Part of page 2 of Al-Razi's book on diet therapy Manafi' al-Aghdhiyah wa-Daf' Madharriha with added underlining to highlight relevant text.
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Figure 1: Victor and Cheek in Kalila wa-Dimna. Manuscript dated circa 1200 CE, Syria. (Source).
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Figure 1: Geographical distribution of production for the different kinds of coffees (r : robusta, a : arabica, m : robusta & arabica). (Source).
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Book cover of The Alchemy of Innovation by Javed Akhtar Mohammed (Pyramid Connections, 2013).
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His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales has written the foreword for the latest edition of the best-selling 1001 Inventions book, published by National Geographic, which demonstrates the enduring legacy of Muslim civilization.
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Figure 2. Horseshoe and cinqfoil arches on main facade Cordoba Mosque.
Figure 3. Arcade of tranverse arches in Mahdia Mosque (Tunisia, 11th century)
Figure 1. The Mosque plan in details
Figure 2. General view of Ibn Tulun Mosque showing the prayer hall, the courtyard, the ablution fountain and the extensions forming an external ring. Source: http://web.mit.edu/4.615/www/images/1017.html
Figure 3. The systematic use of pointed arch clearly appears in the arcades, windows, and doors. Source: http://web.mit.edu/4.615/www/images/1018.html
Figure 1. General view of the spatial configuration of the Ribat, which consists of the courtyard, the galleries, the chambers at the back in two stories, the circulation provisions and the heavy ramparts.
Figure 2. Defensive provisions as they appear on top the circular towers supporting the ramparts. The use of battlements pierced with arrow slits is an efficient scheme to attack the enemy.
Figure 3. Panoramic view from the minaret showing the waters leading to Sicily and Southern Italy. In the foreground, the Great Mosque of Soussa displays similar design features of the ribat.
Figure 4. Details of the stone constructed rib and vault in the Ribat of Soussa.
Figure 5. Evidence showing the early use of the ribbed vaulting by Muslims. Notice how the roof was subdivided into bays seperated by these supporting ribs which lacked aesthetics. Ribs became more refined in later stages (see Cordoba Mosque).
Figure 6. Two examples of European imitation of Soussa ribs; Nave at St. Sernin (France), above, and the nave at St. Madeline at Vezelay, (France between 1104-1132), below.