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Gardens of Islam
The inhabitants of the early Islamic world were, to a degree that is difficult for us to comprehend, enchanted by greenery.
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Al-Khawarizmi
Algebra, algorithm, quadratic equation, sine function... just some of the terms which would not be known to us but for Al-Khawarizmi. An astronomer, geographer and founder of several branches and...
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Malika I: Khayzuran & Zubayda
From Indonesia to Pakistan, Kyrgyzstan to Nigeria, Senegal to Turkey, it is not particularly rare in our own times for women in Muslim-majority countries to be appointed and elected to high offices—...
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Ingenious Clocks from Muslim Civilisation that Defied the Middle Ages
TIME TELLING MACHINES: Revealing marvellous mechanical and water-powered clocks from early Muslim Civilisation. These sophisticated devices that defied the Middle Ages.
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Our Arabic Heritage in the Celestial Vault
In Arabic culture, as in other civilisations, the cultural dimension of the history of astronomy appears in part in the meanings and origins of star and constellation names. This nomenclature was...
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Aleppo Citadel: Glimpses of the Past
The Citadel of Aleppo is one of the oldest monuments in the world. It is the most famous historic architectural site in Syria and is built on top of a huge, partially artificial mound rising 50m...
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The Fate of Manuscripts in Iraq and Elsewhere
In this well informed article, Dr Geoffrey Roper, an expert in the field, outlines an impressive portrait of the dangers and threats encountered by the national heritage of Iraq due to the dramatic...
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Obesity: 1000 years ago
I enjoyed Richard Barnett's Historical Keywords piece on obesity (May 28, p 1843).[1] More clarification is needed regarding his statement that “obesity first appears in a medical context in Thomas...
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Medical Books on Healthy Living from Muslim Civilisation
If you think medical advice on healthy living - good nutrients, exercise and stress free existence is a modern medical practice, you might want to think again and join us to discover 5 medical books...
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Amazing Mechanical Devices from Muslim Civilisation
Fully automated environmentally friendly water raising devices, pumps, windmills and more! Discover some of the most facinating devices from the Golden Age of Muslim Civilisation that brought...
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The Transfer of Science Between India, Europe and China via Muslim Heritage
[Proceedings of the conference 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World organised by FSTC, London, 25-26 May 2010]. The Islamic realms served as a crucible for scientific learning from the...
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Women Dealing with Health during the Ottoman Reign
In the history of Islamic civilization, many hospitals were founded by women, either as wives, daughters or mothers of sultans. All health personnel were male at these hospitals. In the Ottoman...
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Figure 1: Muslim expansion by the end of Umayyad rule in 750. (Source).
Muslim History and Historians Part 1: For a Better Approach to Muslim History
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Ode to Ahmad Baba Al-Massufi
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An imaginary drawing of Ibn Sina<br /> 			&nbsp;(<a href="http://scielo.isciii.es/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&amp;pid=S1130-14732008000300008" target="_blank"><strong>Source</strong></a>:&nbsp;Krueger,&nbsp;H.C.: Avicenna's poem on medicine. Springfield, Illinois; Charles C Thomas, 1963; p 52a)
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Al-Khalili’s most remarkable achievements were the compilation of two sets of universal tables. The first of these were tables for solving all of the standard problems of spherical astronomy for all latitudes. For example, the tables can be used to find, without any calculation beyond interpolation, the time of day for any solar altitude, for any solar declination (corresponding to the date in the solar year), and for any terrestrial latitude. The second of these was a table displaying the qibla in degrees and minutes for each degree of latitude and each degree of longitude (within the medieval world). In addition al-Khalili compiled a new set of tables for finding the times of prayer for the latitude of Damascus. Al-Khalili's corpus of tables was discovered in a manuscript preserved in the Bibliothèque nationale in Paris in 1970. At the time it was not known that ANY tables like this had been prepared by Muslim scholars. Since then we have discovered in the manuscript sources several other copies of al-Khalili’s table and numerous sets of tables of the same kind, but al-Khalili’s tables for timekeeping and the qibla are far superior to any of the others. In the sequel we present three studies on these tables, accessible below. The first is an introduction to the context published as “Astronomy of the Mamluks: a brief overview“, Muqarnas 2 (1984), pp. 73-84. (More detail is given in ISIS 74 (1983), pp. 531-555.) The second is “al-Khalîlî’s Auxiliary Tables for Solving Problems of Spherical Astronomy“, Journal for the History of Astronomy 4 (1973), pp. 99-110. The third is a detailed study of the qibla table in “Al-Khalîlî’s Qibla Table“, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 34 (1975), pp. 81-122. For further reading on all known Islamic tables for timekeeping by the sun and stars, including those of al-Khalili, see In Synchrony with the Heavens – Studies in Astronomical Timekeeping and Instrumentation in Islamic Civilization, vol. 1: The Call of the Muezzin, and vol. 2: Instruments of Mass Calculation, Leiden & Boston: Brill, 2004-05. More of the author's studies, including the three articles accessible here, are reprinted in four volumes by Variorum: Islamic Mathematical Astronomy (1986/1993), Islamic Astronomical Instruments (1987), Astronomy in the Service of Islam (1993), and Islamic Astronomy and Geography (2011). GO TO ASTRONOMY OF THE MAMLUKS GO TO AL-KHALILI’S AUXILIARY TABLES  GO TO AL-KHALILI’S QIBLA TABLE **An extract from al-Khalili’s universal table for the qibla for the whole classical/medieval world. The values are in degrees and minutes for each degree of latitude from 10° to 56° and for each degree of longitude difference from Mecca from 1° to 60°. Altogether there are over 4,000 such entries and these are mainly accurately computed or in error by ±1 or ±2 minutes. The values shown here serve latitudes 28°, 29°, … , 33° and longitude difference 1°, 2°, ... , 60°. The format of the tables exploits the symmetry of the qibla function on either side of the meridian of Mecca (with longitude 67°, according to medieval convention). This splendid manuscript was copied in Damascus around the year 1400 (Source)**
A view of one of the two "Iwans" overlooking the courtyard of the so-called "Abbasid Palace" ("al-Qasral-'Abbasi") in Baghdad.
13-th century manuscript, drawn by Al-Wasiti of the celebrated book “The Assemblies”. Written by Hariri, shows a library in Baghdad
A view of one of the two "Iwans" overlooking the courtyard of the so-called "Abbasid Palace" ("al-Qasral-'Abbasi") in Baghdad.
From educational MineCraft 3D game, This build is inspired by the House of Wisdom (Source)
Imaginary drawing of the "House of Wisdom" library (Source)
1001 inventions "House of Wisdom" Canvas: Scholars from all over the Muslim world worked at the House of Wisdom in Baghdad. The illustration depicts scholars, both male and female and of many faiths, who came to study and research at this Baghdad powerhouse.

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