Geography

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When the World was Upside Down: Maps from Muslim Civilisation
We tend to take many things for granted. Today, we are equipped with numerous means of communication and transport over land, sea and air. We have such freedom to swiftly travel around the globe, so...
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Ravy (Rayy)
Rayy was a city in the old Persian region of Media, during the Islamic times in the province of Djibal...
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The House of Wisdom: Baghdad’s Intellectual Powerhouse
The heyday of Baghdad was 1,200 years ago when it was the thriving capital of the Muslim world. It was home to the House of Wisdom, an academy of knowledge that attracted brains from far and wide....
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The Unpublished Works of Arabic Geography: An Overview and a Classification
Islamic geographical texts are not only valuable in terms of geographical research, they also constitute an essential resource in the study of Arab-Islamic civilisation - its literature, history,...
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The European Jerusalem: Sarajevo, where Muslim heritage flourished in Central Europe
During Ottoman rule, Sarajevo was heralded as the “European Jerusalem”, as its invaluable contributions to civil engineering, industry, trade and architecture attracted people from various ethnic and...
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Cairo: A Millennial
In this article, published originally in Saudi Aramco World in 1969, focus is laid on the history of Cairo, the capital city of Egypt, founded in 969 by General Gawhar, in the name of the Fatimid...
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The Arch That Never Sleeps
Perhaps no culture mastered the design and use of the arch more than the Muslims. Inheriting earlier arch...
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Architecture under Umayyad Patronage (661-750)
Under the Umayyads, Islam spread to various lands, generating considerable prosperity and wealth. In that...
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Architecture under Abbassid Patronage (750-892)
The Abbassids became patrons of a number of gigantic construction projects extending from large mosques and...
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Ceremonial Gates of the Abbassids
Among the features of the Abbassids elaborate lifestyle that had a great impact on the architecture of this...
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City Design and Planning of the Abbassids
The Abbassid period is characterised by large-scale design and city planning. In addition to their famous...
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The Abbassid Mosques
Building enthusiasm of the Abbassids took a new dimension in the construction of mosques as reflected in...
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