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Top Seven Ingenious Clocks from Muslim Civilisation that Defied the Middle Ages
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Abu al-Wafa al-Buzjanî
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PICTURE GALLERIES

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Figure 2: Andalusian copy of the Qur'an, from Granada, 13th century, preserved at the British Library, MS Or 12523C, ff. 14v–15 (displayed in the exhibition Sacred: Discover what we share, London, the British Library, 27 April-23 September 2007: http://www.bl.uk/sacred). Source: http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/sacredtexts/spanishquran_lg.html.
Figure 3: Beginning of Tafsir al-Qur'an by Abdullah al-Razi, vol. 7, in an Abbasid manuscript (MS 297.207, R27, v.7), a commentary on the Qur'an copied in 569 H / 1174 CE, in the library of the American University of Beirut. Source: http://ddc.aub.edu.lb/projects/jafet/manuscripts/MS297.207/index.html.
Figure 2: Two photos of the fascinating reproduction of the 8.5 meter high elephant clock of al-Jazari in the Ibn Battuta Mall, Dubai. This reproduction was designed by Muslim Heritage Consulting and FSTC Ltd. Al-Jazari's elephant clock was the first clock in which an automaton reacted after certain intervals of time. In the mechanism, a humanoid automata strikes the cymbal and a mechanical bird chirps after every hour. See: http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=466 and http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=188.
Figure 3: 3D-model of the al-Jazari's elephant clock, recreated by FSTC Ltd.
Figure 2. Spanish stamp of Al-Zarqali with astrolabe.
Figure 3. North African universal astrolabe (probably from the 13th century) at the Museum of the History of Science, University of Oxford (Inventory n° 41122). This astrolabe uses the ‘universal lamina' described by Al-Zarqali, where a special form of rete rotates above a horizontal projection of the entire celestial sphere. Source:.http://www.mhs.ox.ac.uk/astrolabe/exhibition/celestial_sphere.htm
Figure 4. Diagram of the movement of the sun (ecliptic).

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