FEATURED ARTICLES

The Courtyard Houses of Syria
The courtyard house is one of the most enduring architectural forms, transcending regional, historical and cultural boundaries. Its balance of simple appropriate construction, environmental control...
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Aleppo Citadel: Glimpses of the Past
The Citadel of Aleppo is one of the oldest monuments in the world. It is the most famous historic architectural site in Syria and is built on top of a huge, partially artificial mound rising 50m...
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The Fate of Manuscripts in Iraq and Elsewhere
In this well informed article, Dr Geoffrey Roper, an expert in the field, outlines an impressive portrait of the dangers and threats encountered by the national heritage of Iraq due to the dramatic...
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1001 Inventions launches Rotterdam Exhibition
Award-winning show about the scientific achievements of Muslim Civilisation now launched
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Ibn Khaldun: Studies on His Contribution in Economy
In the following section, we focus on Ibn Khaldun's contribution to economic thought. We publish contributions by recognized scholars who endeavoured recently to give Ibn Khaldun long overdue credit...
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CE4tF at the British Science Festival 2015
CE4tF will be hosting an event at this year’s British Science Festival in Birmingham.
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Gaza at the Crossroad of Civilisations: Two Contemporary Views
Gaza, this tormented part of Palestine, land of suffering and resistance, is also a land of long history. This article presents two recent attempts to recover the ancient and medieval history of Gaza...
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Medicine and Health in Medieval Arabic Poetry: An Historical Review
This review of medieval Arabic medical poetry is based on our study of the two major classical biographical encyclopedias: “Uyoon Al Anbaa Fi Tabaqaat Al Atibbaa” ("Essential Information on the...
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Women Dealing with Health during the Ottoman Reign
In the history of Islamic civilization, many hospitals were founded by women, either as wives, daughters or mothers of sultans. All health personnel were male at these hospitals. In the Ottoman...
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Daily Sabah: A woman with a past
Taken from www.dailysabah.com/features/2014/07/12/a-woman-with-a-past: Fatima al-Fihri, a Muslim woman activist from the annals of history has been reintroduced to inspire future generations.
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The role of Ibn Sina (Avicenna)’s Medical Poem in the transmission of medical knowledge to medieval Europe
Were you aware that in the Medieval Islamic world, celebrated scientists such as Ibn Sina used to relay their teachings through  poetry? Poems structure and rhythm  aided the process of...
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Ottoman Music Therapy
Music has been used as a mean of therapy through the centuries to counter all kinds of disorders by various peoples. Physicians and musicians in the Ottoman civilization were aware of the music...
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RECENT ARTICLES

Figure 1: Location map showing Kerala in India.
Kerala Mathematics and Its Possible Transmission to Europe
The Kerala School of astronomy and mathematics was an Indian school of mathematics and astronomy founded by...
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1001 Inventions welcomes 450,000 visitors in Jeddah
Jeddah, KSA, February 16, 2014 – More than 450,000 people visited an award-winning 1001 Inventions exhibition...
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Figure 1: Professor Gunhan Danisman.
Obituary: Professor H. H. Gunhan Danisman (1943-2009)
At the beginning of 2009, we lost our colleague and friend Professor Gunhan Danisman, a member of the Muslim...
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The Acoustic Space and the muezzin's mahfil in the Suleymaniye Mosque
Figure 2. The Islamic Citadel and the Roman Theatre in Busra.
Figure 3. The bastions and the ditch of the citadel surround the theatre.
Figure 4. The bastion 3 touches the outside walls of the theatre.
Figure 5. The bastion 5 built with stones of pointed surfaces (Souri stones).
Figure 6. The bastion 5-A course of white stone engraved and decorated with variety of plants and engineering ornaments.
Figure 7. Bastion 6-Trunk of columns used in building the bastion.
Figure 8. Bastion 6 - Close up Details.
Figure 9. (from the right)The bastions 10, 9 and 8, and the bridge passing over the ditch between the two bastions 10 and 9.
Figure 10. The machicoulis with continuous openings in the citadel wall.
Figure 11. The lower path northern the stage (the roof is cross vault).
Figure 12. A lower path (the roof is barrel vault).
Figure 13. A lower path with stairs to the upper path.
Figure 14. An upper path between the wall and the bastions of the citadel and the wall of the theatre without any damage.
Figure 15. Section of the water reservoir and the barracks and the supplies store inside the citadel.
Figure 16. The constructions inside the citadel before their removal . We see the stairs of the theatre in good state.
Figure 17. The citadel before the removal of the inner buildings in 1956.
Figure 18. The theater after the removal of the inner Ayyubid buildings

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