1000 Years Amnesia: Environment Tradition in Muslim Heritage (Cont'd)
by Salim T S Al-Hassani*
Back to the Table of Contents5.3. Care for Animals as Flagship of the Islamic Respect to Creation
The Islamic practical morals based in part on the respect of nature and of the different kingdoms of creation and on responsible consumption, including recycling, is well exemplified by the place granted to care for animals as a representative aspect of a social conduct oriented environment friendly.
The early Islamic society cared a great deal not only for the natural environment, but also extended its care and protection to the animal world. Human beings according to the teachings of Islam are God's vice-regents on earth, and for this reason they must also demonstrate guardianship to all of God's creatures. The Prophet Muhammad gave many examples to demonstrate the importance and gravity of this custodianship. Among these examples is that he stated that a person would go to hell for starving a cat to death, and another person who would be forgiven all sins for quenching the thirst of dog as it waited by a well. Sahih Al-Bukhari contains an account of the Prophet himself wiping with his own cloth the face of his horse, and stating that this is a good deed for anyone to give even a grain of barley to a horse.
There are many such examples that we find in the history of Islam. For instance, when a Muslim plants or sows something, that an animal or bird feeds itself from, this is a charity; anyone who treats well his horse will be protected against poverty; the Prophet forbade Muslims from tying an animal and using it as a target, cutting an animal's feet muscles or letting a tied animal die; whomsoever mutilated an animal, or hitting animals on the face, acts badly and should be cursed. It is also forbidden to separate a beast from its progeny or to burn a nest of ants without an adequate reason.
Many non-Muslim observers would be astonished at the excessive care and provision that the Muslims would provide for animals that may otherwise be seen as a menace. For example, Volney mentions the substantial number of hideous dogs wandering in the streets of Cairo and the kites hovering over houses uttering mournful noises. He points out that Muslims kill neither, though both dogs and kites are considered to have impurities. On the contrary, devout Muslims went to the extent of establishing bread and water foundations for dogs.
Thevenot also observed that the charity of the Turks extends to animals and birds. On market days, for example, many people would buy birds with the sole intention of releasing them to be free. Thevenot further noted that people would also leave enormous wealth to feed cats and dogs; some would give money to bakers or butchers for this charitable purpose. In turn those who are charged with this responsibility are more than pleased to carry through the task, and even in the town square.
It was in this spirit that the Muhtasib, the market inspector, would not only take responsibility for preventing breaches of the civil and religious law but also for preventing and punishing people for not supplying their animals with sufficient provender or overworking the animal.
Islamic law commands that a Muslim should avoid every form of cruelty towards animals, especially within the task of ritual slaughter. For instance, it is stressed that never should a knife be sharpened in front of the beast to be slaughtered, and that no beast should ever be killed in front of others.
In medieval times, states Le Bon, the land of Islam was a paradise for animals. Dogs, cats, birds, and all others of the animal world were universally cared for. Birds flew freely inside mosques, and even built their nests in the vicinity of the Mosque. Wild birds crossed the fields without ever being disturbed, and never would a child attack a bird's nest. In Cairo he describes a widely observed fact that there exists a Mosque where cats, at a certain hour of the day, came to fetch their food that a charitable hand had provided for these animals countless times over. Le Bon claimed further that it is from these small details that we can judge the morality of a nation and its people; it shows the kindness and urbanity the Westerner will learn from the oriental.
In conclusion one cites a beautifully touching incident in the life of the grammarian Abu'l Hassan Tahir b. Ahmad b. Bashadh (d. 469 H), recorded by Ibn Khalikan, which demonstrates an animal's ability to provide a moral example to a Muslim, and the Muslims ability to accept this:
`Being one day on the roof of the Mosque at old Cairo with some other persons, eating a collation, a cat went over to them and they gave it a bit of meat. The animal took it into its mouth and went off, but soon returned again, on which they threw another morsel to it. This is carried off also, and it kept going and coming a great number of times, at each of which it received from them another bit. Struck with this singularity, and knowing that no single cat could eat all that they had given, they suspected something extraordinary, and followed the animal. Then they saw it clamber over a wall on the roof and go down into an empty place like an abandoned room. There, they found another cat, but blind, eating of the food which had been brought to it and set before it by its companion. They were so much struck with this, and Ibn Babashadh said: "Since God has caused this speechless animal to be served and fed by another cat, and not withheld from its nourishment, how could He let a human being such as I perish of hunger?" He immediately broke off all the ties which bound him to the world; he gave up his place, renounced his salary and shut himself up in a chamber, where he pursued his studies in the full confidence that God would provide for him. His friends then took care of him and supported him till he died.'
The subject of animal care in Islamic civilisation is the subject study of several works published recently. In a noteworthy book on Animals in Islamic Tradition and Muslim Cultures, Richard D. Foltz surveys Islamic and Muslim attitudes towards animals, and human responsibilities towards them, through Islam's philosophy, literature, mysticism and art. This book is the first comprehensive study of the Islamic and Muslim attitudes toward animals. Drawing on a wide range of sources, including classic texts in philosophy, literature and mysticism, Foltz traces the development of Islamic attitudes towards animals over the centuries and confronts some of the key ethical questions facing Muslims today.
The care for animals extended during all periods of the Islamic civilisation. As late as the late 17th century and late 19th century, the Ottoman rulers issued animal friendly decrees to protect animals. According to the proclamation of Sultan Murad III (reigned 1574-1595) dated 1587, the owners of animals were warned not to overload their animals and look after them well and behave compassionately and feed them properly. Another proclamation was announced in 2nd October 1856 under Sultan Abd Al-Majid (reigned 1839-1861) to remind pack animal owners of the above mentioned decree and also banned them to ride their animals seven days a week. The new decree stated that pack animals should have a weekly rest on Fridays. During these rest days, the owners were banned to ride them. The bazaar inspector (Baladiyya, muhtasib) was responsible to control these regulations. 6. The Muslim Seven Year Action Plan (M7YAP) on Climate Change
6.1. Istanbul Conference and Declaration
Figure 18: Mean surface temperature change for the period 1999 to 2008 relative to the average temperatures from 1940 to 1980. This figure shows the predicted distribution of temperature change due to global warming. These changes are based on the projections of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions during the next century, and essentially assume normal levels of economic growth and no significant steps are taken to combat global greenhouse gas emissions. (Source).
In view of the alarming situation of world environment and the danger it represents for the future of human race, and given the engagement of Muslims in the world affairs, like their fellow citizens from all other countries on our blue planet, a very important conference was organised recently in Istanbul. In this un-presented meeting, leaders of the Muslim communities from all over the world gathered to deliver a strong message: Muslims also are concerned by the environmental issues, they are conscious of the extreme urgency to act, they are willing to participate with all other communities, faiths, cultures and organisations to protect our environment and to preserve the future for our children, and they use all the levers and means to instillate and develop consciousness about this important issue in the public. The outcome of the Istanbul conference were two tremendous measures: The Muslim 7 Year Action Plan (M7YAP) on Climate Change and Istanbul Declaration.
The two-day conference on Islam and the environment was held in Istanbul, Turkey, between 6 and 7 July, 2009. It was concluded by declaring a Muslim seven-year-action plan on climate change. The plan was culminated by the establishment of MACCA, the Muslim Association for Climate Change Action, which will act as an umbrella organization to monitor the action plan and follow up with its implementation.
The Muslim Seven Year Plan was created through Earth Mates Dialogue Centre in partnership with ARC (the Alliance of Religions and Conservation). The plan was endorses by the attendees of the conference, most of them being key scholars from across the spectrum of the Islamic faith.
During this meeting, some 200 key Muslim leaders, scholars, civil society members and government ministries from Islamic civil society, made the unprecedented step of joining together to endorse a long term plan for action on climate change. The leaders have agreed to spend the next seven years making and planning serious commitments to protecting the natural environment, and combating climate change.
The plan, drawn up by Earth Mates Dialogue Centre, an NGO based in the UK, and supported by ARC, as part of the UN/ARC Seven Year Plan Initiative, proposes investigating every level of Muslim activity from daily life to annual pilgrimages, from holy cities to the future training of Imams.
The plan implies establishing institutional enabling framework, developing overall capacity to deal with climate change and environmental conservation, developing and enhancing communication, outreach and partnerships, activating and reviving implementation of previous initiatives, plans, and declarations.
Figure 19: Photos of agriculture from Egypt: (a) a farmer activates an irrigation pump near the village of Talla in the El Minya district; (b) workers dig sand in the desert on the eastern bank of the Nile river in the El Minya district; (c) cultivated fields near Talla village, El Minya and in the background is the rocky desert in the eastern bank area of the Nile river; (d) a view of the rocky desert in the eastern bank area of the Nile river just out of El Minya city. © The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD).(Source)
The plan also includes proposals for developing the major Muslim cities as a green city model, which can act as a guidance for greening other Islamic cities. Besides, the plan attempts to develop an Islamic label for environmental friendly goods and services and create the best environmental practices for Islamic businesses.
Introduction: Since it was created last year in its draft form, the draft Muslim Seven Year Plan to Protect the Natural Environment has been welcomed and discussed at several different events in the Islamic world as well as in the Seventh Annual Dialogue between the Islamic world and Japan in March 2009 in Kuwait. The Istanbul Conference is the next stage in the process.
Islam does not have one agreed identity to represent the whole Muslim world, and so the Istanbul conference gathered scholars representing the Muslim UMMAH from different Islamic countries and communities to discuss and endorse the plan. This is an important model of how to deal with this major world issue. It is a dream of many - in both the faith-based and the secular worlds - to have religions working to solve one of the most challenging problem facing humankind today: the environmental crisis.
Figure 20: View of himā-s in the Arabian Peninsula. A himā is a reserved pasture protected from indiscriminate harvest on a temporary or permanent basis. It existed in the Middle East before Islam; but it was treated as a private reserve for powerful chieftains. (a) Air view of the ḥimā Dhariya in the great plateau area of Najd; (b) view from Matāli‛ near Amra; (c) view of sunrise on the valley of Takhfa. For the sources of the images and further developments on the himā, see Lutfallah Gari, Ecology in Muslim Heritage: A History of the Hima Conservation System
The plan: The environmental crisis is one of the world's most challenging problems. It has united many segments of humanity and constitutes a common concern of a worldwide movement. In the West, many groups are campaigning against the abuse of the environment, exerting pressure on their governments to enact legislation to limit pollution and prevent over-exploitation of nature. But protecting the environment depends not only on legislation, but also on the awakening of conscience. Islamic law underpins the daily lives of Muslims, yet despite the availability in Islamic literature of texts, teachings, and rules protecting nature, Islamic scholars have been slow to enact environmental laws derived from the Qur'an and from the Sunna of the Prophet Muhammad.
The Vision: "We envision a world that is environmentally safe for our children and the next generations where all nations of all religions live in harmony with nature and enjoy justice and fair share of God's bounties."
The mission: "To mobilize all the resources of the Islamic Ummah to contribute to the ongoing global efforts dealing with Climate Change based on a Seven Year Environmental Conservation Action Plan that reflects Islamic Principles and Values."
The strategy: The strategy includes focusing the efforts on selected Islamic Leaders and Institutions, partnering with key relevant Institutions from other religions, and complementing ongoing efforts of National, Regional and Global bodies to help protect the natural environment. All the actions have been discussed from different aspects: the priority of the action, the action output, the target group, the players, the time frame, the input, and indicators for evaluation of accomplishment. Islam is different in many respects from other religions, so we have to deal and use different methodology.
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Figures 21: Three books on ecology in Islam: (a) Islam and the Environment by Khalid Fazlul et al., (Paperback, Ta-Ha Publishers, 1999); (b) Islam And Ecology: A Bestowed Trust by Richard C. Foltz, Frederick Mathewson Denny and Azizan Baharuddin (Harvard University Press, 2003); (c)The Environmental Dimensions of Islam by Mawil Izzi Dien (Lutterworth Press, 1997)
The draft 7YP was developed by conducting many meetings of specialists and environmentalists with an Islamic background. Then we introduced the draft to many different conferences and events (including in Morocco, Kuwait, Turkey, UK, Indonesia, Qatar and Saudi Arabia) to increase the awareness about the plan and the number of stakeholders. Through this, we received endorsement from key scholars in the Islamic world –both official and non-official. The next step was to organize the conference in Istanbul with Muslim scholars from different regions and backgrounds to represent the spectrum of the Islamic religion. The scholars have been chosen to cover both sides of official and non-official in the Islamic world. The gathering will discuss and declare the plan to be the Muslim seven year action plan to deal with the climate change for the next generations.6.2. Istanbul Declaration
Istanbul Declaration of the Muslim 7-Year-Action Plan on Climate Change 2010-2017 (Istanbul 7 July 2009):
More than 50 religious scholars from across the Muslim world have endorsed a long-term plan for action on climate change. Dr. Youssef Al Qaradawi, the president of the International Union of Muslim Scholars, lent his support to Muslims convened in Istanbul 6 -7 July 2009.
The plan, drawn up by Earth Mates Dialogue Centre (EMDC), an NGO based in the UK, implies establishing institutional enabling framework, developing overall capacity to deal with climate change and environmental conservation, developing and enhancing communication, outreach and partnerships, activating and reviving implementation of previous initiatives, plans, and declarations.
The plan also includes proposals for developing the major Muslim cities as a green city model, which can act as a guidance for greening other Islamic cities. Besides, the plan attempts to develop an Islamic label for environmental friendly goods and services and create the best environmental practices for Islamic businesses.
The proposals will be managed through the umbrella organization 'MACCA', the Muslim Associations for Climate Change Action. The proposals have been endorsed by around 200 Muslim scholars, experts and representatives of Islamic civil society organizations, as well as representatives of ministries of environment and Awqaf (Endowments) of many Islamic countries, such as Kuwait, Bahrain, Morocco, Indonesia, Senegal, Turkey, etc.
Figure 22: Photos from the conference on Islam and the Environment (Istanbul, 6-7 July 2009) showing Shaikh Dr Ali Juma'a the Grand Mufti of Egypt and Lord Mohammed Sheikh (UK)
The Mufti of Egypt, Dr. Ali Jumma, the Mufti of Palestine, Dr. Ekrama Sabri, Dr. Salman Alouda, a prominent Saudi Arabian scholar, and Said Ali, Mohamad Hussein Fadl Allah, the Lebanese Shiah scholar, also lent their support, as well as ISESCO - the Islamic Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Al Fatih University in Turkey and the municipality of Greater Istanbul, beside different organizations in the Islamic world.
The plan, initiated by a group of environmental experts with the cooperation of the Kuwaiti Ministry of Awqaf and Islamic Affairs last year, will be presented to the Secretary General of the United Nations at a special meeting in Windsor castle, England, in November 2009. Afterwards, the plan will be set for implementation in Muslim countries worldwide.
The Windsor meeting, sponsored by the UNDP and ARC will bring together the long-term plans of the eleven major global faiths to consider how to look after the environment and address climate change challenges. Their integrated vision will be presented in the international climate change conference in Copenhagen in December 2009.
The Muslim action plan and its declaration in Istanbul is part of what Olav Kjorven, the Assistant General Secretary of the UNDP, has called, "The biggest civil society movement on climate change in history". "The role of Islam", he said, "could be one of the decisive factors tipping the planet towards a sustainable future. This commitment, he continued, in Istanbul to a low carbon future can be of historic significance in the path to resolving climate change and other pressing environmental issues". 7. Acknowledgements
This paper would not have been possible without the dedicated assistance of Professor Mohammed Abattouy. Not being a specialist in environmental science nor its history, I had to rely on the work and ideas of many scholars. In particular, I like to thank Dr Mawil Izziddin, Dr. Anne-Maria Brennan, Dr Mahmoud Akef, Dr Sayed Dasooqi Hassan, Martin Palmer, Sir Crispin Tickell, Dr Subhi Azzawi, Dr Ferhan Nizami, Fazlun Khalid, Prof. Paul Berkman, Dr Salim Ayduz, Prof. Talip Alp, Prof. Rafid Al-Khaddar, Suhaila Baarma, Harfiya Abdel Haleem and Margaret Morris.
8. References and further reading
8. 1 Articles on MuslimHeritage.com
8.2 Links related to Istanbul conference and declaration 8.3 General references and further resources
- Al-Hassani, Salim, MHAG Meeting at the Royal Society, London (published 8 August 2009): report on the meeting of The Muslim Heritage Awareness Group (MHAG), a consulting network to the Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation (FSTC) in 14 July 2009 on "Environment and Muslim Heritage".
- Al-Rawi, Munim M., Contribution of Ibn Sina to the development of Earth Sciences (published 9 December 2002).
- Al-Samarrai, Qasim, Abbasid Gardens in Baghdad and Samarra (published 7 November 2002).
- FSTC, Animal Care (published 15 February 2006).
- FSTC, Islamic Aesthetics, Gardens and Nature (published 25 January 2007).
- Gari, Lutfallah, Knowledge versus Natural Disasters from Arabic Sources (published 21 May 2008).
- Gari, Lutfallah, Ecology in Muslim Heritage: Treatises on Environmental Pollution up to the End of 13th Century (published 30 April 2008).
- Gari, Lutfallah, Ecology in Muslim Heritage: A History of the Hima Conservation System (published 15 April 2008 ).
- Nizamoglu, Cem, Cats in Islamic Culture (published 16 April 2007).
- Mackintosh-Smith, Tim, The Secret Gardens of Sana'a (published 16 March 2006).
- Sir Tickell, Crispin, Environment and the Muslim Heritage (published 8 August 2009).
- Shateh, Hadi Ali, Interior Architecture of Desert Climate: Case Study of Gadames city (Libyan Desert) (published 28 October 2002). See the full article in PDF.
- See also related articles on Nature, Agriculture and Town & City.
- Abdel Haleem, Harfiyah (editor), Islam and the Environment. London: Ta-Ha Publishers, 1999, paperback.
- Agwan, A.R. (editor), Islam and the Environment. New Delhi: Institute of Objective Studies, 1997.
- Al-Hassani, Salim, Chief Editor, 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World. Manchester, FSTC, 2006.
- Busool, Assad N., Animal Rights and Ecology in Islam (The Guidance of the Sirah Series, vol. 3). New Delhi: Al Huda Publications, 1995, paperback.
- Denny, Frederick M., Islam and Ecology: A Bestowed Trust Inviting Balanced Stewardship. Accessed 9.09.2008 on the website of the Forum on Religion and Ecology: Revisioning Human-Earth Relations. (to access this article follow the following path: Enter site/World religions/Islam).
- Fazlul, Khalid, Joanne O'Brien, Islam and Ecology. (World Religions and Ecology Series). London: Cassell, a division of Orion Publishing, 1992.
- Fazlul, Khalid et al., Islam and the Environment. London: Ta-Ha Publishers, 1999, paperback.
- Foltz, Richard C., Mathewson Denny, Frederick, Baharuddin, Azizan, Islam And Ecology: A Bestowed Trust. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003.
- Foltz, Richard C., Islam and Ecology: Bibliography. Center for the Study of World Religions, Harvard Divinity School, 2003 (click here for the PDF version).
- Foltz, Richard, "Ecology and Religion: Ecology and Islam", entry from Encyclopaedia of Religion.Woodbridge, CT: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005, 4 pp.
- Gottlieb, Roger S. (editor), The Oxford Handbook of Religion and Ecology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006, hardcover.
- Hope, Marjorie, Young, James, "Islam and Ecology", Cross Currents, Summer 1994, vol. 44, Issue 2.
- Izzi Dien, Mawil, "Islamic Environmental Ethics, Law and Society", in Ethics of Environment and Development, edited by J.R. Engel & J.G. Engel. London: Belhaven, 1990, pp. 189-198.
- Izzi Dien, Mawil, "Islam and the Environment: Theory and Practice", Journal of Beliefs and Values 18, no. 1. (1997): 47–58.
- Izzi Dien, Mawil, The Environmental Dimensions of Islam. Cambridge: Lutterworth Press, 1997, hardcover.
- Kula, E., "Islam and environmental conservation", Environmental conservation (Cambridge University Press ), 2001, vol. 28, no1, pp. 1-9.
- Nasr, Seyyed Hossein, "Islam and the Environmental Crisis," in Spirit and Nature: Why the Environment is a Religious Issue, Stephen C. Rockefeller and John C. Elder, eds. Boston: Beacon Press, 1992, pp 85–107.
- Ozalp, Mehmet, Perspective of Islam on Life, Ecology, Environment and Human Role Within (retrieved 17.08.2009).
- Setia, Adi, "The Inner Dimension of Going Green: Articulating an Islamic Deep-Ecology", Islam & Science (Thomson Gale), December 2007, vol. 5/2.
- The London Islamic Network for the Environment (UK).
- Website of the Islamic Foundation for Ecology and Environmental Sciences (UK).
- Wellman, David Joseph, Sustainable Diplomacy: Ecology, Religion and Ethics in Muslim-Christian Relations. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.
[1.] See below the section on animal care.
[2.] See Marquis de Tournefort, Relation d'un voyage du Levant, Amsterdam, 1718; R. Saoud, Muslim Architecture under the Ottoman Patronage (1326-1924); Behice Özden, Getting the feel of Süleymaniye Quarter.
[3.] See Esin Atil, "Art and Architecture", in History of the Ottoman State, Society and Civilization, ed. E. Ihsanoglu, Istanbul: IRCICA, 2002, pp. 607-644; Gülru Necipoğlu, "Challenging the Past: Sinan and the Competitive Discourse of Early Modern Islamic Architecture", Muqarnas: An Annual on Islamic Art and Architecture vol. 10 (1993): pp. 169-180; idem, "The Süleymaniye Complex in Istanbul: An Interpretation", Muqarnas, vol. 3 (1985): pp. 92-117.
[4.] On " wind catchers" and "windrowers, see Mehdi N. Bahadori, "Passive Cooling Systems in Iranian Architecture", Scientific American (238 (2), February 1978: pp. 144–154); M. N. Bahadori, "Viability of wind towers in achieving summer comfort in the hot arid regions of the middle east". Renewable Energy 5 (5-8) (August 1994: 879–892; A. A'zami. "Badgir in traditional Iranian architecture" (PDF) (retrieved 14.08.2009); [Irano-British Chamber of Commerce, Industries and Mines], Yazd, the city of windcatchers (2003); Yasser Mahgoub, Architecture in the United Arab Emirates; [Wikipedia ], Windcatcher (viewed 14.08.2009).
[5.] The academic basis of this orientation is provided in reference works available in the scholarship. See Jamel Akbar, "Elements of the Traditional Built Environment", in Crisis in the Built Environment: The Case of the Muslim City (Singapore: Concept Media Pte Ltd., 1988); Süha Özkan, "Foi, culture et architecture", in Faith and the Built Environment: Architecture and Behavior in Islamic Cultures, edited by Süha Özkan (Lausanne: Comportements, 1996); Aptullah Kuran, "Form and Function in Ottoman Building Complexes", Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre 1-2 (1987): 132-139; Mete Turan, "Vernacular Architecture and Environmental Response", in Theories and Principles of Design in the Architecture of Islamic Societies, edited by Margaret Bentley Sevcenko (Cambridge, Mass.: Aga Khan Program for Islamic Architecture, 1988); Gianni Scudo, "Climatic Design in the Arab Courtyard House", Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre 1-2, 1988, 82-91.
[6.] See Lutfallah Gari, "Arabic Treatises on Environmental Pollution up to the End of the Thirteenth Century", Environment and History (The White Horse Press, Cambridge), vol. 8, N°. 4 (November 2002), pp. 475-488; published in a revised version on MuslimHeritage.com: Lutfallah Gari, Ecology in Muslim Heritage: Treatises on Environmental Pollution up to the End of 13th Century (30 April 2008). This article is one of the best studies published so far in English on the treatises of Islamic medicine that hit upon the environment protection. We rely upon the information that it contains.
[7.] Quoted from L. Gari (2008), op. cit. See also G. Bos (editor), Qusta Ibn Luqa's Medical Regime for the Pilgrims to Mecca. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1992, p. 5; and H. Fahndrich (editor), Abhandlung uber die Ansteckung von Qusta Ibn Luqa. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1987, pp. 22-24.
[8.] Friedrun R. Hau, "Summary of Razi's Epistle on Chronic Coryza at the Bloom of the Roses", Journal for the History of Arabic Science, vol. 1 (1977): p. 123.
[9.] L. Gari (2008), op. cit.
[10.] See L. Gari (2008), op. cit., for the contents of the book; and Khalid 'Azab, Madat al-baqa', kitab yaqika min talawwuth al-hawa'.
[11.] See on his life and work Ghada Karmi, A Mediaeval Compendium of Arabic Medicine: Abu Sahl al-Masihi's Book of the Hundred, Journal for the History of Arabic Science, vol. 2 (1978). Click here for the PDF file of this article.
[12.] L. Gari (2008), op. cit. L. Gari edited the text of Abū Sahl al-Masīhī Fī Tahqīq Amr al-Wabā' in the Journal for the History of Arabic Science, vol. 13 pp. 5-55; reprinted in Risālatān fī al-Jughrāfiya al-Ţibbiyah (Two Treatises on Medical Geography). Kuwait: Kuwait University and Kuwait Geographical Society, 2006.
[13.] Edited by Zuhair al-Baba in Min Mu'allafāt Ibn Sīnā at-Tibbiyya (Aleppo, 1984).
[14.]See FSTC, "Three Times Greater than Venus": Ibn Ridhwan's Observation of Supernova 1006.
[15.] Translated into English by M. W. Dols and A. S. Gamal, Medieval Islamic Medicine: Ibn Ridwan's Treatise "On the Prevention of Bodily Ills in Egypt" (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984). Read quotations from the introduction to the book here.
[16.]L. Gari, op. cit. and M. W. Dols and A. S. Gamal, Medieval Islamic Medicine, Ibid, pp. 69-72.
[17.]Ibn Jumay‛, Tab‛ al-Iskandariyya (Nature of Alexanderia), edited byMuraizen 'Asiri and Sa‛d al-Bishri. Mekka: Umm al-Qura University, 1997.
[18.]Ya‛qūb al-Isra'īlī, Mizāj Dimashq w-wadh‛ihā wa tafāwutihā min Miṣr (Temperament of Damascus, Its Location and Variance from Egypt), edited by Lutfallah Gari in ‛Ālam al-Makhtūtāt wa al-Nawādir, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 428-457; reprinted in Risālatān fī al-Jughrāfiya al-Tibbiyah, op. cit.
[19.]The book has been translated into Latin by Edward Pococke (published in 1800) and into French by Antoine-Isaac Silvestre de Sacy (published in 1810). Several Arabic editions were issued recently (i.e., Damascus 1983, Baghdad 1987). See also K. Hafuz Zand and John & Ivy Videan, The Eastern Key: Kitāb al-Ifādah wa-'l-I‛tibār of ‛Abdallatīf al-Baghdādī. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1965.
[20.]L. Gari (2008), op. cit.; and K. Hafuz Zand and J. & I. Videan, The Eastern Key, ibid, pp. 27, 33, 179, 183.
[21.]Edited by S. K. Hamarneh, Ibn al-Quff al-Karaki's Book On Preventive Medicine and the Prevention of Health. Amman: University of Jordan, 1989. See also S.K. Hamarneh, Al-Ṭabīb wa-al-jarrāh al-'Arabī Abū al-Faraj ibn al-Quff (630-685 H./1233-1286 M.) (Cairo: Atlas Press, 1974).
[22.]L. Gari (2008), op. cit.; S. K. Hamarneh (ed.), Ibn al-Quff al-Karaki's Book, op. cit., pp. 12-13; pp. 176, 180-192, 216-217.
[23.]For the life and writings of Ibn al-Nafis, see M. Meyerhof and J. Schacht, "Ibn al-Nafīs" in Encyclopedia of Islam (2nd ed.), vol. 3, pp. 897-898; and A.Z. Iskandar, "Ibn al-Nafīs", Dictionary of Scientific Biography, vol. 9, pp. 600-604.
[24.]Constantin François de Chassebœuf, comte de Volney (1757-1820) was a French philosopher, historian, orientalist, and politician. He traveled to Egypt and Syria and published an account of his travel in 1787, Voyage en Egypte et en Syrie. Read online its English translation: Travels Through Syria and Egypt, in the Years 1783, 1784, and 1785.
[25.]Jean de Thévenot (1633-1667) was a French traveller in the East, who wrote extensively about his journeys. See J. e Thévenot, Relation d'un voyage fait au Levant dans laquelle il est curieusement traité des Estats sujets au Grand Seigneur, des Moeurs, Religions, Forces, Gouvernemens, Politiques, Langues, & coustumes des Habitans de ce grand Empire… Paris, Louis Billaine, 1665.
[26.]Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931) was a French social psychologist and sociologist, author of La civilisation des Arabes (1884). See especially Livre 4, Chapitre II, sub-section "Douceur des Orientaux à l'égard de tous les animaux".
[27.]Quoted also by Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidaya wa 'l-nihaya: see the Arabic text online here.
[28.] See FSTC, Animal Care (published 15 February 2006) and CemNizamoglu, Cats in Islamic Culture; [Wikipedia], Islam and animals; Khaled Abou El Fadl, Dogs in the Islamic Tradition and Nature, Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature, New York: Continuum International, 2004.
[29.] Richard D. Foltz, Animals in Islamic Tradition and Muslim Cultures, Oxford: Oneworld Publications, 2006; Paperback 2007.
[30.] Another scholar, James L. Wescoat, conducted a minute research on "The 'right of thirst' for animals in Islamic law: a comparative approach" Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 13(6), 1995, pp. 637-654. Remarking that little attention has been given to animals' access to water in different cultural and legal contexts, he shows that the 'right of thirst' in Islamic law constitutes an important exception. In his article, he endeavoured to show the doctrinal bases for the 'right of thirst', and clarifies the sense in which it is a 'right' and is 'Islamic'.
[31.] The archival source of the Firman (decree) related to these decisions is: Prime Ministry's Ottoman Archives, Istanbul, A. MKT.NZD, N° 196/25. See also İlber Ortaylı and others, Payitaht-ı zemin Eminönü: bir dünya başkenti, Project coordinator Latif Coşar; editor Kasım Demirci. İstanbul: Eminönü Belediyesi, 2008, pp. 354-355).
[32.] Read the full version of the document M7YP: draft Muslim Seven Year Plan to Protect the Natural Environment.
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*Professor Salim T S Al-Hassani, Emeritus Professor at the University of Manchester and Chairman of The Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation (FSTC), Manchester, UK.
by: by Prof. Salim T S Al-Hassani, Fri 11 September, 2009