Geography

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The European Jerusalem: Sarajevo, where Muslim heritage flourished in Central Europe
During Ottoman rule, Sarajevo was heralded as the “European Jerusalem”, as its invaluable contributions to civil engineering, industry, trade and architecture attracted people from various ethnic and...
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Cairo: A Millennial
In this article, published originally in Saudi Aramco World in 1969, focus is laid on the history of Cairo, the capital city of Egypt, founded in 969 by General Gawhar, in the name of the Fatimid...
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Piri Reis: A Genius 16th-Century Ottoman Cartographer and Navigator
Piri Reis is a well known Ottoman-Turkish admiral, geographer and cartographer from the 16th century. His famous world map compiled in 1513 and discovered in 1929 at Topkapi Palace in Istanbul is the...
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Al-Muqaddasi and Human Geography: An Early Contribution to Social Sciences
Recent scholarly interest in the genesis of social sciences in Islamic culture is a noteworthy shift. Until recent times, the development of these fields was credited exclusively to the modern...
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The Islamic Heritage in China: A General Survey
In this article, Anthony Garnaut, an expert of the Muslim Chinese culture, focuses on the Islamic heritage in China and its relevance to understanding both the evolution of Chinese history and...
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Ahmad Ibn Fadhlan in Northern Europe: A Survey of his Account of Russian Vikings in the 10th Century
One of the earliest detailed descriptions of Northern Europe is reported in the account written by the Arab Muslim writer and traveler Ahmad Ibn Fadhlan, who was sent in 921 CE as the secretary to an...
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Piri Reis maps America
In 1513 Piri Reis presented his famous map of the New World to the Sultan, giving the Ottomans, well before...
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The Globalisation of Crops
As the Muslims advanced, they introduced methods and machinery of the Ancient Near East, and also certain...
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Farming Manuals
Muslim farming manuals developed ways and methods for increasing production and productivity, and maintaining...
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Mapping the World
Some of the great contributions to geography by early Muslims who were driven by an intense interest not only...
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