Agriculture in Muslim civilisation : A Green Revolution in Pre-Modern Times (Cont'd)
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6. Farming Manuals
The tradition of Islamic agriculture was marked by a rich corpus of specialised written treatises. Muslim farming manuals conveyed much of the expertise that was available. Ways and methods for increasing production and productivity, and maintaining soil fertility were explained alongside detailed descriptions of soils, and their requirements. Soils were classified, and so was water according to its quality. It was explained how to enrich the soil by various methods, and methods for ploughing (normal and deep), hoeing, digging and harrowing .
6.1. Eastern literature
The oldest Arabic work on agriculture of which we know is al-Filāha al-nabatiyya (Nabataean agriculture) of Ibn Wahshiyya, written (or translated from the Nabataean) in 291/904. A little later there appeared Al-Filāha al-rūmiyya (Greek or Byzantine agriculture, attributed to the names of Qustūs al-Rūmī as author and of Sarjīs b. Hilyā al-Rūmī as translator from Greek into Arabic. According to a later bio-bibliographical source , the author's full name was Qustūs b. Askūrāskīna, who is probably Cassianus Bassus to whom agronomic works collected from Greek and Latin authors are attributed. In these early works of Al-Filāha al-nabatiyya and Al-Filāha al-rūmiyya, we find a reasonable knowledge of agricultural practice, intermingled with cultural symbols rooted in the ancient culture marked with some superstitious mental attitude.
Figure 9: Arabic botanical manuscript from the 15th century arranged in alphabetical order with illustrations of plants in vivid colours at Princeton University Library, MS 583H. © Princeton University Library, Department of Rare Books and Special Collections. See the electronic edition of the manuscript.
In Egypt, the best presentation of agricultural material at the time of the Ayyūbids is to be found in a work of Ibn Mammātī (d. 606/1209), entitled Qawānīn al-dawāwīn. In the following century Jamāl Dīn al-Watwat (d. 718/1318) wrote in Cairo the book entitled Mabāhij al-fikar wa-manāhij al-'ibar, the fourth volume of which is devoted to plants and agriculture. In the 10th/16th century, a Damascene author named Riyadh al-Dīn al-Ghazzī al-'Amirī (fl. 935/1529) wrote a large book on agriculture which has not survived; but later 'Abd al-Ghanī al-Nābulusī (d. 1143/1731) gave a summary of it in his work entitled 'Alam al-milāha fī 'ilm al-filāha.
In general, the writers of ancient Arabic works on agriculture dealt with the following subjects: types of agricultural land and choice of land; manure and other fertilizers; tools and work of cultivation; wells, springs, and irrigation channels; plants and nurseries; planting, pruning and grafting of fruit trees; cultivation of cereals, legumes, vegetables, flowers, bulbs and tubers, and plants for perfume; noxious plants and animals; preserving of fruit; and sometimes zootechny.
The chief principles of dry-farming were not unknown to them, and similarly the principles of variation and rotation of crops. Certain Arabic agronomists in Andalusia had at their disposal botanical gardens and trial grounds where they experimented with native and exotic plants, practised methods of grafting and tried to create new varieties of fruit and flowers. We should also note that several ancient Arabic dictionaries, encyclopaedic works and Arabic treatises on agriculture and botany contain the names of numerous varieties of fruit, cereals, flowers and other cultivated plants. Thus al-Badrī (9th/15th century) in his Nuzhat al-anām fī mahāsin al-Shām gives the names used in Syria for 21 varieties of apricots, 50 varieties of grapes, and 6 varieties of roses .
6.2. The Specialised Corpus of the Islamic West
In addition to this Eastern literature on agriculture, a rich agricultural corpus written in the Arabic language was created and developed in the Andalus, particularly during the 5th/11th and 6th/12th centuries, under the rule of the Teifas princes (mulūk al-tawā'if) and the Almoravid governors who followed them.
The principal centres of this literature were Cordova, Toledo, Seville, Granada and Almeria. In Cordova the great doctor Abu 'l-Qāsim al-Zahrāwī (d. 404/1010) is reputed to be the author of a Compendium on agronomy (Mukhtasar kitāb al-filāha). In Toledo, the celebrated doctor Ibn Wāfid (d. 467/1075) was appointed by the ruler to create his royal botanical garden called no less than Jannat al-sultān (the paradise of the Sultan ). In particular, Ibn Wafid wrote a treatise on agronomy which was translated into Castilian some time later. Muhammad b. Ibrāhīm Ibn Bassāl, another scholar from Toledo, devoted himself exclusively to agronomy. He performed the regular pilgrimage, travelling via Sicily and Egypt, and brought back many botanical and agronomic notes from the East. He wrote a lengthy treatise on agronomy entitled Dīwān al-filāha. The treatise was subsequently abridged into one volume with sixteen chapters under the title Kitāb al-Qasd wa 'l-bayān (Book of concision and clarity) which was translated into Castilian in the Middle Ages . The treatise by Ibn Bassāl is unusual in that it contains no reference to earlier agronomists, but appears to be based exclusively on the personal experiences of the author, who is revealed as the most original and objective of all the Andalusian experts in agriculture, agronomy and botany.
Ibn Bassal's treatise distinguished between ten classes of soil, each given a different life sustaining capability, according to the season of the year. He was insistent that fallow land be ploughed four times between January and May and, in certain cases (for example, cotton, when planted in the thick soils of the Mediterranean coast), he recommended as many as ten ploughings .
After the capture of Toledo by Alfonso VI of Castile in 1085, Ibn Bassāl withdrew to Seville to the court of Al-Mu'tamid for whom he created a new royal garden. In addition to Ibn Bassal, there were several agronomists in Seville at that time, such as 'Alī Ibn al-Lūnquh of Toledo, and Ahmad b. Hajjāj al-Ishbīlī, the author of several works on agronomy, among them Al-Muqni' fi 'l-filaha, written in 1073. Ibn Hajjaj was more acquainted with the works of ancient agronomists, especially Yūniyūs; he was also linked with the agronomist Abu 'l-Khayr al-Ishbīlī whose work is often quoted by Ibn al-'Awwām.
Figure 11: Water "metering" through a distribution weir on a foggara in Algeria. (Source).
In Granada, the principal agricultural writer was Muhammad b. Mālik al-Tighnarī, originally from Tignar, a village a few kilometres north of Granada. He worked in Granada towards 1073-11018. He wrote a treatise on agronomy in 12 chapters entitled Zuhrat al-bustān wa-nuzhat al-adhhān for the Almoravid prince Tamīm, son of Yūsuf b. Tāshafīn, at the time when that prince was governor of the province of Granada. Several manuscripts of the Zuhrat al-bustān are attributed to a certain Hamdūn al-Ishbīlī, who is otherwise unknown.
Abū l-Khayr al-Ishbīlī (fl. 5th/11th or 6th/12th centuries) was an agronomist and botanist who lived in Seville. His most important works are a book of agriculture, Kitāb al-Filāha, and 'Umdat al-tabīb, a manual for medical pharmacy based on plants and herbs. All that we know about him is that in 494/1100 he was studying with the doctor from Seville, Abu 'l-Hasan Shihāb al-Mu'aytī. It is also reported that he studied under Ibn Bassāl and Ibn al-Lūnquh in Seville, as this reference is related to them being the masters of the mysterious "anonymous botanist of Seville", the author of the 'Umdat al-tabīb fī ma'rifat al-nabāt li-kull labīb, a botanical dictionary of considerable merit, which is ascribed in certain manuscripts to Abu al-Khayr.
Kitāb al-Filāha (Treatise on agriculture) of Abu al-Khayr is extant in manuscripts that fail to provide a complete text of the work. Famous for its chapters on the planting and grafting of trees and bushes, it combines agronomic theory and practice, offering unique comments on the influence of the four elements (earth, air, water, and manure) on the life cycle of plants.
The other book attributed to this author is a sort of botanical dictionary entitled 'Umdat al-tabīb fī ma'rifat al-nabāt (Basic plant manual for physicians). It includes, for each plant: its genus, identifying different species and varieties; a morphological description; names by which it is known in other languages; geographical locations and soil conditions required for optimal growth; and its uses and applications. This work's taxonomic classification, unprecedented for its time, anticipates various European attempts to systematise plants scientifically during the 16th century. The 'Umdat al-tabīb is also a rich source of information for other disciplines, including agronomy, pharmacology, and the study of popular traditions, the geography of al-Andalus, and the beginnings of the Romance language in Spain .
Abu al-Khayr al-Ishbili's Kitab al-filaha goes in the same direction as Ibn al-'Awwam in giving precise instructions to farmers about nearly every matter of concern. Extracts from it show in minute detail how to grow olive trees, the treatment of diseases, grafting, harvesting olives, properties of olives, refining olive oil and conditioning of olives. It follows the same pattern with respect to other crops, including cotton, the soil type required, the tasks preceding the planting, soil preparation, use of manure, and what sort; ploughing techniques, their frequency, the time for sowing and how it is done, watering after sowing, and during growth, maintenance of plants, and harvesting .
Just before the capture of Seville by the Castilians in 646/1248, an outstanding agronomist, Abū Zakariyyā Yahyā Ibn al-'Awwām, author of the lengthy Kitab al-Filāha flourished in the city of La Jiralda. We know nothing of his life, but his treatise has received a great interest by scholars . His work is also the only treatise of agronomy mentioned by Ibn Khaldūn in his Muqaddima .
Kitab al-Filaha al-andalusiya (The Book of Andalusian Agriculture) by Ibn al-'Awwam (probably died in 1185) consists of 35 chapters dealing with agronomy, cattle and poultry raising and beekeeping. It deals with 585 plants; explains the cultivation of more than 50 fruit trees; and includes many valuable observations on soil properties, manures, plant grafting, and plant diseases and their treatments. Ibn al-Awwam studies gardening, irrigation, affinities between trees, grafting, animal husbandry and bee keeping.
Much of the material was derived from Greek and Arabic literature, especially from the treatise on Nabatean agriculture of Ibn Wahshiya, but Ibn al-'Awwam made many additions to the accumulated knowledge and experience derived from the Andalusian experience.
Despite its singular value, the treatise of Ibn al-'Awwam is far from being the most important of the Andalusian writings of agriculture. His work is essentially an extensive and useful compilation of quotations from ancient writers and from his Hispanic predecessors, Ibn Bassāl, Ibn Hajjaj, Abu 'l-Khayr and the mysterious "Al-Hajj al-Gharnātī". It is only occasionally at the end of a chapter that he records his own personal observations (introduced by the word Lī "this is my own"), made in the neighbourhood of Seville.
Finally, towards the middle of the 8th/14th century, a scholar of Almeria, Abū Uthmān Sa'd b. Abū Ja'far Ahmad Ibn Luyūn al-Tujjbī (d. 750/1349) wrote his Kitāb Ibdā' al-malāha wa-inhā' al-rajāha fī usūl sinā'at al-filāha. The work of an amateur, it is an abridgement in verse, based essentially on Ibn Bassāl and al-Tighnarī; but it also contains certain valuable information which the author recorded in the words of local practitioners.
These treatises of agriculture, agronomy and botany composed under the generic title of filaha contain far more than their titles would indicate; in fact, they are true encyclopaedias of rural economy. Naturally, the essential feature is agronomy (filāhat al-ardh or sometimes al-aradhīn): the study of types of soil, water, manure; field cultivation of cereals and legumes; but arboriculture is also dealt with at length (particularly vines, olives and figs), with additional matter on pruning, layering and grafting; and also horticulture and floriculture. Animals as part of agriculture also take a leading place: the rearing of livestock, beasts of burden, fowls and bees; veterinary practice (baytara). All these fundamental questions are completed by chapters on domestic economy: farm management, the choice of agricultural workers, storage of produce after harvest, etc. Some writers also provide information on measurement of land and the seasonal agricultural calendar.
We may imagine that specialists of many sorts were led to contribute to such encyclopaedic works. To start with, there were practitioners and professional workers: farmers (fallāhūn), fruit-growers (shajjārūn), horticulturists (jannānūn); but there were also "scientific workers"—herbalists ('ashshābūn), botanists (nabātiyyūn), doctors interested in medicinal plants and dietetics; and there were also pure theoreticians, more sensitive to a philosophical and speculative kind of discourse.
On the other hand, the Andalusian treatises on filāha were often the work of multi-talented writers. Beside Ibn Bassāl was essentially an agronomist, Ibn Wāfid was primarily a physician; Ibn Hajjaj was known as religious leader (imām and khatīb). Al-Tighnarī and Ibn Luyūn are well-known poets. Finally, the enigmatical Seville botanist Ibn 'Abdūn could well be the same as his contemporary Ibn 'Abdūn of Seville, the author of a treatise on hisba (market inspection).
The Hispano-Arab agronomists were familiar with and made wide use of ancient writers. A list of them (in which the names are often inaccurate) will be found at the beginning of the translation edition of Ibn al-'Awwām by Banqueri. Among the Arab sources, they made use of Kitāb al-Nabāt of the polymath al-Dīnawarī and, in particular, the Filāha al-nabatiyya of Ibn Wahshīyya. However, in this branch of instruction they did not confine themselves to repeating their predecessors writings. They made their own personal observations and experiments, in order to adapt their works to the realities of the Iberian soil and climate. They also introduced original chapters on the cultivation of new plants—rice, sugar-cane, date palms, citrus fruits, cotton, flax, madder, apricots, peaches, pears, watermelons, eggplant, pistachios, and saffron.
Some of this legacy of works on agronomy were translated into Castilian and influenced later Spanish works. For instance, Ibn Wāfid's work was widely used by the Spanish agronomist Alonso de Herrera in his famous Agricultura General (1513).
Finally we should note that it was in Muslim Spain, during the 5th/11th century, in Toledo and later in Seville, that the first "royal botanical gardens" of Europe made their appearance, both pleasure gardens and also trial grounds for the acclimatization of plants brought back from the Near and Middle East. In the Christian world we have to wait until the middle of the 16th century to see the establishment of gardens of this sort, in the university towns of Italy .
A wealth of information on agriculture is also found in the "Calendar of Cordova" dated from 961 CE . Its technical accuracy is remarkable, and much of what it contains was to be found in subsequent geography books and farming treatises. Each month of the year had its tasks and time table, March, for instance, was when fig trees are grafted; and early cereals begin to rise. It was the time to plant sugar cane, and when pre-season roses and lilacs begin to come out. Quails appear; silk worms hatch; mullets journey up rivers from the sea. That is also the time to plant cucumbers, and sow cotton, saffron and aubergines. During this month orders are sent to provincial tax officials to purchase horses for the government; locusts begin to appear and their destruction is ordered; time to plant lime and marjoram, too. It is also the mating season of many birds .
To illustrate the wide interest of a number of writers regarding one single crop, one could take the example of rice . Ibn Bassal, for instance, advises on the choice of terrain, plots that face to the rising sun. The thorough preparation of the soil is well recommended as well as the addition of manure, and how it is to be done. Sowing is advised between February and March. Al-Ishbilli gives the specific amount of rice that needs to be sown on any given surface, and how that should be carried out. Ibn al-Awwam speaks at length of the watering process, that land should be flooded up to a given height of water, then the rice is sown. Once the soil had absorbed the water, the seeds are covered with earth, and the land flooded again.
Precise details are also provided on irrigation and ways of drainage once the plants have grown, as well as fighting parasites. Clearing weeds, and the methods used for that also attract much attention from the writers. Ways of harvesting and for safe storage received attention. The use of rice as a food commodity takes many forms. Ibn al-Awwam specifies that the best way of cooking and eating rice is with butter, oil, fat and milk.
7. The Decline and Loss of Ecological Balance
The green revolution in Islamic times could not develop without a strict observance of ecological balance and the respect for environment-friendly rules. The decline of Islamic civilisation and the subsequent period of European colonialism resulted in a loss of ecological balance.
Bolens asserts that "with a deep love for nature, and a relaxed way of life, classical Islamic society achieved ecological balance, a successful average economy of operation, based not on theory but on the acquired knowledge of many civilized traditions ." It was colonialism, she recognises, which subsequently and seriously upset the traditional agricultural balance in order to increase profitability of the soils .
The decline of Islamic agriculture began much earlier than the colonial period. It started with the various invasions, from the Crusades to the Mongol attacks, including the raids of Banu Hillal and the Normans in the Maghrib. Such invasions caused the ruin of irrigation works, destroyed permanent crops, closed down trade routes, and caused farmers to take flight .
8. Bibliography and Further Reading
- Abū l-Khayr al-Ishbīlī, Kitāb al-Filāha. Tratado de agricultura. Introduccion, edicion e indices por Julia Maria Carabaza Bravo. Madrid: Instituto de Cooperacion con el Mundo Arabe, 1991.
- Abū l-Khayr al-Ishbīlī, 'Umdat al-tabīb fī ma'rifat al-nabāt, edited by Muhammad al-'Arabī al-Khattābī. Beirut, 1995, 2 vols.
- Abū l-Khayr al-Ishbīlī, Kitābu 'umdati al-tabīb fī ma'rifat al-nabāt li-kulli labīb. Libro base del médico para el conocimiento de la botánica por todo experto, edited, annotated and translated into Spanish by Joaquín Bustamante, Frederico Corriente and Mahomed Tilmatine. Madrid, 2004-07, 2 vols.
- Al-Baghdadi, Muhammad ibn al-Hasan ibn Muhammad ibn al-Karim al-Katib al-Baghdadi, Kitab al-Tabikh [The Book of Cookery], edited by Dawud al-Jalabi. Al-Musil: Matba'at Umm al-Rabi'ayn, 1934.
- Al-Baghdadi, Kitab al-Tabikh [The Book of Cookery], reprint of Dawud al-Jalabi's edition (published in 1934 by Matba'at Umm al-Rabi'ayn in Mosul). Beirut: Dar al-Kitab al-Jadid, 1964.
- Al-Isra'ili, Ishaq ibn Sulayman, Kitab al-Aghdhiyah wa-al-Adwiyah [The Book of Foods and Medicines]. Beirut: Mu'assasat 'Izz al-'Arab lil-T'iba'a wa 'l-Nashr, 1992.
- [Anonymous], Kanz al-Fawa'id fi Tanwi' al-Mawa'id: Medieval Arab/Islamic Culinary Art. Edited by Manuela Marin and David Waines. Beirut: in Kommission bei Franz Steiner Verlag Stuttgart, 1993.
- Bolens, Lucie, Les méthodes culturales au moyen âge d'après les traités d'agronomie andalous: traditions et techniques. Geneva, 1974.
- Bolens, L., Agronomes Andalous du Moyen Age, Geneva/Paris, 1981.
- Bolens, L., "L'Eau et l'Irrigation d'après les traités d'agronomie Andalous au Moyen Age (XI-XIIèmes siècles)", Options Mediterraneenes, vol. 16 (December 1972), pp. 65-77.
- Bolens, L. "Agriculture", in Encyclopedia of the History of Science, Technology and Medicine in Non Western Cultures, edited by Helaine Selin. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht/Boston/London, 1997, Pp. 20-2.
- Carra de Vaux, Les Penseurs de l'Islam, vol. 2, Paris, Librairie Paul Geuthner, 1921, vol 2, Chapter x: Les Sciences Naturelles, Histoires Naturelles.
- Carrara, Angelo Alvares, "Geoponica and Nabataean Agriculture: a New Approach into their Sources and Authorship", in Arabic Science and Philosophy vol.16 (2006) pp. 103-132.
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- Eguaras Ibáñez, J., Ibn Luyun: Tratado de Agricultura. Granada, Patronato de la Alhambra y Generalife, 1988.
- El Faïz, Mohammed, L'agronomie de la Mésopotamie antique: analyse du "Livre de l'agriculture nabatéenne" de Qûtâmä. Leiden, Brill, 1995.
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- FSTC, http://MuslimHeritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=230Farming Manuals (published 25 December, 2001).
- FSTC, Water Management and Hydraulic Technology (published 30 December 2001).
- FSTC, http://MuslimHeritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=515The Muslim Agricultural Revolution (published 1 February, 2006).
- FSTC, Muslim Contribution to Spanish Agriculture (published 23 February, 2006).
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- Gabrieli, Francesco, "Islam in the Mediterranean World", in The Legacy of Islam, edited by J.Schacht with C.E. Bosworth,. Oxford Clarendon Press, 1974, 2nd edition, pp. 63-104.
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- Ibn Hajjaj al-Ishbili, Al-Muqni' fi al-filaha, edited by Salah Jarrar and Jaser Abu Safeya. Amman: The Jordanian Academy of Arabic Language, 1982.
- Ibn Khalsun, Muhammad ibn Yusuf, Kitab al-Aghdhiyah wa Hifz al-Sihhah [The Book of Foods and Health Maintenance], edited and translated into French by Suzanne Gigandet. Damascus: Institut Francais de Damas, 1996.
- Ibn Luyun Al-Tujjibi, Abu 'Uthman Sa'd b. Ahmad, Ikhtisarat min kitab al-filaha: Nass andalusi min al-'asr al-murabiti mustakhlas min asl filahi mafqud li-Muhammad b. Malik al-Tighnari, wadh' Ibn Luyn al-Tujjibi. Dirasa wa-tahqiq Ahmad al-Tahiri. Casablanca: Matba'at al-najah al-jadida, 2001.
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- [Wikipedia]: Muslim Agricultural Revolution (retrieved 21.01.2010).
Notes and References
 Derived from A.M. Watson, Agricultural Innovation, op. cit., chapter 23.
 Hajji Khalīfa, Kashf al-zunūn, edited by Serefettin Yaltkaya and Kilisli Rifat Bilge, 2 vols., Istanbul 1941-3; vol. 2, p. 1447.
 Mustafa Al-Shihabi, "2. Works on agriculture", in "Filāha", Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Leiden, Brill Online 2010 (print version: vol. 2, p. 899).
 Ibn Bassal, Libro de agricultura, edited by Jose M. Millas Vallicrosa and Mohammed Aziman, Tetuan: Instituto Muley al-hasan, 1955.
 J. M. Millas Vallicrosa, "Sobre la obra de agricultura de Ibn Bassal", in Nuevos estudios sobre historia de la ciencia Espanola, Barcelona: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, 1960, pp. 139-40.
 See the recent editions of both books of Abū 'l-Khayr al-Ishbīlī: Kitāb al-Filāha. Tratado de agricultura, ed. and Spanish trans. Julia María Carabaza, Madrid 1991; 'Umdat al-tabīb fī ma'rifat al-nabāt, 2 vols., ed. Muhammad al-Arabī al-Khattābī, Beirut 1995 and Kitābu 'umdati al-tabīb fī ma'rifat al-nabāt li-kulli labīb (Libro base del médico para el conocimiento de la botánica por todo experto), ed., notas y trad. castellana de Joaquín Bustamante, Frederico Corriente, and Mahomed Tilmatine, 2 vols., Madrid 2004-07.
 In A Charbonneau, "Kitab al-Filaha of Al-Ichbili", in Bulletin d‘Etudes Arabes, vol. 6 (1946), pp. 130-144.
 It was the first to be published and also translated into Spanish (Kitab al-Filaha al-andalusiyah (The Book of Andalusian Agriculture) by Abu Zakariya Yahya ibn Muhammad ibn al-Awwam al-Ishbili (d. 1185). Translated into Spanish and annotated by Joseph Antonio Banqueri, Madrid: Imprenta Real, 1802) then into French: Ibn Al-Awwam, Le Livre de l'Agriculture d'Ibn al-Awwam, translated from Arabic by J. J. Clément-Mullet, Paris 1864-7, 3 vols. Reprinted: Ibn al-Awwam, Le livre de l'agriculture (Paris: Actes Sud, 2000).
 Ibn Khaldun, Les Prolégomènes d'Ebn Khaldoun, traduction française de W. M. de Slane, 3 vols., Paris, 1863, vol. 3, p. 166.
 See for the sources and more details G.S. Colin in "Filāha" (Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Leiden, Brill Online 2010; print version: vol. 2, p. 899) and J. Vernet and J. Samso, "Development of Arabic Science in Andalusia", in The Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Sciences, edited by Roshdi Rashed, Routledge, London, 1996, vol. 1, pp. 243-76.
 The details are in E. Lévi Provençal, History, op. cit., pp. 289-90.
 Derived from V. Lagardère, "La Riziculture en Al Andalus (VIIIème-XVème siècles)", in Studia Islamica, vol. 83, 1996, pp. 71-87/
 L.Bolens, "Agriculture", op. cit., p. 22.
 See final chapter "Agriculture Retreat" in A. M. Watson, Agricultural Innovation, op. cit.
* The original article was produced by Salah Zaimeche, Salim Al-Hassani, Talip Alp and Ahmed Salem. The members of the new FSTC Research Team have re-edited and revised this new version. The team now comprises of Mohammed Abattouy, Salim Al-Hassani, Mohammed El-Gomati, Salim Ayduz, Savas Konur, Cem Nizamoglu, Anne-Maria Brennan, Maurice Coles, Ian Fenn, Amar Nazir and Margaret Morris.
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by: FSTC Research Team, Tue 02 February, 2010