Many Muslim scholars dealt with minerals and gems and wrote monographs on the subject. The golden age of their writings was the 4th-5th century after Hijra (AH) (10th-11th century CE). They used almost all the physical properties now known to us to identify and differentiate minerals. Experimentation was a widespread habit in the study of minerals. Al-Biruni, in the author's view, was the leading scientist in this subject.
Aspects of Mineralogy and Gemology in Muslim Civilisation
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