Geography

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When the World was Upside Down: Maps from Muslim Civilisation
We tend to take many things for granted. Today, we are equipped with numerous means of communication and transport over land, sea and air. We have such freedom to swiftly travel around the globe, so...
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Ravy (Rayy)
Rayy was a city in the old Persian region of Media, during the Islamic times in the province of Djibal...
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The House of Wisdom: Baghdad’s Intellectual Powerhouse
The heyday of Baghdad was 1,200 years ago when it was the thriving capital of the Muslim world. It was home to the House of Wisdom, an academy of knowledge that attracted brains from far and wide....
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The Unpublished Works of Arabic Geography: An Overview and a Classification
Islamic geographical texts are not only valuable in terms of geographical research, they also constitute an essential resource in the study of Arab-Islamic civilisation - its literature, history,...
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The European Jerusalem: Sarajevo, where Muslim heritage flourished in Central Europe
During Ottoman rule, Sarajevo was heralded as the “European Jerusalem”, as its invaluable contributions to civil engineering, industry, trade and architecture attracted people from various ethnic and...
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Cairo: A Millennial
In this article, published originally in Saudi Aramco World in 1969, focus is laid on the history of Cairo, the capital city of Egypt, founded in 969 by General Gawhar, in the name of the Fatimid...
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Fatimid Coins (909-1171CE)
During the Fatimid Dynasty, Islamic coins were of such high quality and so abundant that they became the most...
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Christopher Wren and the Muslim Origin of Gothic Architecture
Christopher Wren's respect for Muslim architecture is displayed in his adoption of numerous Muslim...
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Tunis in the Islamic Period
Tunis was rebuilt under the Roman Emperor Augustus in the first century AD, but without the importance of...
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The University of Sankore, Timbuktu
Sankore's achievement in higher education is important to Islamic Civilisation even though it is less known...
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Al-Qayrawan Mosque
The Qayrawan Mosque contributed a great deal to the development of architecture in the Muslim world. With its...
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Cordoba, European Jewel of the Middle Ages
Cordoba used to be the jewel of Europe dazzling visitors from the North. With over 70 public libraries during...
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