This article by Dr. Abdulnasser Kaadan shows that as early as the 9th century, the well known Muslim physician al-Razi described, in his book Kitab al-Jadari wa 'l-Hasba (The Book on Smallpox and Measles), the symptoms of smallpox and measles. Furthermore, he distinguished between the two diseases, using an antecedent of the modern differential diagnosis.
Al-Razi on Smallpox and Measles
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Figure 1. The Tabula Rogeriana, drawn by al-Idrisi for Roger II of Sicily in 1154, one of the most advanced ancient world maps. Modern consolidation, created from the 70 double-page spreads of the original atlas. (Source)
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