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Ode to Ahmad Baba Al-Massufi
Abu al-Abbas Ahmad ibn Ahmad al-Takruri Al-Massufi al-Timbukti, otherwise commonly known as Ahmad Baba for short, was a well-known teacher, professor, philosopher, Arabic grammarian and an author of...
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Cairo University Announces Partnership with 1001 Inventions
Cairo University joins 1001 Inventions partners in Egypt 
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World Fairtrade Day
Happy World Fair Trade Day!
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Professor Devin Stewart: The Fihrist of Ibn al-Nadīm and the Transmission of Knowledge in the Islamic World
On Wednesday 22nd April, a public lecture exploring “The Fihrist of Ibn al-Nadeem and the Transmission of Knowledge in the Islamic World” was presented by Professor Devin Stewart at the Al-Furqan...
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Ibn Yunus and The Pendulum: A History of Errors
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1001 Inventions Bahrain Exhibition
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On 23 April the World Celebrates the Book
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Earth Day
Muslim Heritage is very happy to announce that today, 22nd April, is Earth Day. Earth Day is a day of events and observances intended to inspire awareness of and appreciation for the Earth's...
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An Obituary: Professor Rabie El-Said Abdel-Halim
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Ibn Sina's The Canon of Medicine
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Slovenian Prime Minister Launches 1001 Inventions In Ljubljana
VIP Audience Celebrates Central European Premiere of Muslim Heritage Exhibition
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World Health Day 7th April: Muslim Heritage in Medicine
World Health Day is celebrated on 7th April each year to mark the anniversary of the founding of WHO (World Health Organisation) in 1948. During Muslim civilisation, various scholars made interesting...
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Figure 2: An oil lamp in which the wick is automatically regulated and the oil level automatically controlled.
Figure 3: A1 is a fountain operated by an ?elevation tank'; A2 is a construction with two outlets which, changing mutually and periodically, pours out hot and cold waters.
Figure 4: Example: Model 88-A Fountain from which the waters spurts out in the shape of a lily, or in the shape of a shield.
Figure 5: Last page of the manuscript copy of Kitāb al-hiyal kept in the Library of Topkapi Palace Museum A 3474.
Figure 2: Three of the princes to be circumcised are accompanied by high-ranking officials in the Topkapi Palace, where they are marched from the third courtyard forward the royal ward. The chief black eunuch marches in front. Surname-i Vehbi, Topkapi Palace Museum Library in Istanbul, Collection Ahmed III, MS 3593.
Figure 3: Circumcision of a boy, assisted by two men (Castumi orientali, XVII. Century Bologna, Biblioteca Comunale dell Archiginnasia). The illustration is published by kind permission of Nil Sari and Ulker Erke. Source: 38th International Congress on History of Medicine, Turkish Medical History Through Miniature Pictures Exhibition (Drawn by U. Erke, Organizer and Editor Nil Sari), Istanbul 2002.
Figure 4a-b: One of the specially designed musical fountains that are mounted on both sides of the windows of the circumcision room at the Topkapi Palace. This style is a specific feature of Turkish architecture. It can be assumed that the sound of the running water was used for two purposes: contributing to the psychotherapy and suppressing the crying of the circumcised princes. (© Salim Aydüz).
Figure 5: Circumcision. (Taeshner Album; Alt Stambuler Hof-Und Volksleben. Ein Türkisches Miniaturenalbum Aus Dem 17. Jahrhundert, Veroffentlicht Von Franz Taeschner. Hannover 1925, figure 35. Beschneidung.) © Nil Sari and Ulker Erke.
Figure 6: After circumcision, the princes lay on beds on the marble terrace between the porches of the Baghdad Pavilion. In the foreground are the personnel of the royal ward rushing to snatch the gold pieces scattered by the Sultan. The photo of the Bagdad Pavilion. (© Salim Aydüz).
Figure 7: Daytime at the Golden Horn. The Sultan, his two princes, and retinue are seen at the Aynalikavak Palace, with open shutters. A play is being performed on the raft that is decorated with artificial cypress trees and Mühr-I Süleyman. On the raft below are puppets, swings, and a merry-go-round. Surname-i Vehbi, Topkapi Palace Museum Library in Istanbul, Collection Ahmed III, MS 3593.
Figure 8: A circumcised boy lying in bed (Castumi orientali, XVII. Century Bologna, Biblioteca Comunale dell Archiginnasia).The illustration is published by kind permission of Nil Sari and Ulker Erke. Source: 38th International Congress on History of Medicine, Turkish Medical History Through Miniature Pictures Exhibition (Drawn by U. Erke, Organizer and Editor Nil Sari), Istanbul 2002.
Figure 9: Preparations (called nahil) for circumcision festivities in the garden of the old palace. The procession of the nahils involved the display of decorated palm trees and model gardens. Surname-i Vehbi, Topkapi Palace Museum Library in Istanbul, Collection Ahmed III, MS 3593.
Figure 10: Circumcision room outside wall beautifully decorated with Iznik tiles. (© Salim Aydüz).
Figure 11: The well-decorated and gilded door of the circumcision room. (© Salim Aydüz).
Figure 12: A circumcision ceremony in modern Turkey.
Figure 13: Sultan Ahmed III gives tips to the Palace members after circumcision of his princes'.
Figure 2: General view of the first floor of the museum.
Figure 4: A poster displayed at the museum showing medical students and teachers of the Ottoman period, during an anatomy course going through dissection of corpses.
Figure 5: Room for the researchers, where tiles are exhibited in the wardrobes.
Figure 6: Display of hand made reproductions of miniature paintings related with Islamic, Seljukian and Ottoman medical practice.
Figure 7: Pathology room.
Figure 8: Tools used for preparing hand made drugs are exhibited in the room assigned for the display of drug therapy.
Figure 9: Ancient surgical instruments and posters exhibited in the room of surgical therapy.

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