Figure 1: First page of the Arabic manuscript of Kitab fi al-Jadari wa-‘l-Hasaba. Source: The Leiden University Library.
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Figure 1: World map of seas and oceans. A continuous body of water encircles the Earth covering 71% of the Earth's surface and divided into a number of principal areas: Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Arctic, and Southern.
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Figure 5: A few scenes by İnci Özen from the Dar al-Shifa of Anbar bin Abdullah during the Seljuk reign in Turkey. The figure is depicting the gate and the music therapy by the physicians. Picture copied by the permission of Nil Sari. Source: Amasya Selcuklu Osmanli mimarisi ve bezemeleri, edited by Nil Sari, Gülbün Mesara, and Ü. Emrah Kurt (Istanbul 2007).
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Figure 1: Interior of the Great Mosque of Córdoba. (Source).
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Figure 1: Front cover of the book Pathfinders: The Golden Age of Arabic Science by Jim Al-Khalili, Allen Lane, 2010.
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Figure 2: The Bâyezîd Dâr al-Shifâ of Edirne
Figure 3: Dental treatment of an Ottoman physician
Figure 4: The Galatasaray Medical School Building
Figure 5: A constellation star picture constructed by an Ottoman astronomer
Figure 6: A colour calendar page produced by an Ottoman Chief Astronomer
Figure 7: An Ottoman mechanical clock
Figure 8: Astronomical equipment for an Astrolabe
Figure 9: Miniature of the Istanbul Observatory
Figure 10: A miniature of the Istanbul Observatory staff and observers
Figure 11: The Samarkand Observatory
Figure 2: Aerial view of a Typical North African Roman Town showing here Timgad (Algeria) Source: Lassus (1981, p.14)
Figure 3: Islamic North Africa in the 13th century. Source: Laroui (1977)
Figure 4: Tunis in 1636 Source: Abdelkafi (1989, p.52)
Figure 5: Typical Residential Quarter (Huma) in Tunis. Source: Abdelkafi (1989, p.44)
Table 1: General indicators on North Africa
Table 2: The general form of the Roman town Sources: Mumford (1961), Owens, (1992).
Table 3: Major towns in North Africa and their sizes (in ‘000's) at the eve of colonisation.