Figure 1. Folio 2r of al-Hassâr's Kitâb al-Bayân bearing at the bottom both the Western and the Eastern Arabic forms of the nine numerals. Source: http://dewey.library.upenn.edu/sceti/ljs/PageLevel/index.cfm?ManID=ljs293&Page=3.
Al-Hassâr's Kitâb al-Bayân and the Transmission of the Hindu-Arabic NumeralsLEARN MORE
This article was a talk given at the 7th Maghrebi Colloque of the History of Arabic Mathematics held from 30...
Figure 1: A logo created for the occasion of the conference and exhibition at the House of Parliament in London (© FSTC 2008). The 1001 Inventions global initiative logo flanked by Big Ben.
Muslim Heritage in our World: Social Cohesion (1001 Inventions in UK Parliament)LEARN MORE
Report on a conference launching the 1001 Inventions Exhibition at the UK House of Parliament, 15 October...
A Turkish banknote dated 30 August 1995 to celebrate Sabiha Gökçen (1913-2001), the first female combat pilot in the world and the first Turkish aviatrix: (Source). (Source).
From an adjacent room, women attend the preaching of Shaykh Baha'al-Din Veled in Balkh, Afghanistan. Miniature in Jami' al-Siyar, 1600. MS Hazine 1230, folio 112a, Topkapi Saray Museum, Istanbul. (Source).
Two views of the Firdaws Mosque and Madrasa in Aleppo built by Dayfa Khatun in 1235-36 CE. (Source).
Anonymous oil painting portrait, now located at Topkapi Palace in Istanbul, of Hürrem Sultan or Roxelana (c. 1510 - April 18, 1558), the wife of Süleyman the Magnificent, known for her charities and engagement in several major works of public building, from Mecca to Jerusalem and in Istanbul. (Source).
Two Andalusian Arab women playing chess, with a girl playing lute (Chess Problem #19, F18R) , from Alphonso X's Book of Games (Libro de los Juegos). The book was commissioned between 1251 and 1282 CE by Alphonso X, King of Leon and Castile. It reflects the presence of the Islamic legacy in Christian Spain. It is now housed at the monastery library of St. Lorenze del Escorial. (Source).
View into the courtyard towards the prayer hall of the Qarawiyyin mosque and university in Fez (photograph date 1990, copyright Aga Khan Visual Archive, MIT). (Source).
Front cover of The Forgotten Queens of Islam by Fatima Mernissi, translated from French by Mary Jo Lakeland (University of Minnesota Press, 1993, hardcover).
Front cover of Al-Muhaddithat: The Women Scholars in Islam by Shaykh Mohammad Akram Nadwi (Interface Publications, 2007). This book is an adaptation of the Muqaddimah or Preface to M. A. Nadwi's multi-volume biographical dictionary in Arabic of the Muslim women who studied and taught hadith. The huge body of information reviewed in Al-Muhaddithat is essential to understanding the role of women in Islamic society, their past achievements and future potential.
Front cover of Al-Mu'allifat min al-nisa' wa-mu'allataftuhunna fi al-tarikh al-islami by Muhammad Khayr Ramadhan Yusuf (Beirut: Dar Ibn Hazm, 1412 H).
Painting of Queen Amina of Zaria by Floyd Cooper. (Source).
Figure 2: Diagram of the physiology of the eye. Ibn al-Haytham's studies of the eye gave the first modern understanding of lens, retina and optic nerve, as well as the mechanics of vision and perception. (Source).
Figure 3: The visual system according to Ibn al-Haytham. This diagram of the two eyes seen from above, shows the principal tunics and humours and the optic nerves connecting the eyeballs to the brain. (Source).
Figure 4: Four stamps on Ibn al-Haytham and his work issued by Qatar in 1971, Pakistan in 1969, by Jordan in 1971 and Malawi in 2008. (Source).
Figure 5: The crater Alhazen on the surface of the moon (Lat: 15.9°N, Long: 71.8°E, Diam: 32 km, Depth: 2.17 km) named after Ibn al-Haytham. (Source). See FSTC, http://MuslimHeritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=815Illustrious Names in the Heavens: Arabic and Islamic Names of the Moon Craters.
Figure 6a-b: Two medieval illustrations depicting two consecutive theories of vision: (a) the Greek optical theory according to which rays come out of the eye and go to fill the object; and (b) the modern theory expounded by Ibn al-Haytham based on a correct vision theory establishing that vision occurs because the eye can see the object from the light that flows from it. (Source).
Figure 7a-b: Two views of the frontispice of the first edition of the Latin translation of Ibn al-Haytham's Book of Optics, Opticae Thesaurus...Libri Septem, nunc primùm editi. Eiusdem liber De Crepusculis & Nubium ascensionibus. Item Vitellonis...Libri X. Omnes instaurati, figuris illustrati & aucti, adjectis etiam in Alhazenum commentariis, a Federico Risnero. Basel: Episcopius, 1572. (Source) - (Source).
Figure 8: The anotomy of the eye by Kamal al-Din al-Farasi based on Ibn al-Haytham's investigations. Kamal al-Din Abu'l-Hasan Muhammad Al-Farisi (1267-ca.1319/1320) was a prominent Persian Muslim physicist, mathematician, and scientist born in Tabriz, Iran. He made a major contribution to the science of optics. (Source).
Figure 9: Photography is the result of combining several technical discoveries. Long before the first photographs were made, Ibn al-Haytham invented the camera obscura and pinhole camera. According to the Hockney-Falco thesis, some artists used the camera obscura and camera lucida to trace scenes as early as the 16th century. (Source).
Figure 10: Harold Anderson, Alhazen Studied the Recreation of Light (1936) (Size: 15"x20"); fine advertising for eyeglasses. (Source).
Figure 11: Ibn al-Haytham depicted on an Iraqi 10,000-dinar note.
Figure 12a-b: Views from the recent edition in facsimile of a manuscript of Ibn al-Haytham's book Mahiyat al-athar alladhi yabdu 'ala wajh al-qamar (The Trace on the Moon's Face) edited by Yusuf Zidan (Alexandria: Alexandria Library, 2002).
Figure 4: The Suleiman Palace, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, 1979.
Figure 1: Abdel-Wahed El-Wakil talking at the Notre Dame School of Architecture: 2009 Richard H. Driehaus Prize Colloquium (screenshot from the video).
Figure 2: Abdel-Wahed El-Wakil receiving the Richard H. Driehaus Prize. Screenshot from the video 2009 Richard H. Driehaus Prize Colloquium.
Figure 3: The Halawa House, Agamy Beach, 1975.
Figure 5: The Ruwais Mosque.
Figure 6: The Corniche Mosque.
Figure 8: King Saud Mosque.
Figure 9: Azizeyah Mosque.
Figure 10: The Qubbah Mosque, Medina, Saudi Arabia, 1989.
Figure 11: The Qiblatain mosque, Medina, Saudi Arabia, 1992.
Figure 12: Miqaat Al-Medina mosque, Medina, Saudi Arabia, 1987.