FEATURED ARTICLES

An Obituary: Professor Rabie El-Said Abdel-Halim
We have just received the sad news of the passing of Professor Rabie El-Said Abdel-Halim. He passed away in his sleep this morning 15th April 2015 Wednesday. May he rest in peace, and may his family...
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Ibn Sina's The Canon of Medicine
The Sheikh al-Ra'is Sharaf al-Mulk Abu ‘Ali al-Husayn b. ‘Abd Allah b. al-Hasan b. ‘Ali Ibn Sina, in Latin he is know as Avicenna and his most famous works are those on philosophy and medicine....
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Slovenian Prime Minister Launches 1001 Inventions In Ljubljana
VIP Audience Celebrates Central European Premiere of Muslim Heritage Exhibition
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World Health Day 7th April: Muslim Heritage in Medicine
World Health Day is celebrated on 7th April each year to mark the anniversary of the founding of WHO (World Health Organisation) in 1948. During Muslim civilisation, various scholars made interesting...
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The Suhayl 2014 Vol 13
The Suhayl 2014 Vol 13 - International Journal for the History of the Exact and Natural Sciences in Islamic Civilisation FSTC is pleased to bring to the attention of readers the availability...
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EuroNews.com: Brussels exhibition highlights Ottoman influence
"The Sultan’s World exhibition runs in Brussels until 31 May 2015. It then travels to Krakow, Poland."
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The renaissance of astronomy in Baghdad in the 9th and 10th centuries
[Note of the editor] This article was published in 2003 as: David A. King, "The renaissance of astronomy in Baghdad in the ninth and tenth centuries: A list of publications, mainly from the last 50...
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International Women's Day 2015
To celebrate Women’s Day on 8th March, no way is better than reproducing a collection of articles written by FSTC scholars and associates on the achievements of women in Muslim...
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World Book Day 2015 (UK & Ireland)
World Book Day is a yearly event on 5th March, "designated by UNESCO as a worldwide celebration of books and reading, and marked in over 100 countries all over the world"*. On this occasion, we are...
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Eye Specialists in Islamic Cultures
"I invite you... to go back with me 1000 years to consider the fascinating history of the old Arabian ophthalmology which I have studied in the past five years." With these words Julius Hirschberg,...
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The Science of Restoring and Balancing – The Science of Algebra
Muslim contributions in the field of mathematics have been both varied and far reaching. This article by Mahbub Ghani (from the Department of Electronic Engineering at King's College, London...
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Zheng He - the Chinese Muslim Admiral
The Beijing Olympic Games started on Friday 8 August 2008 with a dramatic opening ceremony featuring a cast of thousands performers that celebrated the arts and achievements of China's long history....
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Muslim Heritage in the World Conference on Intellectual Capital
In the frame of the forthcoming of The World Conference on Intellectual Capital for Communities, Professor...
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Figure 2: Award presented by Dr Anas Al-Shaikh-Ali, Chair of AMSS UK (middle) to Professor Mike Hardy (right), who received it on behalf of the British Council's 'Our Shared Europe' project, and to Professor Salim Al-Hassani (left), who received it on behalf of 1001 Inventions - Muslim Heritage in Our World.
Figure 3: Professor Salim Al-Hassani, Chairman of FSTC, giving his award acceptance speech.
Figure 4-5: Two views from the audience.
Sample clearances in the cylinder block. © Joseph Vera.
Water volume calculation. © Joseph Vera.
Slot mechanism converting arc to linear motion. © Joseph Vera.
Water simulated as a virtual spring. Click here to see the animation. © Joseph Vera.
Photorealistic rendering of the "monobloc" pump. © Joseph Vera.
Figure 2: Page from Al-Kitâb al-Fakhrî by Al-Karaji. (Source).
Figure 3: Diagram of a qanat, developed in Islamic lands as a water management system used to provide a reliable supply of water to human settlements or for irrigation in hot, arid and semi-arid climates. (Source).
Figure 4: A pool at Aqiq, Saudi Arabia, one of dozens of rest and water stations on the pilgrim road from Iraq to Makkah. It still holds water more than a thousand years after it was constructed under the patronage of Zubaydah, the wife of caliph Harun al-Rashid. (Source).
Figure 5: The Albolafia noria, or waterwheel, is the last vestige of an array of mills and dams built on the Guadalquivir River in Cordoba between the 8th and 10th centuries as it appears in its present condition. (Source).
Figure 6: The shaduf was known in ancient times in Egypt and Assyria. It consists of a long beam supported between two pillars by a wooden horizontal bar. A counterweight was attached to the short arm of the beam. A bucket suspended by a rope or a pole was attached to the long arm of the beam. The bucket was lowered into the water by bearing down on the rope/pole and the counterweight raised the full bucket. The shaduf is still used in Egypt. See: Sandra Postel, "Egypt's Nile Valley Basin Irrigation". (Source).
Figure 7: The Saqiya machine of Al-Jazari, an animal powered device for raising water. Source: the original manuscript of Al-Jazari's treatise Al-Jami' bayna al-'ilm wa-'l-'amal al-nafi' fi sina'at al-hiyal held at Topkapi Palace Museum Library in Istanbul, MS Ahmet III 3472, p. 216. See S. Al-Hassani & C. Ong Pang Kiat, Al-Jazari's Third Water-Raising Device: Analysis of its Mathematical and Mechanical Principles.
Figure 8: The largest norias or water wheels in the world, with a diameter of about 20 meters, exist on the Orontes River in Hama, Syria. Norias (na'ura in Arabic, pl. nawa'ir) are machines for lifting water into an aqueduct using energy derived from the water's flow. It consists of an undershot waterwheel to which are fixed a series of containers that lift water from the river to the aqueduct at a higher level. (Source).
Figure 9: Picture of a noria in Hadith Bayadh wa Riyadh (The Story of Bayad and Riyad) , an Andalusian love story, probably written and ilustrated sometime in 13th-century Andalus by an anonymous author (unicum manuscript, Vatican, Bibliotheca Apostolica, Ar. Ris. 368, folio 19r). (Source).
Figure 10: Front cover of Al-Karaji, L'Estrazione delle acque nascoste: Trattato tecnico-scientifico di Karaji Matematico-ingegnere persiano vissuto nel Mille, Italian translation and commentaries by Giuseppina Ferriello (Turin: Kim Williams Books, 2007).
Figure 11: Aerial view of lines of qanats leading to Firuzabad in Iran. The rows of small holes resembling pockmarks reveal the presence of several qanat systems below the surface: each hole is the top of a ventilation shaft. The walls of the craters protect the shafts and the tunnel below from erosional damage from the inflow of water during a heavy rainstorm. (Source).
Figure 12: Cross-section and aerial view of a qanat system for obtaining subterranean water. (Source).

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