The introduction of Arabic numbers into Europe involved more than a way of writing numbers down. It also involved new ways of calculating with pen and paper that were faster and easier and the system of decimal fractions which allowed a simple way of ever more accurate calculations essential for the progress of science.
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Figure 1. The Tabula Rogeriana, drawn by al-Idrisi for Roger II of Sicily in 1154, one of the most advanced ancient world maps. Modern consolidation, created from the 70 double-page spreads of the original atlas. (Source)
Figure 1: Muslim expansion by the end of Umayyad rule in 750. (Source).
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