|929||Sunni Islam in the east is at a low point. The Abbasid Caliphs have become puppets to their advisors the Shiite Buwayids and the Fatimids have taken the Holy Cities (Mecca, Medina, and Jerusalem). In response, Abd al-Rahman III establishes his capital at Cordova and sees it fitting to revive the Umayyad title of Caliph. |
|930||Badajoz falls to Abd al-Rahman III after a siege of over one year.|
|931||The Byzantines carry out an unsuccessful attack on Franxinetum.|
|932||Caliph Abd al-Rahman suppresses the last of the rebels after the capitulation of Toledo.|
|933||Ramire II emerges as ruler of Leon and goes to war with the Muslims of Spain.|
|936||Abd al-Rahman begins construction of the palace at Madinat al-Zahra. After its completion about fourteen years later, the structure will include a mosque, barracks, gardens, and quarters for merchants, civil servants, and dignitaries. |
|937||The Christian nations of Spain found an ally in the rebel governor Muhammad ibn Hisham of Saragossa. Saragossa falls to Abd al-Rahman, but the governor is pardoned and reappointed to his post. Around this juncture, Abd al-Rahman invests heavily into soldier slaves –of German, Frankish, Italian, Russian, etc. backgrounds– called Mamluks (not to be confused with the Mamluks of India or Egypt which came from other ethnicities) purchased from Genoese, Venetian, and Pisan traders. |
|939||Abd al-Rahman's forces, under the Slav (Iskalabi, the generic term for the Mamluk soldiers) leader Najd, receive their first defeat after losing to the Christian forces of the King of Leon and the Queen of Navarre at the battle of al-Khandak (The Ditch). Suggestions exist that the jealousy of the Arab leaders against the favored Slavs led to disunity and ultimately loss. The warring nations soon sign a truce and establish friendly relations. Queen Tota of Navarre will eventually send her son Sancho the Fat to Cordova for obesity treatment. The renowned Jewish physician Hasday ibn Shaprut will attend Sancho. |
|940||Ahmad ibn Ila, governor of Badajoz, crushes Ramire's army and devastates the land.|
Abd al-Rahman builds a great aqueduct. Umayyad Spain is famous for its technological advancements in irrigation.
|946||Isaac Velázquez translates the Gospels into Arabic in Cordova. A need for Arabic Gospels exists since the first language of many of Muslim Spain's Christian population was Arabic. |
|947||An influx of ambassadors comes to the court of Abd al-Rahman from Constantinople, the ruler of the Slavonians, Charles the Simple of France, and the King of Germany. |
|949||Byzantine Emperor Constantine Porpyrogenitus sends a manuscript of the famed pharmacologist of antiquity Dioscorides as a present to Abd al-Rahman III.|
|950||Ramire II dies. |
|952||Battle of Orbe between Muslims and Huns takes place.|
Conrad of Burgundy massacres Muslims.
|953||Otto I of Germany sends John of Gorze, Abbot of Gorze in Lorraine (960-974), on an embassy to Cordova to request that the Caliph cease his support for the Muslims based at Franxinetum (the settlement included not just Muslims but Christian, Jewish, and "pagan" mercenaries). Abd ar-Rahman will send a return envoy in the person of Recemundus, bishop of Elvira, three years later. |
|954||Muslims sack Abbey at St. Gallen and Grenoble.|
|955||Ordono III sues for peace with Abd al-Rahman. Abd al-Rahman founds Almería.|
|956||Al-Masudi, a renowned geographer, writes in his Muruj adh-Dhahab of Cordova native Khashkhash ibn Saeed ibn Aswad sailing from Delba (Palos), crossing the Atlantic, possibly to the American continent.|
In response to a Fatimid attack on Spain by a Sicilian fleet, Abd al-Rahman sends his navy, which at the time was among the best of the world, to bombard parts of the North African coast.
|957||Ahmad ibn Ila, now governor of Toledo, defeats the Galicians and Leonese under Sancho.|
|959||A coup expels Sancho from leadership. He flees to his relative in Navarre. In this year, after their requests to the Caliph, Abd al-Rahman reinstalls Sancho to his throne.|
|961||Abd al-Rahman III dies at age 73. Industry, agriculture, arts, sciences, and the navy all flourished under his rule. A Saxon nun called Cordova the world's ornament. It boasted an enormous population, contained over 3,000 mosques, a university that rivaled the best in the world, lighted streets, and 80,000 shops.|
The reign of Umayyad al-Hakam II begins. He greatly patronized scholarship and disliked warfare. He was also a bibliophile who was said to have amassed a library of 400,000 volumes. In the capital, he established 27 schools for the children of poorer citizens. Literacy rate prospers under his rule.
|962||Hakam leads an expedition against rebel forces. |
|966||Sancho of Leon submits to the Umayyads.|
The Danes, under Harald Blatand (Bluetooth), defeat Andalusian Muslims near Lisbon.
The Jewish Khazar kingdom in Eastern Europe collapses. Many of its citizens go to Muslim Spain.
|972||Hakam sends a successful expedition to Mauritania in North Africa to combat the Fatimids.|
|973||William, Count of Arles, moves for local feudatories to band together against Muslim invasion. Fraxinetum is lost to the Muslims. |
|976||Al-Hakam II dies leaving his eleven-year old son Hisham II as heir to the caliphate. Muhammad ibn Abu `Aamir, the secretary of state, overtakes the leadership of Spain and assumes the title Hajib al-Mansur ("The Victorious Lord Chamberlain"). The Hajibs will retain the real power of the state. The Galicians and the Basques revolt. Hajib's forces crush them sacking Barcelona in the process. |
|985||Hajib's forces sack the monastery
by: Omar Mubaidin