Al-Ghazali's Theory of Education: Its Philosophy and Its Impact (Continued)
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6. Scholars, teachers and pupils
As Islamic society evolved, numerous changes took place in the nature of the educated élite and its role in society. At first, this élite was essentially made up of religious scholars; there then appeared ‘writers' and ‘philosophers', followed by Sufis. Each group represented a specific category of social leaders, who at times co-existed peacefully, but at other times had violent and bloody clashes over the principles or interests of their respective groups. These clashes, in turn, helped to shape Islamic society and civilization, and ended in the 11th century CE with the victory of the alliance of the fuqaha' and Sufis over the philosophers and scholars. Things remained thus until the end of the 18th century, when a new intellectual leadership appeared, that of the modern, secular, western-educated scholars, who imposed themselves in the 19th and 20th centuries.
Figure 8: A folio from the Akhlaq-i Nasiri, a philosophical treatise written by the famous scholar Nasir al-Din al-Tusi. (Source).
Al-Ghazali is greatly concerned by the problem of the scholarly élite. In his criticism of the scholars of his time there may be an element of self-criticism since, before undergoing a spiritual crisis, he first immersed himself in politics and academic disputes seeking fame and social advancement, subsequently foresaking the wealth and influence he had enjoyed, and retreating into seclusion and asceticism.
Al-Ghazali represents the traditional Islamic approach in his insistence on the importance of scholars (the inheritors of the prophets) in society. He defines the role of the scholar in society as: (a) seeking to attain the truth; (b) cultivating his innermost self and acting in accordance with the knowledge which he has attained; (c) disseminating the truth and teaching others without desire or fear . ‘Whoever learns, acts and teaches shall be mighty in the kingdom of heaven, for he is as the sun, whose resplendence illuminates other bodies, or as musk, whose fragrance perfumes other objects; in undertaking to teach, he accomplishes a great and momentous task, and must therefore be mindful of his rules of conduct and functions.'  The scholar who does not use his knowledge, but who withholds it and does not disseminate it shall be punished . The standing of scholars is determined by the standing of the sciences they work in. Since the religious sciences are more important than the temporal sciences, fiqh more significant than medicine, medicine more noble than witchcraft, the sciences of unveiling more important than those of transaction.
Al-Ghazali is critical of the scholars of his age (and of himself), particularly in view of their avidity for wealth and influence, their proximity to the rulers, their failure to abide by their own teachings, their interest in the traditional sciences, which help them to gain high office (e.g. fiqh), and their neglect of useful sciences (such as medicine) . Although al-Ghazali places the Sufis above the ‘ulama' (fuqaha' and philosophers), he does not spare them from his criticism or attacks. In his view, most Sufis have strayed far from the essence of Sufism and only aspire to the social position that Sufism confers on them .
Figure 9: View of the interior of a madrasa, from a poem by Elyas Nizami (1140-1209), dated c.1550 © Bridgeman Art Library / Institute of Oriental Studies, St. Petersburg, Russia, MS D-212. (Source).
Al-Ghazali is faced with two important questions: the relationship of the scholars to the common people and to the rulers. The function of the scholar is to seek the truth and disseminate it; teaching is a duty for the scholar. Al-Ghazali is very close to the idea of the ‘society of teachers and learners'. In his opinion, teaching is not the duty of scholars and teachers alone; anyone who learns something has a duty to teach it .
However, that does not mean that the scholar or teacher must teach everybody everything. The scholar must take into account the differences between the common people and the élite, and between licit knowledge and ‘that which is to be withheld from those unworthy of it'. He must even keep secret truths that cannot be divulged for fear that they may have a harmful effect on people or cause them to doubt their own faith or reason. Al-Ghazali practised this himself and recommends it in many of his books, in particular Ihya' ‘Ulum ad-Din. This position was the result of the persecution and intellectual terrorism prevailing at that time, which led to the assassination of a number of thinkers and the burning of their books .
As a reaction against his previous habits and experience, al-Ghazali stresses the need for scholars to practise asceticism, to shun authority and rulers, and to counterbalance the power of the rulers, in order to prevent the corruption of society. If it were not for the existence of unscrupulous judges and scholars, sovereigns would be less corrupt, for fear of rejection . In order to preserve their independent judgement, it is best for the scholars to remain aloof from the rulers and to refrain from visiting them or undertaking any work for them, such as teaching them or their children, and to refuse any salary or material compensation from them, because most of their wealth is ill-gotten. However, social necessities may force scholars to work and they are consequently compelled to accept State remuneration. It is therefore licit for them to receive payment from public funds .
In the early days of Islam, there was a category of mu‘allimin, who taught the younger generation reading and writing in makatib. Similarly, the elder companions of the Prophet, reciters of the Koran, transmitters of hadith, narrators of epics and fuqaha' gave instruction to adults in the mosques. In the Umayyad period, there arose a new category of mu'addibin (educators, tutors), who tutored the children of the élite at home; they grew in numbers and influence in the ‘Abbasid period. There also appeared a further category of mudarrisin of higher education, who engaged in research and university teaching; this coincided with the growth of specialized educational institutions (madaris, etc.).
In Islamic civilization, school-teachers and professors had a certain prestige springing from the religious nature of teaching and the eagerness of students to seek knowledge directly from the master. And yet, the social standing of Koranic school-masters was rather low, unlike that of venerable religious authorities and scholars. There thus emerged a clear concern in Islamic society to draw up rules governing the work of school-teachers .
Al-Ghazali considers the seeking of knowledge as a form of worship, and teaching as a duty and an obligation, and indeed a most excellent profession. Teachers are indispensable to society . Sufi influence is clearly in evidence in his writings, particularly with regard to the need for schoolteachers and the qualities they should possess, which include erudition, renunciation of the world, spiritual accomplishment, devotion, frugality, morality, etc.  Al-Ghazali proposes a ‘professional code of ethics' for teachers, who, he says, should practice what they preach, and be an example to their pupils and to people in general .
O Disciple! How many sleepless nights have you passed reading science and poring over books—but I do not know its purpose. If it was for worldly ends, to gain its baubles, win its honours and to boast over your contemporaries and equals, woe to you, and again woe! But if your purpose was to vitalize the Sacred Law of the Prophet, to develop your character and break ‘the soul commanding evil', then blessing on you and again blessings .
In such eloquent terms does al-Ghazali define the aim of study and learning. He then proceeds to advise students (especially those in higher education) to divide their days in the following manner, spending from dawn to sunrise in invocation of God and private worship; from sunrise to midmorning seeking knowledge from one's professors; from mid-morning to mid-afternoon in writing notes and making fair copies; from mid-afternoon to sunset in attending learned gatherings or in performing rites of invocation, begging forgiveness or glorification of God. The first third of the night should be spent in reading, the second third in prayer, and the final third in sleep .
Finally, he proposes a ‘code of ethics' whereby students should:
- 1. Ensure that they are spiritually pure before they undertake the quest for knowledge;
- 2. Divest themselves of their worldly possessions, detach themselves from hearth and home, and devote themselves to the search for knowledge and the pursuit of the hereafter;
- 3. Respect the rights of their teachers and behave in a civil manner towards them;
- 4. Beware, especially at the beginning of their studies, of paying too much attention to doctrinal controversies;
- 5. Master the fundamentals of the praiseworthy sciences (linguistics, tafsir, hadith, fiqh and kalam), and then specialize by studying one or more of those sciences in greater depth;
- 6. Choose useful subjects in which to specialize, especially those that are conducive to salvation in the hereafter;
- 7. Study each subject thoroughly before going on to another, bearing in mind the logical sequence and interconnectedness of the various disciplines;
- 8. Have as their main goal in their search for knowledge the cultivation and perfection of the innermost self in this world, and proximity to God in the hereafter, rather than the attainment of high office or the acquisition of wealth or fame .
These recommendations bear the stamp of Sufism, and represent al-Ghazali's later thinking. The above applies to the education of boys; girls are treated differently by al-Ghazali, and indeed by other Islamic philosophers of education. Despite the fact that Islam is concerned with improving the social status of women and devoting attention to their education, the later hadith and the social and educational principles derived therefrom accorded women an inferior position.
Al-Ghazali exemplifies this negative tendency regarding the methods in which women are to be considered, dealt with and educated. In his view, women are for the most part of dubious morality and limited intelligence; a virtuous woman is a rare phenomenon. He places women at a lower rank than men, and he enjoins them to obey men and to remain inside the home .
Figure 10: Entrance of Ulugh Beg madrasa in Registan Square at Samarqand, Uzbekistan. The Madrasa was built from 1417 to 1420. We do not know the name of the architect but it was a splendid building. It had two stories, with four lofty domes and a minaret at each corner. Every room was divided into two cubicles for two students. This building was so enduring that it still stands. (Source).
Although he holds that girls may claim from their parents, and wives from their husbands, the right to be educated, such education is very limited. It is enough for a young girl to learn the fundamentals of religion. She should not endeavour to acquire any loftier forms of knowledge, nor should she, except with the permission of her husband, go outside the home to seek knowledge, as long as he performs his duty to educate her. If, however, he does not educate her, she may go outside the home to seek education, and the man who would prevent her from so doing is at fault .
In his treatment of education, al-Ghazali draws on numerous and varied sources: He borrows from Ibn Miskawayh and the Ikhwan a-afa' [Brethren of Purity], as well as from the fuqaha'. As was his custom, he brings together various disparate and contradictory lements, and his writing is a combination of fiqh, philosophy and Sufi mysticism, in which the Sufi element is nevertheless dominant.
7. The impact of Al-Ghazali
Al-Ghazali died at the age of fifty five (according to the Hegira calendar), after a life that was not as long as it was productive, wide-ranging and influential. He is rightly considered to be one of the most important and profound Islamic thinkers, who was aptly called the ‘renovator of the 5th century H'. Al-Ghazali's influence may be witnessed by a number of factors, such as:
-The profundity, power and comprehensiveness of his thought, contained in some fifty different works, the most important of which are Ihya' ‘Ulum ad-Din, Tahafut al-Falasifa and al-Munqidh min a-alal, which are still studied today.
-The fact that his views were well-suited to his age and milieu, and were more a reflection of that age than a response to its needs and requirements—they constituted more an element of continuity and conservatism than a factor of renewal and change.
- After al-Ghazali, Islamic society and thought entered into a long period of stagnation and decline, and produced few other great minds. Al-Ghazali has thus remained alive and influential.
The influence of al-Ghazali on Islamic thought may be summed up as follows:
- He reinstated the ‘principle of fear' in religious thinking and emphasized the role of the Creator as the centre around which human life revolves, and an agent intervening directly and continuously in the course of human affairs (once the ‘principle of love' had gained supremacy among the Sufis).
- He introduced several principles of logic and philosophy (despite his attacks on those subjects) into the disciplines of fiqh and kalam.
- He reconciled shari‘a and Sufi mysticism (the fuqaha' and the Sufis) and contributed to the spread of Sufi brotherhoods.
- He defended Sunnite Islam against the tenets of philosophy and Shi‘ism.
- He contributed to the weakening of philosophy and the natural sciences.
Al-Ghazali's influence was not limited to the Islamic world, for he also had an impact on Christian European thought. In the late 11th century CE, and especially in the 12th century, a large number of works in Arabic on mathematics, astronomy, the natural sciences, chemistry, medicine, philosophy and religion were translated into Latin. Several books by al-Ghazali, and in particular Ihya' ‘Ulum ad-Din, Maqasid al-Falasifa (which some scholars mistakenly took to represent al-Ghazali's thought rather than a compendium of the philosophical principles current in his age), Tahafut al-Falasifa and Mizan al-‘Amal. A number of European scholars knew Arabic and thus became acquainted with al-Ghazali's views in the original. The influence of al-Ghazali is clearly perceptible in the works of numerous philosophers and scholars of the Middle Ages and the early modern period, especially St. Thomas Aquinas, Dante and David Hume. In his Summa Theologiae, St. Thomas Aquinas (1225-74) draws heavily on al-Ghazali's ideas contained in Ihya' ‘Ulum ad-Din, Kimiya-yi Sa‘adat and Ar-Risala al-Laduniya. The works of Dante (1265-1321) show clear Islamic influences from al-Ghazali and from Risalat al-Ghufran [The Epistle of Forgiveness] by al-Ma‘arri. The influence of al-Ghazali is also apparent in the writings of Pascal (1623-62), especially in the primacy he gives to intuition over reason and the senses, and Hume (1711-1776) in his rejection of causality.
Figure 11: Abu Zayd preaching in the Mosque, from Maqamat al-Hariri by Abu Muhammad al-Qasim Hariri (1054-1121), illustrated by the medieval Iraqi artist Al-Wasiti. Arabic illumination, Baghdad, 1237; MS Arabe 5847 folio 18v. © Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, France. (Source).
Al-Ghazali had an even deeper influence on Jewish than on Christian theology. Many Jewish scholars in the Middle Ages knew Arabic well, and some of al-Ghazali's books were translated into Hebrew. Mizan al-‘Amal, in particular, was widely read by Jews in the Middle Ages; several translations of it were made into Hebrew, and it was recast for Jewish readers by replacing verses of the Koran with passages from the Torah. One of the greatest Jewish thinkers to be influenced by al-Ghazali was Maimonides (In Arabic: Musà Ibn Maimun; in Hebrew: Moshe ben Maimon) (1135-1204 CE), whose Dalalat al-Ha'irin [Guide for the Perplexed] (originally composed in Arabic) is one of the most important books of medieval Jewish theology .
Al-Ghazali's writings on education constitute the high point of thinking on the subject in the Islamic world. The theory of education which he elaborated is the most complete edifice relating to the field; it clearly defines the aims of education, lays out the path to be followed, and the means whereby the objectives can be achieved. From the 12th to 19th centuries CE (6th to the 13th centuries H), Islamic thinking on education was heavily influenced by al-Ghazali.
Indeed, theoretical and practical educators, with few exceptions, hardly did anything other than borrow from al-Ghazali and summarize his ideas and books. In support of this claim, it is sufficient to note some of the writings on education that have come down to us:
- The work by Az-Zarnuji (died 1175 CE; 571 ) entitled Ta‘lim al-Muta‘allim Tariq at-Ta‘allum [Teaching the Student the Method of Study] is basically a compilation of passages from al-Ghazali's Ihya' ‘Ulum ad-Din and Mizan al-‘Amal reproduced literally, with a few minor additions: This work, which is noted for its conciseness, simplicity of style and liveliness, was one of the most widely circulated books on education.
- The indirect influence of al-Ghazali is found in the writings of At-Tusi (died vol 1273; AH. 672), one of the foremost scholars of the Middle Ages, the author of a vast and varied output of over 100 books on philosophy, logic, ethics, mathematics and astronomy. His most important works on education were Akhlaq-i Nasiri [Nasirean Ethics] (in Persian) and Adab al-Muta‘allimin [Rules of Conduct for Students]. In the former, he was influenced by Ibn Miskawayh's Tahdhib al-Akhlaq wa-Tathir al-A‘raq [The Refinement of Character and the Purification of Races] and Greek philosophy. The latter is merely a resumé of Az-Zarnuji's Ta‘lim, which in turn was influenced by al-Ghazali.
- Similarly, Ibn Jama‘a (died 1332; 733 H), the author of Tadhkirat as-Sami‘ wa-l-Mutakallim fi Adab al-‘Alim wa-l-Muta‘allim [Memorandum for the Pupil and Master on the Rules of Conduct of the Scholar and Student] was directly influenced by al-Ghazali, as well as by Az-Zarnuji and At-Tusi, both of whom borrowed from al-Ghazali. He lived in Egypt, Palestine and Syria and worked variously as a teacher, preacher and judge. His book is noted for its simplicity and orderliness, and contains an abundance of hadith, and Prophetic sayings and stories. He deals in a traditional manner with themes that had become familiar in Islamic education, such as the merit of knowledge and the rules of conduct for scholars, teachers and pupils. A chapter is devoted to the rules of conduct for boarders at madaris (which had become widespread at that time), and a further chapter deals with the art of using books.
- The work by Ibn al-Hajj al-‘Abdari (died 1336 CE; 737 H), Madkhal ash-Shar‘ ash-Sharif [Introduction to the Sublime Revelation] is practically in the same mould as Ihya' ‘Ulum ad-Din, but reflects the great difference between the Islamic civilization of the 5th century H and that of the 8th century H. The author mentions al-Ghazali frequently, and appears to be well acquainted with his ideas and writings on both general topics and on education.
- In the 16th century CE (8th century H) we find Ibn Hajar al-Haitami, the author of Tahrir al-Maqal fi Adab wa-Ahkam wa-Fawa'id Yahtaju ilaiha Mu'addibu-l-Atfal [The Liberation of Discourse on the Rules of Conduct and Moral Advantages Required by the Educators of Children], an Egyptian who studied and taught at al-Azhar before moving to the vicinity of Mecca. His writings are typical of the thought and literature of the Ottoman era. He concentrates on teaching in katatib and the situation and statutes of school-teachers. He quotes al-Ghazali and refers to him frequently.
Islamic (particularly Sunnite) educational thought followed the course mapped out by al-Ghazali and this influence has remained valid even after the influx of Western civilization and the emergence of a modern, contemporary Arab civilization .
- ‘Alim: see ‘ulama.
- awqaf: see waqf.
- ‘Abbasid: the second dynasty of Caliphs (749 CE; 132 H - 1258 CE; 656 H), following the Umayyads (q.v.), based in Baghdad from vol 762 (A.H. 145) and ending with the sacking of Baghdad by the Mongols in 1258 CE (656 H).
- al-Azhar: the most renowned and prestigious university in the Islamic world, founded in Cairo in 969 CE (358 H), with a reputation for authority in religious matters which it has maintained to the present day.
- Batinism, Batinite: relating to an esoteric (allegorical) and initiatic (batin ‘inmost, hidden, secret') interpretation of Islam.
- faih, pl. fuqaha': jurist, scholar of Islamic religious law.
- fiqh: Islamic jurisprudence.
- fuqaha': see faqih.
- hadith: (lit. ‘account, narrative') Prophetic tradition.
- ijma‘: the consensus of the community of the faithful on a point of doctrine.
- imam, pl. a'imma: prayer leader who stands facing the rows of worshippers; head of a community or group, especially of a school of law; (Shi‘ite) intercessor, who may exercise both spiritual and temporal authority.
- kalam: scholastic theology.
- khangah: a Sufi hermitage.
- katatib: see kuttab.
- kuttab, pl. katatib: elementary Koranic school.
- madaris: see madrasa.
- madrasa, pl. madaris: Islamic religious college. These were established in approximately the 5th century H. for higher religious education in general and for the dissemination of Sunnite doctrines in particular. Students usually boarded in the madaris, whose endowments enabled those enrolled to devote themselves to their studies. Another characteristic was that the State provided teachers to work in the madaris.
- makatib: see maktab.
- maktab, pl. makatib: elementary school.
- Mashriq: the Islamic East.
- mu'addib, pl. mu'addibin: educator, tutor.
- mu‘allim, pl. mu‘allimin: school-teacher.
- mudarris, pl. mudarrisin: professor.
- ribat: religious establishment in which Sufis usually lived, devoting themselves to worship and study.
- Seljuq: A Turkic temporal dynasty (1038 CE; 429 H - 1194 CE; 582 H) during the latter part of the ‘Abbasid Caliphate, centred in Iran, Central Asia and Iraq.
- sheikh, pl. shuyukh: (lit. ‘old man') venerable religious master (often Sufi).
- shar‘: the Divine Revelation.
- shari‘a: the revealed Holy Law of Islam.
- Shi‘ite: (shi‘a ‘party') those Muslims who believe that the leadership of the Islamic community rightfully belongs to the Prophet's descendants.
- Sufi, Sufism: relating to Islamic mysticism or esotericism.
- sunna: (lit. ‘custom, usage, tradition') practice established by the Prophet's example, often complementing the Koran.
- Sunnite: the majority grouping in Islam: those Muslims who claim to follow the tradition (sunna) of the Prophet.
- tafsir: Koranic exegesis, commentary.
- ‘ulama', sg. ‘alim: scholars, men of religion.
- Umayyad: the first dynasty of Caliphs, based in Damascus (661 CE; 41 H - 749 CE; 132 H).
- umma: the community of the faithful
- waqf, pl. awqaf: Islamic endowment, usually for a religious or charitable purpose.
- (Translator's note: With reference to Farid Jabre, Essai sur le lexique de Ghazali (Beirut, Université Libanaise, 1970).
- nafs has been translated as ‘self, innermost self', not ‘soul'; ‘revelation' is reserved for wahy, while ilham is rendered as ‘inspiration' and kashf as ‘unveiling'.)
9. Bibliography and resources
9.1. Works by Al-Ghazali
The Arabic articles al-, ad-, etc. are disregarded for the purpose of this alphabetical order.
- Ayyuha-l-Walad [Letter to a Disciple]. Cairo, Maktabat al-Jundi, n.d. (Printed as part of a series.) (English translation and introduction by George H. Scherer, O Disciple, Beirut, Catholic Press, 1951. (UNESCO Collection of Great Works: Arabic series.)
- Bidayat al-Hidaya [The Beginning of Divine Guidance]. Cairo, Al-Halabi, 1912.
- Ad-Durra al-Fakhira fi Kashf ‘Ulum al-Akhira [The Precious Pearl that Unveils the Sciences of the Hereafter]. Amsterdam, Oriental Press, 1974.
- Fada'ih al-Batiniya wa-Fada'il al-Mustazhiriya [The Infamies of the Esotericists and the Virtues of the Exotericists]. Cairo, Ad-Dar al-Qaumiya, 1964. (Also called Al-Mustazhiri [The Exotericist].)
- Faisal at-Tafriqa bain al-Islam wa-z-Zandaqa [The Point of Separation between Islam and Apostasy]. Cairo, Dar Ihya' al-Kutub al-‘Arabiya, 1961.
- Fatihat al-‘Ulum [The Beginning of Sciences]. Cairo, Al-Matba‘a al-Husainiya, 1904 (1322 H).
- Ihya' ‘Ulum ad-Din [The Revival of the Religious Sciences]. Cairo, Al-Matba‘a al-Azhariya, 1898 (1316 H). 4 vols.
- Iljam al-‘Awamm ‘an ‘Ilm al-Kalam [Restraining the Masses from Theological Disputation]. Cairo, Al-Matba‘a al-Muniriya, 1932 (1351 H).
- Al-Iqtisad fi-l-I‘tiqad [The Golden Mean in Belief]. Cairo, Maktabat as-Sa‘ada, 1909.
- Jawahir al-Qur'an [The Jewels of the Koran]. Damascus, Al-Markaz al-‘Arabi li-l-Kitab, n.d.
- Al-Kashf wa-t-Tabyin fi Ghurur al-Khalq Ajma‘in [The Investigation and Demonstration of the Delusion of All Creatures]. Cairo, Al-Halabi, 1960.
- Kimiya-yi Sa‘adat [The Alchemy of Happiness]. Bombay, 1903. (In Persian) (Translated into Arabic as Kitab al-Hikma fi Makhluqat Allah [The Book of Wisdom in God's Creations]. Cairo, Al-Qabbani, 1904.)
- Kitab al-Arba‘in fi Usul ad-Din [The Forty Fundamentals of the Faith]. Cairo, Al-Matba‘a al-‘Arabiya, 1926 (1344 H).
- Al-Ma‘arif al-‘Aqliya [Rational Knowledge]. Damascus, Dar al-Fikr al-‘Arabi, 1963.
- Ma‘arij al-Quds fi Madarij Ma‘rifat an-Nafs [The Ladder of Holiness Concerning the Degrees of Knowledge of Self]. Cairo, Matba‘at as-Sa‘ada, 1927.
- Al-Madnun bihi ‘alà ghair Ahlihi [That Which Is to Be Withheld from Those Unworthy of It]. Cairo, Maktabat al-Jundi, n.d.
- Maqasid al-Falasifa [The Aims of the Philosophers]. Cairo, Matba‘at as-Sa‘ada, 1913.
- Al-Maqsid al-Asnà fi Sharh Ma‘anì Asma' Allah al-Husnà [The Sublime Ideal in the Exegesis of the Most Beautiful Names of God]. Beirut, Dar al-Mashriq, 1982.
- Mi‘yar al-‘Ilm [The Yardstick of Knowledge]. Cairo, Matba‘at Kurdistan, 1911 (1329 H).
- Minhaj al-‘Abidin [The Path of the Worshippers]. Cairo, Maktabat al-Jundi, n.d.
- Mishkat al-Anwar [The Niche of Lights]. Cairo, Ad-Dar al-Qaumiya, 1964.
- Mizan al-‘Amal [The Criterion of Action]. Cairo, Maktabat Sabi, 1963.
- Al-Munqidh min ad-Dalal [Deliverance from Error]. Cairo, Al-Maktaba al-Anglo-Misriya, 1962.
- Al-Mustasfà fi ‘Ilm al-Usul [The Pure Teaching on the Science of Fundamentals]. Cairo, Al-Maktaba at-Tijariya, 1937. 2 vols.
- Al-Mustazhiri [The Exotericist]. See Fada'ih al-Batiniya wa-Fada'il al-Mustazhiriya.
- Al-Qistas al-Mustaqim [The Even Scales]. Damascus, Dar al-Hikma, 1986.
- Ar-Risala al-Laduniya [The Message of Mystic Intuition]. Cairo, Maktabat al-Jundi, no date.
- Ar-Risala al-Qudsiya fi Qawa‘id al-‘Aqa'id [The Jerusalem Epistle concerning the Foundations of the Articles of Faith]. (Forms part of Ihya' ‘Ulum ad-Din.)
- Tahafut al-Falasifa [The Incoherence of the Philosophers]. Cairo, Dar al-Ma‘arif, 1958.
- At-Tibr al-Masbuk fi Nasihat al-Muluk [Ingots of Gold for the Advice of Kings]. Beirut, Al-Mu'assasa al-Jami‘iya, 1987.
- On the editing of al-Ghazali's works and the authenticity of attribution to him, see: Badawi, ‘A. Mu'allafat al-Ghazali [The Works of al-Ghazali]. Cairo, Al-Majlis al-A‘là li-Ri‘ayat al-Funun wa-l-Adab, 1961.
9.2. Works by other classical Islamic or Arabic authors
- Al-‘Abdari, Ibn al-Hajj. Madkhal ash-Shar‘ ash-Sharif [Introduction to the Divine Revelation]. Cairo, Al-Matba‘a al-Ashrafiya, AD 1902 (1320 H), 3 vols.
- Al-Haitami, Ibn Hajar. Tahrir al-Maqal fi Adab wa-Ahkam wa-Fawa'id Yahtaju ilaiha Mu'addibu-l-Atfal [The Liberation of Discourse on the Rules of Conduct and Moral Advantages Required by the Educators of Children]. Dar al-Kutub al-Misriya, manuscript No. 3182/Lit.
- Ibn Jama‘a, Badr ud-Din. Tadhkirat as-Sami‘ wa-l-Mutakallim fi Adab al-‘alim wa-l-Muta‘allim [Memorandum for the Pupil and Master on the Rules of Conduct of the Scholar and Student]. Dar al-Kutub al-Misriya, manuscript No. 1831/Lit.
- Ibn Miskawayh. Tahdib al-Akhlaq wa-Tathir al-A‘raq [The Refinement of Character and the Purification of Races]. Cairo, Al-Matba‘a al-Adabiya, 1899 (1317 H).
- Ibn Rushd (Averroes). Tahafut at-Tahafut [The Incoherence of the Incoherence]. Cairo, Al-Matba‘a al-Islamiya, 1884 (1302 H).
- Ibn Miskawayh. Fasl al-Maqal wa-Taqrib ma bain ash-Shari‘a wa-l-Hikma min al-Ittisal [An Authoritative Treatise and Exposition of the Convergence which Exists between Religious Law and Philosophy]. Cairo, Al-Matba‘a al-Mahmudiya, n.d.
- Ikhwan as-Safa' [The Brethren of Purity]. Rasa'il [Epistles]. Cairo, 1928 (1347 H).
- Al-Ma‘arri, Abu-l-‘Ala'. Risalat al-Ghufran [The Epistle of Forgiveness]. Cairo, Dar al-Ma‘arif, 1977.
- Maimonides (In Arabic: Musà Ibn Maimun; in Hebrew: Moshe ben Maimon]. Dalalat al-Ha'irin [Guide for the Perplexed]. Cairo, Maktabat ath-Thaqafa ad-Diniya, n.d. (Originally composed in Arabic.)
- Al-Qabisi. Ar-Risala al-Mufassala li-Ahwal al-Mu‘allimin wa-Ahkam al-Mu‘allimin wa-l-Muta‘allimin [Detailed Report on the Situation of Schoolteachers and the Regulations Governing Schoolteachers and Pupils]. Cairo, Al-Halabi, 1955.
- Ash-Shaizari, ‘Abdurrahman. Nihayat ar-Rutba fi Talab al-Hisba [Hierarchy of the Inspectorate]. Cairo, Matba‘at Lajnat at-Ta'lif, 1946. (Edited, with French translation, by Bernhauer, as ‘Les institutions de police chez les Arabes...', Journal Asiatique, 1860-61.)
- At-Tusi, Nasiri ud-Din. Akhlaq-i Nasiri [Nasirean Ethics]. Bombay, 1850 (1267 H). (In Persian.)
- At-Tusi, Nasiri ud-Din. Adab al-Muta‘allimin [Rules of Conduct for Students].
- Az-Zarnuji, Burhan ud-Din. Ta‘lim al-Muta‘allim ariq at-Ta‘allum [Teaching the Student the Method of Study]. Cairo, Maktabat abi, 1956.
9.3. Works on al-Ghazali
- Dunya, S. Al-Haqiqa fi Nazar al-Ghazali [The Truth in the Eyes of al-Ghazali]. Cairo, Al-Halabi, 1947.
- Mahmud, Z. (ed.). Abu Hamid al-Ghazali fi-dh-Dhikrà al-Mi'awiya at-Tasi‘a li-Miladihi [Abu Hamid al-Ghazali on the Ninth Centenary of his Birth]. Cairo, Al-Majlis al-A‘là li-Ri‘ayat al-Funun wa-l-Adab, 1962.
- Mubarak, Z. Al-Akhlaq ‘ind al-Ghazali [Al-Ghazali's Ethics]. Cairo, Al-Maktaba at-Tijariya, n.d.
- al-‘Uthman, ‘A. Ad-Dirasat an-Nafsiya ‘ind al-Muslimin wa-l-Ghazali bi-Wajhin Khass [Spiritual Studies by Muslims and by al-Ghazali in Particular]. Cairo, Maktabat Wahba, 1963.
- al-‘Uthman, ‘A. Sirat al-Ghazali wa-Aqwal al-Mutaqaddimin fihi [The Life of al-Ghazali and the Remarks of the Ancients concerning him]. Damascus, Dar al-Fikr, n.d.
In English and French:
- Bello, I. E. The Medieval Islamic Controversy between Philosophy and Orthodoxy: Ijma‘ and Ta'wil in the Conflict between al-Ghazali and Ibn Rushd. Leiden, Brill, 1990.
- Ghazali: La raison et le miracle [Ghazali: the Reason and the Miracle]. Paris, Maisonneuve & Larose, 1987. (Collection "Islam d'hier et d'aujourd'hui", No. 30.) (Proceedings of a round-table held at UNESCO, Paris, 9-10 December 1985, on the 900th anniversary of the death of al-Ghazali. Articles in English, French and Arabic.)
- Myers, E. Arabic Thought and the Western World in the Golden Age of Islam. New York, Frederick Ungar, 1964.
- Othman, A. I. The Concept of Man in Islam in the Writings of Al Ghazali. Cairo, Dar al-Maaref, 1960.
- Smith, M. Al-Ghazali the Mystic. London, Luzac, 1944.
- Watt, M. Muslim Intellectual: A Study of Al Ghazali. Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press, 1963.
- Zwemmer, S. M. A Moslem Seeker after God. New York, Fleming Revell, 1920.
9.4. Further resources: Al-Ghazali online
- FSTC: Al-Ghazali's Views on Children's Education: Al-Ghazali is known in Europe as Algazel. His ideas on education dominated Islamic educational thought for centuries after his death. Read how Al-Ghazali saw the education of children and the role of parents.
- FSTC: Al-Azhar University - 1000 years of Scholarship
- FSTC: Education in Islam - The role of the Mosque
- FSTC: Al-Ghazalî (1058-1111): Al-Ghazalî is known in Europe as Algazel, and was one of the most illustrious Muslim scholars. His Maqasid al-Falasifah (The Aims of the Philosophers), translated into Latin in the 12th century, became very influential amongst scholastic Christian theologians.
- Learning Institutions in Islam: Learning institutions in various forms have existed for centuries in the Muslim World, the earliest of which are, al-Qarawiyyin, al-Azhar and al-Qayrawan. This short article traces the emergence and spread of madrasas as a popular form of institutionalised education that has long existed in Muslim lands, and provided education to more than just the elite of society as was the case in much of Europe.
- Medieval Sourcebook: Abu Hamid al-Ghazali (1058-1111 CE): Al-Munkidh min al-Dhalal (Confessions, or Deliverance from Error), c. 1100 CE. Source: From: Charles F. Horne, ed., The Sacred Books and Early Literature of the East, (New York: Parke, Austin, & Lipscomb, 1917), vol. VI: Medieval Arabia, pp. 99-133. This was a reprint of The Confessions of al-Ghazali, trans. by Claud Field, (London: J. Murray, 1909). Scanned by Jerome S. Arkenberg, Cal. State Fullerton. The text has been modernized by Prof. Arkenberg.
- Abu Hamid al-Ghazali, site maintained by Muhammad Hozien
- Al-Ghazali in Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
- Macquarie University: Medieval Philosophy: Al-Ghazali and Averroes (1996, R.J. Kilcullen).
- Frank Griffel, Al-Ghazali Stanford encyclopedia of Philosophy, First published Tue Aug 14, 2007.
- Full text of Incoherence of the Philosophers, from Al-Ghazali Website: Metaphysics in Context, London: Duckworth.
- Full text of Ihya 'ulum al-din.
- Fons Vitae al-Ghazali Spiritual Masters series.
- Full text of Incoherence of the Philosophers, from Al-Ghazali Website.
- Al-Ghazali Site: Main and Bibliography.
- M. Bouyges, Essai de chronologie des oeuvres d'al-Ghazali (Algazel) (Beirut: Librairie Catholique, 1959): the standard biographical on the works of al-Ghazali (French; in PDF.) See also a graph based on this work. It was also reviewed by F. Rahman 1961 (in PDF).
- Mu'alfat al-Ghazali by Abdurrahman Badawi. (Cairo: Al-Majlis al-A‘là li-Ri‘ayat al-Funun wa-l-Adab, 1961) (Arabic PDF.)
- Mashhad Al-Allaf's Ghazali's works (Arabic html). Addendum to Badawi's work above; now a complete work in its own right.
- List of Books in Arabic From Khasf az-Zunun By Hajji Khalifia (In Arabic).
- The works attributed to al-Ghazali by M. W. Watt. (E-text; in PDF.)
- A chronology of al-Ghazali's works. George F. Hourani: Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 79, No. 4. (Oct. - Dec., 1959), pp. 225-233.
- A revised chronology of al-Ghazali's works. George F. Hourani : Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 104, No. 2. (Apr. - Jun., 1984), pp. 289-302.
- A bibliography of works on Ghazali by Dr. Ömer Kara (Turkish, PDF): A good starting point (click here for a version converted to html).
- A Bibliography of Indonesian translations of al-Ghazali's works and works about him. by Nirwan Adira: (PDF and updated PDF file).
- A bibliography by A. Badawi. (French PDF).
- Dictionary of Ghazalian Terms (French PDF).
- Arabic Paleography a short book list.
 Ihya' ‘Ulum ad-Din, vol. 1, p. 80-81.
 Al-Munqidh min ad-Dalaal, p. 124 et seq; Ihya' ‘Ulum ad-Din, vol. 1, p. 41.
 Ihya' ‘Ulum ad-Din, vol. 1, p. 48.
 Ihya' ‘Ulum ad-Din, vol. 1, p. 2, 8.
 Al-Munqidh min ad-Dalal, passim; Faisal at-Tafriqa, pp. 127-29; Ihya' ‘Ulum ad-Din, vol. 1, p. 51 et seq., 313 et seq.; Al-Kashf wa-t-Tabyin fi Ghurur al-Khalq Ajma‘in, p. 3 et seq.
 Al-Kashf wa-t-Tabyan fi Ghurur al-Khalq Ajma‘in, p. 27-33.
 Ihya' ‘Ulum ad-Din, vol. 2, p. 273.
 Al-Ghazali often reiterates this position and states that he holds certain opinions which cannot be divulged or committed to paper; cf. Ihya' ‘Ulum ad-Din, vol. 1, pp. 50-51, 104-5; vol. 3, p. 18, 23, 26.
 Ihya' ‘Ulum ad-Din, vol. 2, p. 120.
 Ihya' ‘Ulum ad-Din, vol. 2, p. 107-19.
 Schoolteachers are thus subject to supervision by inspectors. See Ash-Shaizari, Nihayat ar-Rutba fi Talab al-Hisba, pp. 103-5; on the attention paid by fuqaha' and educators in their writings to defining the duties and rights of schoolteachers, see for instance al-Qabisi, Ar-Risala al-Mufassala li-Ahwal al-Mu‘allimin wa-Ahkam al-Mu‘alliman wa-l-Muta‘allimin.
 Ihya' ‘Ulum ad-Din, vol. 1, p. 11.
 Ayyuha-l-Walad, p. 134.
 Ihya' ‘Ulum ad-Din, vol. 1, p. 48-51; Mizan al-‘Amal, 98-104; Fatihat al-‘Ulum, p. 60-63.
 Ayyuha-l-Walad, p. 127 (O Disciple, p. 7). English translation: George H. Scherer, Al-Ghazali: O Disciple. Beirut, Catholic Press, 1951.
 Ihya' ‘Ulum ad-Din, vol. 1, p. 277-78.
 Ihya' ‘Ulum ad-Din, vol. 1, p. 42-47, Mizan al-‘Amal, pp. 87-98, Fatihat al-‘Ulum, p. 56-60.
 Ihya' ‘Ulum ad-Din, vol. 2, p. 32-36, 42-44; At-Tibr al-Masbuk fi Nasiat al-Muluk, p. 163-64.
 Ihya' ‘Ulum ad-Din, vol. 2, p. 36-43.
 On the influence of Arab and Islamic thought on Christian and Jewish European civilization in general (including the influence of al-Ghazali), see E. Myers, Arabic Thought and the Western World in the Golden Age of Islam.
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by: Nabil Nofal, Mon 16 March, 2009