Figure 1: A sphere circumscribed in a cylinder: the sphere has two thirds of the volume and surface area of the circumscribing cylinder.
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Figure 2: Two photos of the fascinating reproduction of the 8.5 meter high elephant clock of al-Jazari in the Ibn Battuta Mall, Dubai. This reproduction was designed by Muslim Heritage Consulting and FSTC Ltd. Al-Jazari's elephant clock was the first clock in which an automaton reacted after certain intervals of time. In the mechanism, a humanoid automata strikes the cymbal and a mechanical bird chirps after every hour. See: http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=466 and http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=188.
Figure 3: 3D-model of the al-Jazari's elephant clock, recreated by FSTC Ltd.
Figure 2: An oil lamp in which the wick is automatically regulated and the oil level automatically controlled.
Figure 3: A1 is a fountain operated by an ?elevation tank'; A2 is a construction with two outlets which, changing mutually and periodically, pours out hot and cold waters.
Figure 4: Example: Model 88-A Fountain from which the waters spurts out in the shape of a lily, or in the shape of a shield.
Figure 5: Last page of the manuscript copy of Kitāb al-hiyal kept in the Library of Topkapi Palace Museum A 3474.
Figure 2: Three of the princes to be circumcised are accompanied by high-ranking officials in the Topkapi Palace, where they are marched from the third courtyard forward the royal ward. The chief black eunuch marches in front. Surname-i Vehbi, Topkapi Palace Museum Library in Istanbul, Collection Ahmed III, MS 3593.
Figure 3: Circumcision of a boy, assisted by two men (Castumi orientali, XVII. Century Bologna, Biblioteca Comunale dell Archiginnasia). The illustration is published by kind permission of Nil Sari and Ulker Erke. Source: 38th International Congress on History of Medicine, Turkish Medical History Through Miniature Pictures Exhibition (Drawn by U. Erke, Organizer and Editor Nil Sari), Istanbul 2002.
Figure 4a-b: One of the specially designed musical fountains that are mounted on both sides of the windows of the circumcision room at the Topkapi Palace. This style is a specific feature of Turkish architecture. It can be assumed that the sound of the running water was used for two purposes: contributing to the psychotherapy and suppressing the crying of the circumcised princes. (© Salim Aydüz).
Figure 5: Circumcision. (Taeshner Album; Alt Stambuler Hof-Und Volksleben. Ein Türkisches Miniaturenalbum Aus Dem 17. Jahrhundert, Veroffentlicht Von Franz Taeschner. Hannover 1925, figure 35. Beschneidung.) © Nil Sari and Ulker Erke.
Figure 6: After circumcision, the princes lay on beds on the marble terrace between the porches of the Baghdad Pavilion. In the foreground are the personnel of the royal ward rushing to snatch the gold pieces scattered by the Sultan. The photo of the Bagdad Pavilion. (© Salim Aydüz).
Figure 7: Daytime at the Golden Horn. The Sultan, his two princes, and retinue are seen at the Aynalikavak Palace, with open shutters. A play is being performed on the raft that is decorated with artificial cypress trees and Mühr-I Süleyman. On the raft below are puppets, swings, and a merry-go-round. Surname-i Vehbi, Topkapi Palace Museum Library in Istanbul, Collection Ahmed III, MS 3593.
Figure 8: A circumcised boy lying in bed (Castumi orientali, XVII. Century Bologna, Biblioteca Comunale dell Archiginnasia).The illustration is published by kind permission of Nil Sari and Ulker Erke. Source: 38th International Congress on History of Medicine, Turkish Medical History Through Miniature Pictures Exhibition (Drawn by U. Erke, Organizer and Editor Nil Sari), Istanbul 2002.
Figure 9: Preparations (called nahil) for circumcision festivities in the garden of the old palace. The procession of the nahils involved the display of decorated palm trees and model gardens. Surname-i Vehbi, Topkapi Palace Museum Library in Istanbul, Collection Ahmed III, MS 3593.
Figure 10: Circumcision room outside wall beautifully decorated with Iznik tiles. (© Salim Aydüz).
Figure 11: The well-decorated and gilded door of the circumcision room. (© Salim Aydüz).
Figure 12: A circumcision ceremony in modern Turkey.
Figure 13: Sultan Ahmed III gives tips to the Palace members after circumcision of his princes'.