Al-Muqaddasi and Human Geography: An Early Contribution to Social Sciences: II
[20.] Al-Muqaddasi, Ahsan at-taqasim fi ma‘rifat al-aalim. La meilleure répartition pour la connaissances des province, op. cit., p. xxiv.
[21.] Al-Muqaddasi, Palestine under the Moslems. A Description of Syria and the Holy Land, from A.D. 650 to 1500. Translated from the works of The Mediaeval Arab Geographers by Guy Le Strange. Published for the Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund. London: Alexander P. Watt, 1890, pp. 5-6. [22.] See A. Miquel, "Iqlim", Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Brill Online 2010; print version: vol. 3, p. 1076.
[23.] S. M. Ahmad, "Al-Maqdisi", in Dictionary of Scientific Biography, C.C. Gillispie editor in Chief, Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, vol. 9, p. 88.
[24.] See FSTC, Al-Muqaddasi: The Geographer from Palestine (published 09 January, 2009).
[25.] A. Miquel, "Al-Mukaddasi", Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, op. cit.; A. Miquel and J.-P. Digard, "Géographie et ethnographie: le cas d'al-Muqaddasî (IV-X siècles)", in Le cuisinier et le philosophe. Hommage à Maxime Rodinson. Etudes d'ethnographie historique du Proche-Orient., Paris: P. Maisonneuve et Larose, 1982.
[26.] Ibid, p. XXVII.
[27.]A. Miquel, "Al-Mukaddasi", Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, op. cit.
[28.] Al-Muqaddasi, The Best Divisions for the Knowledge of the Regions. Ahsan al-Taqasim Fi Ma'rifat al-Aqalim. Translated into English by Basil Anthony Collins. (Great Books of Islamic Civilization). Reading: Centre for Muslim Contribution to Civilization, Garnet Publishing, 1994, p. 189.
[29.]Ibid, p. 314.
[30.] Ibid, pp. 365-6.
[31.] Ibid, p.93.
[32.] Ibid, p. 215.
[33.] Ibid, pp. 95-6.
[34.] On the subject of Islamic weights and measures, see Walter Hinz, Islamische Masse und Gewichte umgerechnet ins metrische System. Nachdruck der Erstausgabe (1955) mit Zusätzen und Berichtigungen. Leiden: Brill, 1970 (Arabic translation: Al-makayil wa-'l-mawazin al-islamiya…, Amman, The Jordanian University, 1982); and Eliyahu Ashtor, "Levantine Weights and Standard Parcels: A contribution to the Metrology of the later Middle Ages", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, vol. 45, 1982, pp. 471-88.
[35.] A. Miquel, La Géographie humaine du monde musulman jusqu'au milieu du XIe siècle, Paris, Ecole des hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, 1988, vol 4.
[36.] Al-Muqaddasi, The Best Divisions, translated by B. A. Collins, op. cit., p. 143.
[37.] A. Miquel, La Géographie humaine, op. cit., pp. 237-39
[38.] Ibid, p. 221.
[39.] Al-Muqaddasi, The Best Divisions, translated by B. A. Collins, op. cit., p. 83.
[40.] Ibid, p. 190.
[41.] A. Miquel, La Géographie humaine, op. cit., p. 347.
~ End ~
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*The original article was produced by Salah Zaimeche, Salim Al-Hassani and Ahmed Salem. The members of the new FSTC Research Team have re-edited and revised this new version. The team now comprises of Mohammed Abattouy, Salim Al-Hassani, Mohammed El-Gomati, Salim Ayduz, Savas Konur, Cem Nizamoglu, Anne-Maria Brennan, Maurice Coles, Ian Fenn, Amar Nazir and Margaret Morris.
by: FSTC Research Team, Mon 15 February, 2010
A review of Muslim Geography by: FSTC Limited
Muslim geography opened up a vast knowledge of the world. Islam urged people to open their minds and horizons, and know about the wonders of God's creation and thus Muslim geographers ventured across the known and unknown world.
Mapping the World by: FSTC Limited
Some of the great contributions to geography by early Muslims who were driven by an intense interest not only to gain knowledge but also to serve others rather than greed or fame - a genuine Islamic outlook.
Zheng He - the Chinese Muslim Admiral by: FSTC Limited
The Beijing Olympic Games started on Friday 8 August 2008 with a dramatic opening ceremony featuring a cast of thousands performers that celebrated the arts and achievements of China's long history. Among the tremendous events narrated by the ceremony was the evokation of Zheng He, the Chinese Muslim admiral of the 15th century. Blue-robed oarsman enacted seafarers travelling between Southeast Asia and the coast of Fujian, in southern China. Their oars became sails, painted with the "treasure ships" of Zheng He who reached Africa in the Ming Dynasty. On this occasion, we republish the following short outline of Zhen He's life and achievement.
Piri Reis maps America by: FSTC Limited
In 1513 Piri Reis presented his famous map of the New World to the Sultan, giving the Ottomans, well before many European rulers, an accurate description of the American discoveries as well as details about the circumnavigation of Africa.
The Travels of Ibn Fadlan by: FSTC Limited
Ibn Fadlan travels north to Baghdad and on to Volga.
The Travels of Ibn Jubair by: FSTC Limited
Born in Valencia, Ibn Jubair (Ibn Jubayr) travelled widely, offering good accounts of the life of Muslims and their surroundings in both Eastern and Western parts.
Idrisi (1100- 1165 C.E.): A Scholar at the Court of Palermo by: Quoted from S.P.Scott
A native of Malaga, of royal blood, and a lineal descendant of Mohammed, he united to pride of birth and the advantages of fortune all the learning and all the accomplishments to be acquired in an enlightened age.
Turkish Contributions to Islamic Geography by: Prof. N.Akmal Ayyubi
Turkish contributions to geography are vast in content and have a very significant place in the history of geography. Turkish geographers, especially cartographers made major contributions and formed a bridge between medieval Islamic and modern cartography. In this article, original Turkish contributions to geography are reviewed.
Al-Muqaddasi: The Geographer from Palestine by: FSTC Limited
A notable fact that should be remembered when we talk about the different areas of knowledge in Muslim heritage—and which should be emphasised in these troubled days marked by the tragic situation in the Middle East—, is that until the middle of the 20th century, Palestine was an integral part of the Muslim world. The contributions of Palestinians, men and women, to Islamic civilization are so numerous that it is impossible to count and describe them briefly. The following article is an outline the life and work of the Palestinian geographer Al-Muqaddasi (10th century), an early and most original geographer.
A Jewel of Ottoman Naval History: The Book of Kâtib Çelebi on Naval Campaigns by: Ruveyda Ozturk and Salim Ayduz
This is a review of the book prepared by Prof. Dr. Idris Bostan for the Turkish Undersecretariat of Navigation in order to provide a useful and important scientific resource on the naval history of the Ottomans and the culture and technology of navigation. The book presents the grand work entitled Tuhfat al-kibâr fî asfâr al-bihâr (The Gift to the Great Ones on Naval Campaigns) written by Kâtib Çelebi in 1657 and emphasises the importance of the Turkish activities in the seas and the Ottoman contribution to the navigational history which has been a neglected subject until recently.
Al-Muqaddasi and Human Geography: An Early Contribution to Social Sciences by: FSTC Research Team
FSTC Research Team
Recent scholarly interest in the genesis of social sciences in Islamic culture is a noteworthy shift. Until recent times, the development of these fields was credited exclusively to the modern Western tradition, especially to the 19th century birth of humanities. The ground breaking contribution of Ibn Khaldun was recognized; however, the author of the Muqaddima stands as an isolated genius. In the following article, an attempt is made to broaden the field by highlighting the contributions of several other scholars in laying the foundation of social sciences in Islamic culture. After a short survey on Al-Biruni and Al-Raghib al-Isfahani, the focus of the article is dedicated to the 10th-century Palestinian geographer Al-Muqaddasi, who touched on various subjects of interest to the social sciences in his book Ahsan al-taqasim fi ma'rifat al-aqalim.
Piri Reis: A Genius 16th-Century Ottoman Cartographer and Navigator by: FSTC Research Team
FSTC Research Team
Piri Reis is a well known Ottoman-Turkish admiral, geographer and cartographer from the 16th century. His famous world map compiled in 1513 and discovered in 1929 at Topkapi Palace in Istanbul is the oldest known Turkish map showing the New World, and one of the oldest maps of America still in existence. The half of the map which survives shows the western coasts of Europe and North Africa and the coast of Brazil with reasonable accuracy in addition to various Atlantic islands including the Azores and Canary Islands. This article presents the achievements of Piri Reis in cartography through the analysis of the surviving partial versions of his two world maps and his book of navigation, the Kitab-i Bahriye.