Figure 2. The Nestorian Church of St George the Exiler, North Cyprus (Image from www.cypnet.co.uk).
The Syriac-speaking Christians and the Translation of Greek Science into ArabicLEARN MORE
This article by Professor John Healey, describes the key role in the development of Muslim science which was...
Great mosque, Tongxin, Ningxia.
Detail of circular calligraphic motif, Tongxin, Ningxia. This is an example of Islamic calligraphic art of the kind found at many Hui mosques. This particular piece is on a free-standing screen-wall (Chinese: zhao bi) in front of the main entrance to the Tongxin Great Mosque. The text reads, "And the places of worship are for God alone: so invoke not anyone along with God." (Quran 72:18)
Earthenware water pot with Arabic motifs, 20.8cm, Yangzhou, 8th or 9th century. This water pot was unearthed in 1980 from a Tang dynasty tomb in Yangzhou. It is described as underglaze purplish-brown glaze pottery ware with green Arabic motifs, indicating it was made at the Changsha kiln. The obverse motif has been interpreted by scholars as an inaccurate rendition of "Allah Akbar" (God is great), suggesting it was written by someone with poor Arabic skills. From Changsha yao, Beijing: Zijincheng Chubanshe, 1996, Plate 87.
Underglaze green glaze pottery shard with Arabic motif, late Tang or Five Dynasties. This piece of pottery was also made at the Changsha kiln, in the 10th or 11th century. The photo is of the inside of a bowl or open-top pot. The Arabic motif is again a calligraphic representation of a human face, here with a mirrored "Allah" for nose and eyes, and perhaps an upside down "Muhammad" for the mouth. The positioning of this motif on the inside of the bowl suggests a discrete blessing of its contents. From Changsha yao, Beijing: Zijincheng Chubanshe, 1996, Plate 170.
Tang dynasty coloured clay figurine of a polo player unearthed in 1972 at Astana, Turfan, Xinjiang.
Detail from a large scroll painting showing a Yuan dynasty procession, in which Mongol troops and their allies ride together 51.4cm high, 1481cm wide. National Museum of China.
Half-dome recess entrance, Ashab Mosque, Quanzhou. The Ashab Mosque (Qingjing si) is the most significant surviving example of Islamic architecture from the Yuan dynasty found east of Xinjiang. The stone walls, entrance and support pillars of the prayer hall are what remain of the original mosque completed in 1310, which once also included a domed mausoleum.
Zanqi madrasa, Kashgar, Xinjiang. From Zhang Shengyi.
The earliest of the Arabic tombstones with dates unearthed in Quanzhou, 1171 CE. The inscription reads, "This is the tomb of Hussayn bin Muhammad al-Khalat. May God show mercy upon him. Died on the 13th of the fourth month of the year 567." Khalat was at this time the capital of Armenia. From Chen Dasheng, Quanzhou zongjiao shike.
The latest of the dated Arabic tombstones unearthed in Quanzhou, dating from the late-Yuan to early-Ming period, with embossed cursive Arabic lettering in the shape of a pointed arch. From Quanzhou zongjiao shike.
Detail of a portrait of Zhu Yuanzhang in the collection of the National Museum of China.
Imperial edict to Mir Hajji, during the Yongle reign of the Ming dynasty, 100cm by 72cm. This imperial edict was issued forty years after the end of the Mongol Yuan dynasty. The use of the three main languages of the Yuan court, Mongolian, Persian and Chinese, underlines the continuity between the Yuan and Ming imperial systems. The "Hajji" of the addressee's title indicates that he performed the pilgrimage to Mecca, while "Mir" means someone who has earned merit on the battlefield (in Timurid usage this term indicates a member of the military aristocracy). This edict was issued on the 11th of the fifth month of the fifth year of Yongle . Facsimile copy in the Chinese Nationalities Cultural Palace. Plate and adapted translation from Quanzhou Yisilanjiao Shike.
Detail. Ming imperial seal, with a date according to the Chinese calendar in Chinese, Persian and Mongolian.
Quran with Chinese translation recorded in both Arabic and Chinese scripts. The interlinear translation of the Quran shown here was produced by Ma Zhenwu, an octogenarian Hui akhund from Dachang, Hebei.
Part of page 2297, volume 15 of Al-Razi's book Al-Hawi (Liber Continens) with added underlining to highlight relevant text. (Source)
Part of page 326 of Ibn Zuhr's book Al-Taysir fi al-Mudawat wa-‘l-Tadbir with added underlining to highlight relevant text. (Source)
Part of page 327 of Ibn Zuhr's book Al-Taysir fi al-Mudawat wa-‘l-Tadbir with added underlining to highlight relevant text. (Source) 
Part of page 224, vol. 2, of Ibn Sina's Kitab al-Qanum fi al-Tibb (The Canon of Medicine), in Bulaq edition (Cairo 1877). (Source)
Part of page 178, vol. 2, of Ibn Al-Baytar, Al-Jami' Li-Mufradat al-Adwiya wa-‘l-Aghdiya (Complete Book of Simple Medicaments and Nutritious Items). (Source)
Part of page 61 of Muwaffaq al-Din Abd al-Latif Al-Baghdadi's book Kitab al-Ifada wa-‘l-I'tibar (Book of Utility and Reflection) , , 
Canon of medicine by Avicenna (Ibn Sina) published in Rome in 1593 at the Library of the American University of Beirut. (© AUB Libraries, 2002-2007).
Cover of the Alphabetum Arabicum una cum Oratione Dominicali, Salutatione Angelica, & Simbolo Apostolico (Rome, 1715).
Books printed at the Ibrahim Müteferrika Press.
Illustrations from Tarih ül-Hind il-Garbi el-müsemma bi-Hadis-i nev (Istanbul: Ibrahim Müteferrika Press, 1142 H ), 91 leaves.
Abu Nasr Ismail al-Jawhari's Vankulu Lugati (an Arabic-Turkish dictionary) was published by Ibrahim Muteferrika in 1729; it was the first book printed by Muslims making use of movable type.
Frontispiece of Description d el'Egypte (Paris, 1809).
The Egyptian scholar Rafa'a Al Tahtawy who published several books in the 1840s in Bulaq Press.
Extract from the journal El-Waqa'e Al- Masriya published by Bulaq Press.