Virtues such as modesty, contentedness, fidelity and hopefulness expected from a physician must be perceived as general criteria of ethical standards, since principles are also the criteria for the preference of values, in a sense. Virtues are based on and directed by moral values, too. Ottoman medical ethics was based on the trust of people to physicians believed to be virtuous. Moral behaviour expected to be observed by physicians depended on virtues turned into regulations as guides for action. Several examples dealing with the subject are quoted from Ottoman medical manuscripts, and are discussed with respect to contemporary medical ethics in this article.
Highly Valued Virtues of Classical Ottoman Turkish Medical Ethics: A View From Past to Future
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Figure 1. The Tabula Rogeriana, drawn by al-Idrisi for Roger II of Sicily in 1154, one of the most advanced ancient world maps. Modern consolidation, created from the 70 double-page spreads of the original atlas. (Source)
Figure 1: Muslim expansion by the end of Umayyad rule in 750. (Source).
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