Significant Ottoman Mathematicians and their Works (cont’d)
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5. Ottoman mathematicians in the 17th and 18th centuries
5.1. Khalil Fā'id Efendi
Khalil Fā'id Efendi, known as Cābizāda Halil Fā'iz (1674-1722), is a Turkish mathematician and astronomer; he worked in Istanbul . Among his works we mention:
- Fadhlakat al-hisāb (Concise Exposition of Arithmetic) . It is a book in Turkish on astronomy but contains some mathematical issues.
- Al-Sawlat al-Hizabriyya fī al-Masā'il al-Jabriyya. It is a treatise in Turkish on algebra and consists of translation of related parts of Jamshid al-Kāshī's book Miftāh al-Hussāb fī ‘ilm al-Hisāb .
Two of his book were mentioned by historical sources but obviously have not survived : ‘Ilm riyādīdan hisāb (from the science of mathematics – Arithmetic) and ‘Ilm riyādidan Jabr (From the science of mathematics –Algebra) .
Figure 5: A sample page of an Ottoman geometry book. Source: Topkapi Palace Library, MS H 612.
5.2. As'ad Efendi al-Yanyawī (Yanyali Esad Efendi)
As'ad Efendi ibn ‘Ali ibn ‘Uthman Al-Yanyawī (d. 1730) was a famous Ottoman translator, mathematician and scholar . He was born in Yanya, in the Balkan Peninsula, and moved to Istanbul, became mudarris (teacher) at various schools and judge at some cities of Istanbul .
Figure 6: An Ottoman miniature depicting Ottoman Sultans. Topkapi Palace Library, MS B 373.
Among his works of mathematics we mention Kitāb ‘amal al-murabba' al-musāwī li-'l-dāira (Book on the Construction of a Square Equal to a Circle). As'ad Efendi wrote this book on geometry using Archimedes books. He also produced a translation from Latin of the book on philosophy dealing with squaring the circle .
5.3. Muhammad Istanbulī
Bedruddin Muhammad b. As‘ad b. Alī b. ‘Osmān b. Mustafā al-Yanyawī al-Islāmbulī (Istanbūlī) (d. 1733) from Istanbul. He was the son of As'ad al-Yanyawī. He was also a mathematician and astronomer . He has three books on mathematics.
- Kitāb tathlīth al-zāwiya wa-tasbī' al-dā'ira (Book on Trisection of an Angle and Division of a Circle into Seven Parts). This treatise covers trisection of an angle and division of a circle into seven parts.
- Kitāb ‘amal al-musabba' wa-ghayrihī min dhawāt al-adhlā' al-kathīra fī al-dā'ira (Book on the Construction of Heptagon and other Polygons Inscribed in Circle). It is a treatise on how to draw heptagons and polygons inside a circle using geometrical methods.
- Sharh Ba'd al-Makalāt al-Uklīdisiyya (in Arabic) . However, this work is not covered in the literature. Containing some problems on Euclidian geometry, this book is one of the most important works on Euclidian geometry produced during the Ottoman period .
5.4. ‘Abd Al-Rahīm Al-Mar'ashi Efendi (d. 1736)
‘Abd Al-Rahīm (‘Abd al-Rahmān) ibn Abī Bakr al-Mar'ashī. A theologian and mathematician. He wrote commentaries to many works in mathematics. He was appointed as the governor of the province of Maras by Sultan Ahmet III. He educated the mathematicians Kalfaoglu and Gelenbevī. He has only one work on mathematics: Sharh al-Risāla al-Bahā'iyya or Sharh ‘alā Khulāsāt al-hisāb, a commentary on the treatise of Bahā' al-Din al-Āmilī Khulāsāt al-hisāb. He prepared this book in one and half years and dedicated it to Sultan Muhammad IV. There are forty copies of the manuscript in world libraries .
His other work on the subject of mathematics deal with inheritances and contain some mathematical problems: Tartīb al-aqsām ‘alā madhhab al-imām al-Shāfī'i (Order of division of inheritances by the method of a Shafi'i Imam) .
5.5. Mustafa Sidkī b. Sālih Kethüdā (d. 1183/1769)
Although he was one of the most famous Ottoman mathematicians, very little is known about his life. He was the supervisor of Sekerzāda Feyzullah Sermed. He wrote some books on mathematics and astronomy. His two works on al-jabr wa'l-muqābala (algebra) and measurements (misāha) are important .
- Risāla fī ‘ilmi al-Jabr wa'l-muqābala (Arabic). A treatise on algebra containing one prologue, three chapters, and an epilogue. It was written in 1741 .
- Risāla fī al-misāha (Turkish). A treatise on the measurements of the fields dedicated to Grandvizier Ahmed Pasha. It contains few chapters and an epilogue. None of the copies of the book survive.
- Kitābu (Tahrīru) Istikhrāj al-awtār fī al-dāi'ra bi-hawāss al-khatt al-munhanī al-wāqi' fīhā (li al-Bīrûnī) (Arabic). It is a newly edited work of al-Bīrûnī's treatise on trigonometry .
- Sharhu Tarjama-i Wardiyya Hesāb-i Jawhariyya. It is a commentary of the poetical version of Khulāsāt al-Hisāb .
5.6. Ibrāhim of Aleppo (d. 1776)
His full name is Ibrahim b. Mustafā b. Ibrahim Madarī al-Halabī known as "Raghib Pasha Khwājasi" or "Imam of Koca Ragib Pasha" due to the fact that he was imam of Rais al-Kuttab Koca Ragib Pasha. He was from Aleppo, where he received his preliminary education, and his first teacher was Salih b. Mawāhibī, sheikh of Qadirī Tarikah. Following his teacher's advice, he went to Egypt to improve his education and stayed there seven years. He studied narrative and rational sciences under the mudarris of al-Azhar named Sayyid Ali al-Zarīr al-Sivāsī al-Khanāfī. He was also taught astronomy by Hasan Al-Jabartī (d. 1774) . When he went back to Aleppo, he was told that he should study narrative sciences further. During his trip on pilgrimage, he took more lessons from Abd al-Ghani al-Nablusi and Abu al-Mawahib b. Abd al-Baqī in Damascus. He continued his lessons during his visit to Makka. After pilgrimage, he went to Cairo twice. He became associated with Ali al-Sivasī at al-Azhar and gave lessons on Hanafī jurisprudence.
He became imam to Yusuf Kethuda who supported him financially and spiritually until his death. After the death of Yusuf Kethuda, Ibrahim got support from Ameer Osman, who was a veteran Sancak Bey (District ruler). He went to Istanbul as a head of a committee which was organized by some Egyptian people who had problems with the governor of Egypt Azmizade Suleyman Pasha (1740). He stayed in Istanbul and became the imam of Koca Ragib Pasha. He copied many manuscripts for him and also taught him different sciences. He died in Istanbul and his tomb is in the Eyup district .
His mathematical works include:
- Al-Girbāl fī al-Hisāb (Arabic). This MS contains various mathematical tables; it consists in 5940 of the boxes filled by symbols .
- Hawāshī ‘ala Raqā'iq al-haqā'ik fī hisāb al-darj wa al-daqā'iq (Arabic) (Comments on "Subtleties of Truths on Arithmetic of Degrees and Minutes"). It is a commentary of Sibt al-Maridīnī's book  which about the calculation of degrees and minutes according to the sixty base mathematics .
- Risāla fī kayfiyyat istikhrāj ‘iddat al-ihtimālāt al-tarkībiyya min ayyi adad kāna (Arabic). It is about a book on the combinatory analysis which is the largest work on this subject in the Ottoman period .
- Risāla fī al-handasa (Arabic); on geometry .
- Sarh al-Hāwī fī al-Hisāb li-Ibn al-Hā'im (Arabic) (Commentary on "Comprehensive arithmetic" of Ibn Hā'im). It is a commentary on Ibn Al-Hā'im's al-Hāwī fī al-Hisāb .
- Sharhu mas'alati taz'īf al-mazbah (Arabic) .
5.7. Sekerzāda Sayyid Fayzullah Sarmad (d. 1787)
His full name is Sekerzāda Sayyid Fayzullah Sarmad b. Sayyid Muhammad b. Abdurrahman al-Istanbulī. He was born in Istanbul; his father was a very famous calligrapher. He received his elementary education first from his father and later from famous scholars of the time in Istanbul. But his preliminary mathematical education was from Mustafa Sidkī b. Salih Kathuda (d. 1769). When he completed his education, he was appointed mudarris at various madrasas and judge at various cities. He is one of the first mathematicians in the Ottoman state to write a book on logarithm and to introduce this subject into Ottoman mathematics. Like his father, he produced books on both traditional and modern mathematics. Beside mathematics, he also wrote books on astronomy. He was aware of the new studies in Europe on mathematics and related subjects. Merging traditional sciences with the modern, he combined two different traditions in his works .
He left several books on mathematics:
- Maksadayn fī hall' al-nisbatayn (Turkish), written in 1780. This is the first Ottoman treatise on logarithm. There is also information about an astronomical instrument - the rub' muqantarat, a quadrant. It also explains how one can use logarithm for astronomical calculations. It is a translation and compilation from European books into Turkish .
- Amthilat al-talkhīs li-İbn al-Bannā wa al-Hāwī li-İbn al-Hāim (Arabic). It is a commentary on problems mentioned in Ibn al-Bannā and Ibn al-Hāim's treatise .
- Kanz al-daqā'ik (Arabic). It is a treatise containing tables about multiplication and division for algebra problems .
5.8. Gelenbevī Ismail Efendi (1730-1790)
Figure 7: Artistic depiction of Gelenbevī Ismail Efendi (1730-1790).
Isma'il Efendi ibn Mustafa ibn Mahmoud al-Gelenbevī (or Kalanbawī) al-Hanafī. He was born in Gelenbe near Manisa (Turkey). He was a Turkish mathematician and astronomer, who worked also as a madrasa teacher .
Gelenbevī Ismail Efendi, the most famous mathematician of the Ottoman State in the 18th century, was born in the town of Gelenbevī in 1737. There were famous scholars in his family. He came to Istanbul to study science, and he was also instructed in the Islamic canon law, mathematics and physics. He taught mathematics in the marine engineering school which was established by Sultan Abdul Hamit I.
His scientific works amount to more than 30. Among them we mention three Turkish treatises:
- Adlā'-i Muthallathāt (Sides of a Triangle).
- Sharh-i lugūritma (Explanation of Logarithms) or Sharh Jadāwil al-ansāb-i lugūritma (Explanation of Tables of Ratios of Logarithms).
- Kusurāt Hisābi or Hisāb al-kusūr (Arithmetic of Fractions), also known as Risāla fī al-Jabr wa'l-muqābala (Treatise on Algebra).
5.9. Kalfazāda/Halifezāda Ismail Efendi (d. 1790)
Kalfazāda Ismail Efendi lived in the second half of the 18th century in Istanbul as a muwaqqit (timekeeper). We have very limited information about his early life and education. He was an officer in the Ottoman army and was a member of many expeditions. He received elementary astronomy education while he was very young.
When he completed his education, he was appointed as muwaqqit to Laleli Mosque Muwaqqitkhāna (Time keeping house) from 1767 until 1789. He compiled many books on mathematics and astronomy, and made some translations from European languages. He also made two sundials on the wall of Laleli Mosque and one on the table in the garden of the mosque. Beside Arabic and Persian, he also knew French, so he was able to translate Clariaut's (d. 1765) almanac Théorie de la Lune into Turkish as Tarjama-i Zij Haqīm Clairaut in 1767-8 .
Kalfazāda Ismail Efendi's other translation into Turkish is J. Cassini's (d. 1756) almanac Tables Astronomiques as Tukhfa-i Bahīj-i Rassīnī Tarjama Zij-i Cassini. He added some of his own commentaries to the translation and dedicated the whole to Sultan Mustafa III in 1772-3. He added logarithmic tables at the beginning of the translation and explained how to use them. It was the first treatise in Turkish about logarithm . Upon the translation of this book, Ottoman astronomers abandoned Ulugh Beg's Zij and started to use this almanac to conduct their astronomical calculations .
5.10. Huseyin Rifki Tāmānī (d. Madina, 1817)
Huseyin b. Muhammad b. Kirim Gazī was born in Taman, a province of the Crimea. He came to Istanbul at an unknown date and entered the Muhandishāne-i Berrī-i Hümāyûn (Imperial School of Military Engineering) in 1795 as a teacher; he was appointed chief instructor in 1806, a post he held until his death. In 1816, he first went to the Balkan Peninsula and later to Medina to renovate some buildings there. During his last duty, he passed away in Medina. Beside Arabic and Persian, he also knew French, Italian and Latin . His son Emin Pasa was governor of Damascus and later on studied at Cambridge University. He first established the Military Schools and wrote a book about variations of calculations.
Rifki Tāmānī wrote and translated many books. He was one of the pioneers of the transmission of Western science into the Ottoman world via his translations. Many of his books were on physics, mathematics, military subjects and geometry. Most of his books were textbooks at school.
Here are his books on mathematics.
- Tarjamat Usūl-i Handasa (Turkish). It is the translation of English mathematician J. Bonnycastle's book Euclid's Elements published in 1789. It was dedicated to Sultan Selim III .
- Logaritma Risālasi (Turkish). Contains logarithm and problems with solutions. It was written in 1793 .
- Imtihan Al-Muhandisīn (Turkish) . It is a treatise on geometry and contains 88 propositions with theoretical and practical applications and solutions. It was written in 1802. There are 180 diagrams at the end of the book.
- Mejmua al-Muhandisīn (Turkish). It is about military art and geometry and it was written in 1802. It mentions how to apply theoretical geometry in practical areas. Applicable geometry and measurements are also mentioned in it. At the end of the book, he provides very important information on cannon casting and various types of cannon used by the Ottomans .
- Talkhis al-Ashghāl fī ma'rifat tarfi'al-askāl fī fann al-lagim. (Turkish). It is a treatise on geometry and most probably one of his early works. He compares French and Ottoman weight rates.
6. Some mathematicians of the 19th and early 20th centuries
6.1. Hoca Ishak Efendi
Ishak Efendi Bashhojja (1774-1836): Ottoman mathematician, astronomer, and engineer; one of the pioneers of modern sciences in the Ottoman State.
He was born in the province of Karlova, Bulgaria. He was an engineer who worked as chief instructor in the Imperial School of Engineering (Muhandiskhāna Bahrī-i Humāyûn). He knew Arabic, Persian, French, Greek and Latin. He translated many books from western languages into Turkish.
Among his thirteen books, which he wrote using Western and particularly French sources, Mecmūat-i ‘ulūm-i Riyādiyya (Compendium of Mathematical Sciences, four volumes) is of special importance, since it is the first attempt in any language of the Muslim world to present a comprehensive textbook on different sciences such as mathematics, physics, chemistry, astronomy, biology, botany, and mineralogy in one compendium. Ishak Efendi's efforts to find the equivalents of the new scientific terminology and his influence on the transfer of modern science spread in other Islamic countries beyond Ottoman Turkey.
He was instrumental in introducing modern sciences to the Islamic world through his numerous translations, adaptations and compilations from European languages, thus furthering the progress of education. He made significant contributions to Ottoman science by developing modern scientific terminology. Apart from mathematical books, he wrote some books about military building and production .
Among his books on Mathematics, we mention:
- Majmu'āt-i ‘ulūm riyādiyya (Collection of Mathematical sciences). In this work, he explained all mathematical concepts and methods with their applications to engineering and science. It was an important course book of its period for general and applied mathematics.
- Ajsam nāriyya wa muthalathāt kuriyya (Fire solids and Spherical Triangles).
6.2. Ahmad Tawfīk Efendi (1807-1869)
He was the son of Isma'il Hakki b. Mustafa Salih al-Bursawī who was a member of Ashrafoglu Rumī's family. He received his preliminary education in rational and narrative sciences in Istanbul from Kathudazāda Muhammad Arif Efendi and entered the ilmiyya (Scholars) class. He had several government posts including as a judge of Makka and Madina. He gave private lessons to those who wished to learn mathematics, astronomy and similar subjects. He composed some important books on mathematics, such as those following below:
- Hall al-As'āb fī taz'īf al-Muqā'ab (Turkish). It is a book about the square of cubic numbers .
- Majmu'āt al-farā'id wa lubb al-fawā'id (Turkish). It is a book written in 1826 about applied geometry and measurements .
- Nukhbat al-Hisāb (Turkish). It is a book about mathematics, measurements and geography. It was divided into one epilogue, seven chapters (maqala) and one prologue. He completed the book in 1830, dedicated and presented it to Sultan Mahmud II .
- Talkhīs al-A'māl (Turkish). It is a basic book for the mathematical subjects. It was divided into an introduction (muqaddima) and four chapters (fann). It was also dedicated to Sultan Mahmud II .
6.3. Hüseyin Tevfik Pasha of Vidin (1832-1893)
Figure 8: The Photo of Vidinli Tevfik Pasha.
During the westernization process of the 19th century, scientific studies, in the Ottoman world did not go beyond translation of European books into Turkish. In this atmosphere, Tevfik Pasha of Vidin (mostly known as Vidinli Tevfik Paşa in Turkish literature) researched on the very new area in mathematics –the quaternion, and published a research book in English on this subject entitled Linear Algebra. It was first published in 1882 (169 pages) and a second revised and enlarged version was published in Istanbul in 1892 by A. H. Boyajian (188 pages). Tevfik Pasha was the first scholar in the history of the Ottoman scientific tradition to perform such an innovative research on linear algebra and publish a book in this original field.
The book Linear Algebra, written and published in English, is an original work on a very new mathematical subject of the time, the quaternion. Quaternions were first invented by the Irish mathematician-astronomer W. R. Hamilton (d. 1843) and became very important when they were were applied to physics. This book mainly discusses this subject and at the end, the author established three dimensional algebra, which contains the algebra of complex numbers and also formed with the three dimensions space vectors league. He also demonstrated the application of this method to various problems which belong to elementary geometry.
Hüseyin Tevfik's book was one of the world's earliest printed books on this subject and it kept its originality until the 1920's.
Other mathematical works by Tevfik include:
- Hisāb Muthanna (Dual Algebra): An article about algebra in English published in the journal Mebāhis Al-İlmiye Mecmuasi in 1866.
- Zayl Usūl al-Jabr (Appendix on the method of Algebra) (Turkish). An appendix about derivatives upon Tahir Paşa's book Usūl al-Jabr and also about Taylor and McLaurin series. (İstanbul 1278/1861).
Yeni Ölçülerin Menāfi ve İstimāline Dāir Risāla-i Muhtasara (An Abridged treatise on the advantages and usage of the new measurements) (Turkish): The book explains how to solve problems of the newly established system of weights and measurements (Istanbul 1882).
According to the sources that mention his life we know he wrote more books which we cannot place so far. Jabr-i Hattī (Algebra on surface), Usūl-i İlm-i hisāb (Turkish) (Method on the science of calculation) and Jabr-i a'lā (Turkish) (High Algebra).
6.4. Salih Zeki (1845-1921)
Salih Zeki is a mathematician who wrote extensively on musical subjects, stating that whereas the "science" of music, and its analytical methods, was common to all people, the music itself was peculiar to each people alone.
He studied electrical engineering in Paris. After returning to Turkey he worked first as an engineer in the Mail and Telegraph Administration and then as a mathematics teacher. He left his job as an engineer to devote his life to teaching and to spreading knowledge of mathematics. He worked also as the director of an observatory. He established the mathematics department in the science faculty at Dār al-Funun (Today Istanbul University). He wrote many books on mathematics, some of which are Asari Baqiya, Kāmūsu Riyādāt, Hiqmati Tabiiyai Umūmiya, Hisābi Ihtimālāt, Mīzan Tafakkur.
Asari Baqiye is about arithmetic, trigonometry, geometry and cosmology. Kāmūsu Riyādāt is a mathematical encyclopaedia. Hiqmati Tabiiyai Umūmiya, is about general physics. Mīzan Tafakkur is an important book about the logic of algebra. Salih Zeki was also a historian of science.
Mathematical studies in the Ottoman State began with Ali al-Qushjī in Istanbul and continued until Salih Zeki's period. These works were divided into two styles: traditional and Western. The traditional ended with Gelenbevī's works and the Western style ended with with Salih Zeki's work. Ottoman mathematical studies continued over five centuries, but this tradition could not keep up with the developments in mathematics in Europe since the 18th century. In the Ottoman school, some mathematicians produced original works but others were satisfied with education and the publishing of books on mathematics. Most of works of the Ottoman school were not studied in detail from the point of view of the history of mathematics. There are two reasons for this. The first reason is that there are very few people with an interest in the subject and the second is that the young people in Turkey cannot read and understand the texts written in the Arabic language. Because of these facts, I think that it will take a long time to study the Ottoman texts. I hope that if the Ottoman texts written in the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries are studied in detail, it will be possible to find out the level of the Ottoman mathematics and contributions to world civilization. To find out Ottoman mathematical works in manuscripts, one must research and analyze books on astronomy, geometry and cosmology as well. Some parts of these works contain very important and original areas of mathematics. For example, some books on astronomy give very important information for problems of spherical and geodetic astronomy. To understand and write the full history of Ottoman astronomy, related books should also be considered.
Ottoman scholars lived with mathematics. They were well informed of the work of other scholars and they made many original contributions to mathematical research and education. Some of these contributions were translated into other languages and were used as textbooks. Traditionally all Ottoman mathematicians were also interested in other branches of science branches such as astronomy, science and engineering and made important contributions to these fields. Unfortunately, the history of Ottoman mathematics is one of least researched fields in the history of mathematics of the Islamic civilisation. There are many original works of Ottoman mathematicians in the libraries of Turkey which have not been studied from the perspective of scientific history. If these were to be studied in detail, a clearer picture of Ottoman mathematics would become visible.
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 In the introduction of this MS, Bedruddin Muhammad mentions the names of Sultan Ahmed III., Grand Vizier Ibrahim Pasha and Shaikh al-Islam Ebezade Abdullah Efendi. In the introduction to his work, he claims to have spent some time working on geometry, that he trisected angles, divided circles in seven and arcs in six parts and solved many problems which had not been solved until his time. The figures were given on the sides of the book. The only copy of the book is at Bayezid State Library, Umumi, MS 9787.
 İhsan Fazlioglu, "Abdürrahim Maraşî", Yasamlari ve Yapitlariyla Osmanlilar Ansiklopedisi, Istanbul 1999, I, 73.
 Hajji Khalifa, Kashf al-zunun, II, 1349, 1350; Rosenfeld, no. 1251; OMLT, I, 180-184.
 OMLT, I, 214-217; Cevat İzgi, Osmanli Medreselerinde İlim, I, 232-233; İhsan Fazlioǧlu, "Hendese", Diyanet İslam Ansiklopedisi, XII, 206; İ. Fazlioglu, "Hesap", Diyanet İslam Ansiklopedisi, XII, 244-271.
 Süleymaniye library, Yazma Baǧişlar, MS 1347/8, 5 folios.).
 Dâr al-kutub al-Misriyya, Mustafa Fazil, Riyada, MS 41/11, 8 folios.
 İstanbul Üniversitesi Library, TY, MS 6845, 25 folios.
 Rosenfeld, no. 1367.
 Cevdet, Tarih, IV, 214; Muradī, Silkü'd-dürer fī a'yāni'l-karni'l-hādī aşer, Bulak, 1301, c. I, 37-39; GAL, II, 311, GAL2, II, 428; Ziriklī, I, 69; Kehhale, I, 112, 113; İzāhu'l-meknûn, II, 240, 429; İsmail Paşa, I, 39; İ'lāmu'n-nübelā, VII, s. 93-95; Kamusülalam, I, 568, 569; SO, I, 136; Ebulula II, 273; İzgi, I, 232, 328, 386; A. Özel, Hanefi Fikih Âlimleri, Ank., 1990, s. 144; İ. Fazlioǧlu, "Hendese", DİA, XII, 206; OMLT, I, 222-227. Salim Aydüz, "Ibrahim Halebī", Yaşamlari ve Yapitlariyla Osmanlilar Ansiklopedisi, İstanbul 1999, I, 627-628.
 Süleymaniye library., Yazma Baǧişlar, MSS. 2060, 50 Folios.
 Rosenfeld, no. 873, M1.
 Süleymaniye Library, Esad Efendi, MS 1953, 61 folios.
 Süleymaniye library, Kasidecizade, MS 679, 22 folios. It was edited by Roshdi Rashed and printed in Paris in 1998.
 Süleymaniye library, Arif Hikmet, MS 144/3, 18 folios.
 Rosenfeld, No, 783, M22.
 Köprülü Library, III. Kisim, MS 709/6, 5 folios.
 E. Z. Karal, "Selim III. Devrinde Osmanli Bahriyesi Hakkinda Vesikalar", Tarih Vesikalari, I/3, s. 204; OMLT, I, 248-250; İhsan Fazlioǧlu, "Hendese", DİA, XII, 202; İhsan Fazlioǧlu, "Hesap", DİA, XII, 244-271; İhsan Fazlioǧlu, "Türkçe Telif ve Tercüme Eserleri", Kutadgubilig, 3 (Mart 2003), İstanbul, s. 151-184; Salim Aydüz, "Feyzullah Sermed (Şekerzade)", Yaşamlari ve Yapitlariyla Osmanlilar Ansiklopedisi, İstanbul: 1999, I, 460-461.
 Kandilli Rasathanesi Ktp., nr. 209; Süleymaniye Kütüphanesi Giresun Yazmalar, 3633.
 Süleymaniye Ktp., Esad Efendi, nr. 3150/2, folios 10a-109b.
 Süleymaniye Ktp., Reşid Efendi, nr. 989/16.
 Rosenfeld, no. 1390.
 Kandilli Rasathanesi Ktp., nr. 190, 30 v.
 Kandilli Rasathanesi Ktp., nr. 200, 199 v.
 Salih Zeki, Kamûs-i Riyāziyyāt, I, s. 327-330; OM, III, s. 259-260; SO, I, s. 371-372; Uzunçarşili, Osmanli Tarihi, IV/II, s. 537; OALT, s. 530-536; Adivar, s. 199-201.
 Mehmed Esad, Mirat-i Mühendishāne-i Berrī-i Hümāyûn, İst., 1312, s. 27, 32, 33; A. Sayili, "Turkish contributions to and reform in Higher education and Hüseyin Rifki and his work in geometry", Ankara Üniversitesi Yilliǧi, XII (1966), s. 90-98; S. Tekeli, Hüseyin Rifki Tamanī, Arap Bilimler Tarihini Araştirma Cemiyeti tarafindan düzenlenmiş olan ikinci Uluslararasi konferansta sunulan tebliǧ, 5-6 Nisan 1977; TA, XIX, s. 425; K. Beydilli, Türk Bilim ve Matbaacilik Tarihinde Mühendishāne ve Mühendishāne Matbaasi ve Kütüphānesi (1776-1826), İst., 1995, s. 50-56, 284, 309-311; M. Kaçar, Osmanli Devleti'nde Bilim ve Eǧitim Anlayişindaki Deǧişmeler ve Mühendishānelerin Kuruluşu, İÜ Sosyal Bilimler Ens., doktora tezi, 1996, s. 151, 205.
 TSMK, Hazine, no. 602/1, 167 vr.
 Kandilli Rasathanesi Ktp., no. 216, 15 vr.
 TSMK, Hazine, no. 604, 70 vr.
 TSMK, Hazine, no. 601, 143 vr.
 Rosenfeld, no. 1407.
 OMLT, I, 314.
 OMLT, I, 314-315.
 OMLT, I, 315-316.
 OMLT, I, 316-318.
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by: FSTC Limited, Mon 19 December, 2011