Figure 1: Professor Charles Burnett interviewed by FSTC, with the logo of 1001 Inventions behind him, during The First International Conference on the History of Science among Muslims and Arabs at the University of Sharjah, UAE, in March 2008.
Mont Saint-Michel or Toledo: Greek or Arabic Sources for Medieval European Culture?LEARN MORE
In a recent book, Sylvain Gouguenheim has caused a furore in claiming that European culture owes nothing to...
Figure 2: Chemical apparatus depicted in two pages of the Alchemiae Gebri Arabis philosophi solertissimi libri (Bern, 1545). (Source).
Figure 3: Front cover of the first volume of the Corpus Alchemicum Arabicum, the Book of the Explanation of the Symbols (Kitab Hall Ar-Rumuz) by Muhammad Ibn Umail (Living Human Heritage Publications, Daimon Verlag, 2002).
Figure 4: European depiction of Al-Razi in the Latin version of one of his treatises translated by Gerard of Cremona in between 1250-60. (Image in the public domain).
Figure 5: Arabic manuscript held in the British Library showing the distillation process in a treatise of chemistry. © The British Library, London.
Figure 6: Cover of Journal of Chemical Education, September 1995, where H.S. El Khadem published an article on an ancient alchemy lost text reproduced in the Keys of Wisdom by Al-Tughra'i (12th century) .
Figure 7: An illuminated opening from the alchemical treatise The Proof Regarding Secrets of the Science of the Balance (Kitab al-Burhan fi asrar 'ilm al-mizan) by 'Izz al-Din Aydamir al-Jildaki (d. 1342/743 H). Undated copy made in Morocco in the late 19th century. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MA, MS A7, part 1, fols. 1b-2a. © NLM. (Source).
Figure 8: Pharmacist preparing drugs. From a MS of the Arabic translation of Dioscorides' Materia Medica. (Source).
Figure 2: Timeline of progress in civilisation showing the contribution of classical Muslim civilisation together with other world civilisations.
Figure 2: Manuscript of al-Ghazali's al-Tabr al-Masbuk fi Nasihat al-Muluk wa al-Wuzara wa al-Wulat at the Ameican University in Beirut (Source).
Figure 3: Map of the Silk road and the Arab trade sea route (Source).
Figure 4: Islamic coins of the Abbadis period (Caliph Harun al-Rashid, r. 170-193 H/786-809 CE). Dirhams, script on each side "Madinat-al-Salaam mint", dated 190 H (Source).
Figure 5: Front cover of The Bazaar: Markets and Merchants of the Islamic World by Walter M. Weiss, Kurt-Michael Westermann (Thames & Hudson, 1998).
Figure 6: The Egyptian Bazaar in Istanbul (2007) (Source).
Figure 7: Spices trade in the market in Fez, Morocco.