Figure 1: Modern imaginary portrait of Al-Farabi (Source).
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Throughout the ages thinkers have raised the question of what the human being ought to learn in order to be...
Figure 1: Model of the Elephant Clock of Al-Jazari in "1001 Inventions" exhibition in New York. (Source).
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Mr Zakri Abdul Hamid reflects in this article the thoughts that occurred to him after visiting the exhibition...
Figure 2: Timeline of progress in civilisation showing the contribution of classical Muslim civilisation together with other world civilisations.
Figure 2: Manuscript of al-Ghazali's al-Tabr al-Masbuk fi Nasihat al-Muluk wa al-Wuzara wa al-Wulat at the Ameican University in Beirut (Source).
Figure 3: Map of the Silk road and the Arab trade sea route (Source).
Figure 4: Islamic coins of the Abbadis period (Caliph Harun al-Rashid, r. 170-193 H/786-809 CE). Dirhams, script on each side "Madinat-al-Salaam mint", dated 190 H (Source).
Figure 5: Front cover of The Bazaar: Markets and Merchants of the Islamic World by Walter M. Weiss, Kurt-Michael Westermann (Thames & Hudson, 1998).
Figure 6: The Egyptian Bazaar in Istanbul (2007) (Source).
Figure 7: Spices trade in the market in Fez, Morocco.
Figure 2a-b: Folio 132 recto and folio 132 verso. The first containing the text of Multaqatat Kitab al-tam li-Sinan b. Thabit fi dhikr usul al-khamsa, whilst the second includes the description of various machines ('usul al-hiyal), being part of Sinan ibn Thabit's original treatise.
Figure 3a-b: The five simple machines of the ancients, plus the "inclined plane", a device to which modern mechanicians reduced the wedge and the screw. Adapted from Unit 3: Simple machines, p. 2.
Figure 5: Facsimile of the folio page 132r of Sinan ibn Thabit's fragment on simple machines in MS 3306. Source: The Staatsbibliothek in Berlin, electronic edition, Anonym., Ms. or. fol. 3306 - Arabisches manuscript.