Figure 1: A sphere circumscribed in a cylinder: the sphere has two thirds of the volume and surface area of the circumscribing cylinder.
The Volume of the Sphere in Arabic Mathematics: Historical and Analytical SurveyLEARN MORE
The following article focuses on the cubic measure of the volume of the sphere in Arabic mathematics. After a...
The York Society of Engineers: A Lecture by FSTC Chairman, 6th December, York, UKLEARN MORE
Upcoming Lecture by Prof. Mohamed El-Gomati, Chairman of FSTC, at The York Society of Engineers, York
Ziryab, the Musician, Astronomer, Fashion Designer and GastronomeLEARN MORE
Abul-Hasan Alí Ibn Nafí, nicknamed Ziryab, was Chief Entertainer of the Court of Cordoba in 822AD. He...
Figure 2: Abu Nasr al-Farabi depicted on 1 Kazakhstani Tenge (issued in 1993) (Source).
Figure 3: Book cover of Al-Farabi, Founder of Islamic Neoplatonism: His Life, Works, and Influence by Majid Fakhry (Great Islamic Thinkers, Oneworld Publications, 2002).
Figure 4: Page from the Latin translation by Gerard of Cremona of Al-Farabi's Kitab ihsa' al-'ulum. Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, fonds latin, MS 9335 (13th century). (Source).
Figure 5: Socrates and his students in a 13th century Syrian manuscript of al-Mubashshir Ibn Fatik's work Mukhtar al-hikam twa-mahasin al-kalim, currently kept at Topkapi Palace Library in Istanbul. (This image is in the public domain).
Figure 6: Page of Al-Farabi's manuscript for eight string 'ud (lute), discovered by the Iraqi gifted musician Naseer Shamma, who endeavoured, as a consequence of this discovery, to create an 'ud or lute eight instead of six strings. This new design expanded the musical range of the 'ud and gave it a distinct tonality (Source).
Figure 7: Front cover of the German translation, with the Latin text of Ihsa' al-'ulum by Al-Farabi: Über die Wissenschaften. De scientiis. Nach der lateinischen Übersetzung Gerhards von Cremona - Mit einer Einleitung und kommentierenden Anmerkungen herausgegeben und übersetzt von Franz Schupp. (Felix Meiner Verlag Hamburg, 2005).
Figure 8: The Shaikh al-Islam Discoursing to an Audience: Page from an illustrated copy of the manuscript of the Divan dating from 1590-95 of Mahmud 'Abd al-Baki, a Turkish judge and poet (Ottoman Iraq, ink, colors, and gold on paper; H. 26 cm, W. 15.2 cm). In this page, the Shaikh al-Islam (chief theologian) of that time, Abu al-Sa'ud (1490-1574), is engaged in discussions with other theologians, and accompanies a qasida, or laudatory poem, about him. © The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (Source).
Figure 9: Front cover of the English translation of Al-Farabi's On the Perfect State: Mabadi ara' ahl al-madina al-fadhila: A revised text with introduction, translation, and commentary by Richard Walzer. (Clarendon Press/Oxford University Press, 1985, 4th edition).
Figure 10: Front cover of Alfarabi and the Foundation of Islamic Political Philosophy by Muhsin Mahdi (University of Chicago Press, 2001, Hardcover).
Figure 11: Front cover of the edition of the first volume of the philosophical works of Al-Farabi: Al-a'mal al-falsafiya al-kamila li-'l-Farabi, al-juz' al-awwal, edited by Ja'far Al-Yasin (Beirut, Dar al-Manahil, 1992).
Figure 2. Spanish stamp of Al-Zarqali with astrolabe.
Figure 3. North African universal astrolabe (probably from the 13th century) at the Museum of the History of Science, University of Oxford (Inventory n° 41122). This astrolabe uses the ‘universal lamina' described by Al-Zarqali, where a special form of rete rotates above a horizontal projection of the entire celestial sphere. Source:.http://www.mhs.ox.ac.uk/astrolabe/exhibition/celestial_sphere.htm
Figure 4. Diagram of the movement of the sun (ecliptic).
Figure 2: Two photos of the fascinating reproduction of the 8.5 meter high elephant clock of al-Jazari in the Ibn Battuta Mall, Dubai. This reproduction was designed by Muslim Heritage Consulting and FSTC Ltd. Al-Jazari's elephant clock was the first clock in which an automaton reacted after certain intervals of time. In the mechanism, a humanoid automata strikes the cymbal and a mechanical bird chirps after every hour. See: http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=466 and http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=188.
Figure 3: 3D-model of the al-Jazari's elephant clock, recreated by FSTC Ltd.