihr (The Function of assay in magic), a work attributed to the 10th-century mathematician and astronomer al-Madjriti. The Picatrix becomes one of the West's most celebrated works on magic. Due to works like this and others, Muslims will often be associated with sorcery and necromancy. Other Arabic works, of more scientific content, especially in astronomy and engineering, are translated into Catillan and Latin in the court of Alfonso X.|
|1258||The Knights of Calatrava colonize their Burriana (in Spain) estates with Muslims.|
|1260||The Christian state of Castile, with all other Spanish Muslim states conquered, makes Granada a vassal and thus only nominally independent.|
|1261||Ibn al-Ahmar repulses an attack on Granada by the King of Castile.|
|1262||The Marinid ruler of Morocco Abu Yusuf Yaqub dispatches a force to Granada to aid it against Castille.|
|1264||Mudejars of Andalusia and Murcia revolt against Alfonso X upon the incitation of Granada.|
|1266||The Mudejar revolt in Murcia is put down.|
|1267||Christian conquest of Portugal is complete.|
|1268||King James I charters William of Rocafull to colonize his Fortaleny holdings with Muslims. |
|1272||Muhammad I dies. He is succeeded by his son Abu Abdullah, who adopts the name Muhammad II, also known as "Al-Faqih," or the Jurist.|
|1274||With the help of the Marinids, Muhammad II defeats the Castilian attack on Granada.|
|1282||Marinid ruler Abu Yusuf Yaqub sends aid to Alfonso of Castile against his son Don Sancho.|
|1284||Alfonso X of Castile and Leon dies. He patronized Muslim academics even bringing in the scholar Abu Bakr al-Raquti to his court.|
|1285||During the French invasion, Spain uses six hundred mudejar troops from Valencia to defend Gerona.|
Abu Yusuf Yaqub leads a campaign against Don Sancho. The two powers sign a peace treaty; one of the terms states that all the Arabic manuscripts in Castile's libraries are to be transferred to Fez.
|1286||Ibn us-Said (Abul Hassan Ali) dies; the Granada native was born in 1214.|
Marinid ruler Abu Yusuf Yaqub dies in Spain.
|1302||Muhammad II dies and is succeeded by his son Muhammad III.|
|1309||After fiascos with Morocco and Castille, a revolt led by his uncle Abul Juyush, Nasr overthrows and imprisons Muhammad III. Nasr reestablishes peace with the Moroccan powers bringing Granada into conflict with Castille and Aragon.|
|1314||Abul Walid Ismail I deposes his uncle Abul Juyush Nasr.|
|1316||The military order of Montesa, succeeding order in Valencia to the Templars, colonizes several districts of Perpunchent with Muslims. |
|1319||Ismail defeats a Christian army at the battle of Sierra d'Elvira and annexes some towns.|
|1325||In a palace revolution, instigated by the Christian kingdom, Ismail is assassinated. His reign was a highlight of Granada power in a dynasty full of intrigue. Muhammad the IVth comes to the throne as successor.|
|1333||Muhammad IV recaptures Gibraltar. He falls to assassins as another victim of court conspiracy. His brother --Abul Hajjaj Yusuf I, a patron of the arts, succeeds him. Yusuf I expands the Alhambra palace and builds the Alcazar Palace. |
|1340||Christian forces gain victory over Granada and the Marinids at the battle of Salado.|
|1347||Mudejars form part of the troop drafted by the Crown to subdue Christian nobles in Valencia.|
The mudejars of Valencia are said to petition the Crown to allow the death penalty, without monetary compensation, for any Muslim woman who has an affair with a non-Muslim man.
|1354||Yusuf I becomes the fifth ruler of Granada to be assassinated (stabbed while praying in the mosque). His son Muhammad V comes to the throne. |
|1359||Muhammad V flees to Morocco after a palace revolution led by his stepmother. His stepbrother Ismail ibn Yusuf comes to the throne, but after a few months is assassinated. |
|1360||The tyrannical Abu Said, reigning as Muhammad VI, occupies the throne of Granada following Ismail's II assassination.|
|1361||Ibn Khaldun, a renowned historian, enters the service of the ruler of Granada.|
Muhammad V leaves North Africa for Seville where Pedro I "the Cruel" receives him. Here, it is said, Pedro offers Muhammad V troops to regain his throne in Granada.
|1362||Nasrid leaders invite Muhammad V back to the throne due to the cruel policies of Abu Said. The latter flees to Castille where Pedro I puts him and his party to death. Muhammad V's second reign of twenty-nine years is marked by the patronage of art, the building of public works, promotion of trade, and encouragement of education.|
|1367||In a battle of the Hundred Years War, Muslim genitors fight under Don Tello, brother of King Henry (Enrique) of Castille, against Edward the Black Prince and Pedro the Cruel at Najera. The battle is won by Edward and Pedro. Because popular support in Spain lay with King Henry, Pedro will appeal to Granada for support. Muslims fight under Pedro's banner against Henry and Bertrand Du Guesclin. Pedro will lose this battle and because of the large number of Muslims, Guesclin gave the orders that no prisoners are to be taken.|
|1368||Pedro "the Cruel" and soldiers from Muslim Granada besiege the pro-Henry Cordova. Inclement weather forces the allied army to withdraw.|
|1369||Pedro "the Cruel" marches on Toledo from Seville with forces comprised of many Granadine Muslims. He will die at the hands of his half-brother Enrique.|
|1391||Muhammad V death causes universal mourning. Due to his pro-Castile policies, Muhammad's son and successor, Abu Hallaj Yusuf II, garners enemies in Morocco.|
|1392||Abu Hallaj Yusuf II falls victim to poison after hardly a year in office. Muhammad VII seizes power from his older brother Yusuf.|
|1405||Christian powers in Spain resolve to end Muslim rule in Granada. The subsequent attacks end in a stalemate with the powerful army of Muhammad VII. The powers settle on a truce.|
|1408||Muhammad VII dies. Yusuf III takes power; his reign is marked by both an economical and political rise of Granada. Harmony between the Castilians and the Muslim in Spain exists throughout his reign.|
|1423||Yusuf III dies, his son Muhammad VIII succeeds him.|
|1427||Following a revolt, Muhammad VIII flees to Tunis. Muhammad IX, a Nasrid prince, occupies the throne.|
|1429||Muhammad VIII recaptures the throne of Granada.|
|1432||After a loss at Hinguervuda to the Castilians, Muhammad VIII escapes to Malaga. With the help of Castile, Yusuf IV comes to power; he dies within a few months. For a third time, Muhammad VIII ascends the throne of Granada.|
Castilians annex the border towns of Jimena, Huesca, and Humela.
|1445||Muhammad X overthrows and imprisons Muhammad VIII.|
|1454||The pro-Castile Saad ibn Ismail dethrones Muhammad X.|
| 1462||Saad ibn Ismail fails to pay tribute to Castile provoking an attack on Granada that sees the loss of Muslim territory.|
|1465||Saad dies and his son Abul Hassan comes to power. Abul Hassan strengthens the army and refuses to pay tribute to the Castilians. He is able to capture some border towns, like Zahra. |
|1469||Queen Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon wed uniting Christian Spain under one banner.|
|1482||War between Granada and Castile breaks out. Al-Hamah (Alhama) falls to the Castilians. To add to the worries of Abul Hassan, his son Abu Abdullah Muhammad XI, through Abul Hassan's Christian wife, revolts in Granada.|
The pope begins granting funds to King Ferdinand that aid in the eventual expulsion of Muslim power.
|1483||Ali reassumes leadership as Nasrid ruler in Spain.|
|1484||Christian and Muslim blacksmiths are said to establish a union named after St. Eligius.|
|1485||Muhammad XII az-Zaghall begins his rule in Spain.|
|1486||Loxa and Malaga fall to the Castillians.|
|1487||Christian powers install Muhammad XI, also known as Boabdil and oldest son of Abul Hassan, to the throne of Granada. Muhammad XII flees to Morocco.|
In Valencia, the Muslim son of a legist converts to Christianity and takes the name Juan Andres. In 1515, his book condemning Islam as a fraudulent and immoral religion will be published.
|1492||On the second of January Granada capitulates to the Christians, thus ending over 750 years of Muslim rule. The subsequent spill of refugees into North Africa and bitter feelings between the Muslims and the Europeans will eventually lead to the infamous Barbary Wars. Isabella and Ferdinand wear Moorish clothing during the conquest as that and other Spanish Muslim cultural trends –such as food, makeup, architecture– are in vogue. Boabdil will die in exile in Fez in 1538.|
Christopher Columbus receives his contract for his first voyage at Alhambra Palace in Granada. While in Gomera (Canary Islands), he falls in love with Beatriz Boabdilla (Abu Abdullah). Two of Columbus's captains, the Pinzons (Bin Zayn), were of Muslim descent related to the Moroccan sultan Abu Zayn Muhammad III (1362-66) of the Marinid Dynasty.