Geography

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The European Jerusalem: Sarajevo, where Muslim heritage flourished in Central Europe
During Ottoman rule, Sarajevo was heralded as the “European Jerusalem”, as its invaluable contributions to civil engineering, industry, trade and architecture attracted people from various ethnic and...
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Cairo: A Millennial
In this article, published originally in Saudi Aramco World in 1969, focus is laid on the history of Cairo, the capital city of Egypt, founded in 969 by General Gawhar, in the name of the Fatimid...
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Piri Reis: A Genius 16th-Century Ottoman Cartographer and Navigator
Piri Reis is a well known Ottoman-Turkish admiral, geographer and cartographer from the 16th century. His famous world map compiled in 1513 and discovered in 1929 at Topkapi Palace in Istanbul is the...
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Al-Muqaddasi and Human Geography: An Early Contribution to Social Sciences
Recent scholarly interest in the genesis of social sciences in Islamic culture is a noteworthy shift. Until recent times, the development of these fields was credited exclusively to the modern...
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Gaza at the Crossroad of Civilisations: Two Contemporary Views
Gaza, this tormented part of Palestine, land of suffering and resistance, is also a land of long history. This article presents two recent attempts to recover the ancient and medieval history of Gaza...
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The Islamic Heritage in China: A General Survey
In this article, Anthony Garnaut, an expert of the Muslim Chinese culture, focuses on the Islamic heritage in China and its relevance to understanding both the evolution of Chinese history and...
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The Scholars of Samarkand
Samarkand contributed in particular to the progress of science in astronomy through its observatory. Some of...
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Kufa
Being the home of the encyclopaedic scholar Al-kindi and the great chemist Jabir Ibn Hayan, Kufa had a key...
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Khwarizm
Khwarizm is the city of the birth of algebra, where Al-Biruni corrected and refined the sciences of the past...
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Figure 1. Internal view of the mosque showing the arcades carried by the columns
Architecture of Al-Azhar
Of the many splendours of Egypt, the Al-Azhar stands as a landmark in its architectural and cultural history...
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Kutubiya Mosque (1158)
Abul Mumin chose to build his mosque adjacent to the main street of booksellers to emphasize the importance...
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