Aspects of Mineralogy and Gemology in Muslim Civilisation

Aspects of Mineralogy and Gemology in Muslim Civilisation

Many Muslim scholars dealt with minerals and gems and wrote monographs on the subject. The golden age of their writings was the 4th-5th century after Hijra (AH) (10th-11th century CE). They used almost all the physical properties now known to us to identify and differentiate minerals. Experimentation was a widespread habit in the study of minerals. Al-Biruni, in the author's view, was the leading scientist in this subject.

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