FEATURED ARTICLES

Islamic Foreshadowing of Evolution
...in this article, I will summarise the key elements of the modern science of evolution, and the reasons why the evidence in its favour is generally regarded among scientists as conclusive, before...
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Royal Launch for Ibn Al-Haytham in Jordan
“1001 Inventions and the World of Ibn Al-Haytham” opens in Amman
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International Women's Day
To celebrate Women’s Day on 8th March, no way is better than reproducing a collection of articles written by FSTC scholars and associates on the achievements of women in Muslim...
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Albucasis: A Landmark for Arabic and European Surgery
This article presents Abu'l-Qasim Khalaf ibn 'Abbas al-Zaharawi, Arabic أبو القاسم خلف بن عباس الزهراوي, Latin Albucasis (936-1013 A.D.), one on the most outstanding Arabic physicians and the most...
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"1001 Inventions and the Book of Animals" launch at Al Ain Zoo
9th century Al-Jahiz and his wondrous Book of Animals is showcased in a fun and interactive exhibition
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1001 Inventions New Children’s Book Selected as Best Biography
Junior Library Guild Honours National Geographic Readers Book on Ibn al-Haytham
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Historiography of Science and Medicine: Balancing Scholarship with Public Engagement
In recent years, here at Fez and all over the world, distinguished scholars have rediscovered the immense importance of Islamic medicine which preserved, systematized and developed the medical...
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A Culture Devoted to Healing
Muslim Contributions to the Medical Sciences A Tribute to Dr Rabie E. Abdel-Halim
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Hail the Queen of Mathematics!
In today's world what Friedrich Gauss called the queen of mathematics plays a crucial role in providing internet security. Here we look at some of the Muslims who worked on number theory.
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Using an Astrolabe
The history of the astrolabe begins more than two thousand years ago, but it is in the Islamic classical world that the astrolabe was highly developed and its uses widely multiplied. Introduced to...
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The Advent of Experimental Chemistry
Experiment is what differentiates science of Muslim Civilisation from Greek speculation (called science). Experiment began with the Muslims, centuries before the likes of Grosseteste.
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When the World Spoke Arabic
At the height of the Golden Age of Muslim Civilisation, the Arabic language was the lingua franca that served as the language of science, poetry, literature, governance and art. A big movement of...
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The Journey of Automatic Machines in Muslim Civilisation
This keynote lecture reviews the rise and development of automatic machines within Muslim civilisation. It...
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Lighthouse of Alexandria in the sources from Islamic Civilisation
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Figure 2a-b: Two recent Arabic editions of Al-Sira al-nabawiya (the biography of the Prophet) by Ibn Hisham.
Figure 3: Front cover of a recent Arabic publication of Tarikh al-umam wa-'l-muluk(Annals of the nations and kings) by Abu Ja'far Muhammad b. Jarir al-Tabari (839-923) (Beirut: Dar al-kutub al-'ilmiya, 1999, 6 vols., 3790 pp.) This detailed chronicle is by common consent the most important universal history produced in the world of Islam.
Figure 4: A 14th-century Persian depiction of the February 1258 sack of Baghdad by the Mongol army conducting a siege on Baghdad walls. From Rachid al-Din Fazl-Ullah Hamadâni, Djâme al-tavârikh, illustrated by Sayf al-Dîn Naqqâsh Esfahânî Vâhedî. Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Paris, MS Suppl. Persan 1113, dated ca. 1430, folio 180v-181r. (Source).
<a href="http://www.translationaward.org/en/default.aspx?lang=2">(Source)</a>
Figure 2: Cover of the Arabic 2013 book.
Figure 3: Cover of the English 2015 book.
Page 423 of the Arabic book presenting folio 17r of the Manchester manuscript presenting a part of Al-Isfizārī’s recension of Banū Mūsā’s Kitāb al-ḥiyal.
Page 423 of the Arabic book presenting folio 17r of the Manchester manuscript presenting a part of Al-Isfizārī’s recension of Banū Mūsā’s Kitāb al-ḥiyal.
Page 134 of the Arabic book presenting the diagrams redrawn from al-Isfizārī’s manuscript; the two diagrams present the reconstruction of two of Banū Mūsā’s machines.
Figure 4: A reconstructed sample of al-Isfizārī’s machines in 3-D environment.
Al-Khalili’s most remarkable achievements were the compilation of two sets of universal tables. The first of these were tables for solving all of the standard problems of spherical astronomy for all latitudes. For example, the tables can be used to find, without any calculation beyond interpolation, the time of day for any solar altitude, for any solar declination (corresponding to the date in the solar year), and for any terrestrial latitude. The second of these was a table displaying the qibla in degrees and minutes for each degree of latitude and each degree of longitude (within the medieval world). In addition al-Khalili compiled a new set of tables for finding the times of prayer for the latitude of Damascus. Al-Khalili's corpus of tables was discovered in a manuscript preserved in the Bibliothèque nationale in Paris in 1970. At the time it was not known that ANY tables like this had been prepared by Muslim scholars. Since then we have discovered in the manuscript sources several other copies of al-Khalili’s table and numerous sets of tables of the same kind, but al-Khalili’s tables for timekeeping and the qibla are far superior to any of the others. In the sequel we present three studies on these tables, accessible below. The first is an introduction to the context published as “Astronomy of the Mamluks: a brief overview“, Muqarnas 2 (1984), pp. 73-84. (More detail is given in ISIS 74 (1983), pp. 531-555.) The second is “al-Khalîlî’s Auxiliary Tables for Solving Problems of Spherical Astronomy“, Journal for the History of Astronomy 4 (1973), pp. 99-110. The third is a detailed study of the qibla table in “Al-Khalîlî’s Qibla Table“, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 34 (1975), pp. 81-122. For further reading on all known Islamic tables for timekeeping by the sun and stars, including those of al-Khalili, see In Synchrony with the Heavens – Studies in Astronomical Timekeeping and Instrumentation in Islamic Civilization, vol. 1: The Call of the Muezzin, and vol. 2: Instruments of Mass Calculation, Leiden & Boston: Brill, 2004-05. More of the author's studies, including the three articles accessible here, are reprinted in four volumes by Variorum: Islamic Mathematical Astronomy (1986/1993), Islamic Astronomical Instruments (1987), Astronomy in the Service of Islam (1993), and Islamic Astronomy and Geography (2011). GO TO ASTRONOMY OF THE MAMLUKS GO TO AL-KHALILI’S AUXILIARY TABLES  GO TO AL-KHALILI’S QIBLA TABLE **An extract from al-Khalili’s universal table for the qibla for the whole classical/medieval world. The values are in degrees and minutes for each degree of latitude from 10° to 56° and for each degree of longitude difference from Mecca from 1° to 60°. Altogether there are over 4,000 such entries and these are mainly accurately computed or in error by ±1 or ±2 minutes. The values shown here serve latitudes 28°, 29°, … , 33° and longitude difference 1°, 2°, ... , 60°. The format of the tables exploits the symmetry of the qibla function on either side of the meridian of Mecca (with longitude 67°, according to medieval convention). This splendid manuscript was copied in Damascus around the year 1400 (Source)**

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