Geography

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When the World was Upside Down: Maps from Muslim Civilisation
We tend to take many things for granted. Today, we are equipped with numerous means of communication and transport over land, sea and air. We have such freedom to swiftly travel around the globe, so...
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Ravy (Rayy)
Rayy was a city in the old Persian region of Media, during the Islamic times in the province of Djibal...
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The House of Wisdom: Baghdad’s Intellectual Powerhouse
The heyday of Baghdad was 1,200 years ago when it was the thriving capital of the Muslim world. It was home to the House of Wisdom, an academy of knowledge that attracted brains from far and wide....
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The Unpublished Works of Arabic Geography: An Overview and a Classification
Islamic geographical texts are not only valuable in terms of geographical research, they also constitute an essential resource in the study of Arab-Islamic civilisation - its literature, history,...
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The European Jerusalem: Sarajevo, where Muslim heritage flourished in Central Europe
During Ottoman rule, Sarajevo was heralded as the “European Jerusalem”, as its invaluable contributions to civil engineering, industry, trade and architecture attracted people from various ethnic and...
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Cairo: A Millennial
In this article, published originally in Saudi Aramco World in 1969, focus is laid on the history of Cairo, the capital city of Egypt, founded in 969 by General Gawhar, in the name of the Fatimid...
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The Palaces of Ukhaidir
The architects of Ukhaidir first introduced a new elaborate technique based on the construction of elliptical...
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Architecture of Muslim Spain and North Africa
First in a series of articles on the Architecture of Muslim Spain and North Africa (756-1500AD). A brief...
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Architecture of Muslim Caliphate in North Africa
The arrival of Islam to North Africa at the hands of Uqba Ibn Nafi (d.683) transformed region into a...
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The Mosque of Cordoba
One cannot visit Cordoba (in Spain) today without a trip to its main tourist attraction, The Great Mosque of...
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Al-Zahra - City of Andalus
Al-Zahra became renowned for its high advanced civilisation, style and protocol in addition to the...
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Bab Mardum Mosque - An inspiration for Gothic?
Bab Mardum Mosque was built in Toledo Spain between 999 and 1000 according to an inscription found on its...
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