Prof. Dr., Istanbul Technical University, Electric and Electronic Faculty. This article first published at Prof. Dr. Kazim Çeçen Anisina (Editor: Aslan Terzîoǧlu and Mehmetçik Beyazit, Istanbul 1998, pp. 83-92). Originally published as Atilla Bir, "Principle and Use of Ottoman Sundials", Prof. Dr. Kazim Çeçen Anisina, Edited by Aslan Terzîoǧlu and Mehmetçik Beyazit, Istanbul 1998, pp. 83-92.
By Atilla Bir* 1. The definition of the day, the hour and the prayer times  In the Islamic world the new day begins with the sunset. When the sun is lost in the horizon it is 12 or 0 hours. The interval until the next sunset is divided into 2 x 12 hours. As defined in the "ezanic hour",...
This short article is taken from the full article Pioneers of Automatic Control Systems by Professor Atilla Bir and Assoc. Dr. Mustafa Kacar. The theory of automatic control systems is an idea closely related to the concept of feedback. A system is a combination of components that act...