Figure 1: The cultivated and the uncultivated kinds of hindiba are illustrated in a schematic way. (Dioscorides. Materia Medica. Translated by Abdullah el-Huseyin b. Ibrahim el-Natili. Kitabu‘l-hasa‘is. Topkapi Museum Library. Registered at section Ahmed III., No: 2127).
Hindiba: A Drug for Cancer Treatment in Muslim HeritageLEARN MORE
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Figure 2: Map showing the extent of the Almoravid Empire around 1100 CE. (Source).
Figure 3: The Almohad territory (green) at its greatest extent around 1200 and its neighbouring states. (Source).
Figure 4: Introductory summary overview map from Al-Idrisi's 1154 world atlas, with the south at the top of the map. (Source).
Figure 5: Manuscript page of one of Al-Idrisi's books describing Finland (image in the public domain).
Figure 6a-b: Two examples of the Almohad architecture: the Giralda in Seville and the Kutubiya in Marrakech. (Source 1 - Source 2).
Figure 7: View of the restored building of the Ben Youssef Madrasa in Marrakech founded in the 14th century by the Marinid Sultan Abu al-Hassan and allied to the neighbouring Ben Youssef Mosque. This madrasa was one of the largest theological colleges in North Africa and may have housed as many as 900 students. (Source).
Figure 8: The Madrasa al-Bu'naniya in Fes was founded in 1356. It is widely acknowledged as a marvel of Marinid architecture. The madrasa functioned at the same time as both an educational institute and a congregational mosque at the same time. It is the only madrasa in Fes which has a minaret. Opposite the main doorway of the madrasa is the entrance to the dar al-wudu (ablutions house). Left and right of the central court are class rooms. (Source).
Figure 9a-b: Views of the Qarawiyyin mosque and university in Fes: (a) from above and (b) glimpse of the courtyard. (Source).
Figure 10a-b: Two photos of the Al-Lija'i clepsydra located in the room of al-Muwaqqit (time keeper) in the minaret of the Al-Qarawiyyin mosque in Fes. The muwaqqit was the officer charged with the regulation and maintenance of the clocks and with communicating the correct times of prayer to the muezzin. The most important object of the Dar al-Muwaqqit is the water clock of Al-Lija'i made at the order of the Marinid Sultan Abu Salim Ali II (r. 1359-1361) by Abu Zaid Abdurrahman Ibn Suleyman al-Lija'i (d. 1370). Notice the 12 doors under and above the disk; the red wooden structure is the top part of the clock. Source: La clepsydre Al-Lijai.
Figure 11: Restoration of the Palace Bricha in the medina (old city) of Tetouan in northern Morocco. The medina of Tetouan was built by refugees who had been expelled from Spain after the Reconquest. It remains a largely untouched example of high Andalusian culture. (Source).
Figure 12 : Photo of the remains of Dar al-Magana (clock house) in Fez at the beginning of the 20th century. This is the clock standing next to the Abu 'Inaniyya Madrasa in Fez. From the twelve little doors metal balls were released into the brass bowls on the lower beams to signal the hours. The rafters on the top level used to support a small roof are now gone. (old image in the public domain).
Figure 13a-b: Two views of Hassân Tower in Rabat, the minaret of an incomplete mosque begun in 1195 CE during the Almohad reign. The tower was intended to be the largest minaret in the world along with the mosque, but its construction was stopped after the death of Ya'qub al-Mansour in 1199 CE. The tower only reached 44m, about half of its intended 86m height. The rest of the mosque was also left incomplete, with only the beginnings of several walls and 200 columns being constructed. The tower, made of red sandstone, along with the remains of the mosque and the modern Mausoleum of Mohammed V, forms an important historical and tourist complex in Rabat. The site of Hassân Tower in Rabat was added to the UNESCO World Heritage tentative list in July 1995 in the Cultural category. ( Source 1 – Source 2).
Dr Rim Turkmani presenting Prof. Ihsanoglu with a copy of the 1001 Inventions book and also of a small model of the Al-Jazari Elephant Clock.
Prof. Ihsanoglu standing besides the full scale model of the Elephant Clock in the "1001 Inventions" exhibition.
A Turkish banknote dated 30 August 1995 to celebrate Sabiha Gökçen (1913-2001), the first female combat pilot in the world and the first Turkish aviatrix: (Source). (Source).
From an adjacent room, women attend the preaching of Shaykh Baha'al-Din Veled in Balkh, Afghanistan. Miniature in Jami' al-Siyar, 1600. MS Hazine 1230, folio 112a, Topkapi Saray Museum, Istanbul. (Source).
Two views of the Firdaws Mosque and Madrasa in Aleppo built by Dayfa Khatun in 1235-36 CE. (Source).
Anonymous oil painting portrait, now located at Topkapi Palace in Istanbul, of Hürrem Sultan or Roxelana (c. 1510 - April 18, 1558), the wife of Süleyman the Magnificent, known for her charities and engagement in several major works of public building, from Mecca to Jerusalem and in Istanbul. (Source).
Two Andalusian Arab women playing chess, with a girl playing lute (Chess Problem #19, F18R) , from Alphonso X's Book of Games (Libro de los Juegos). The book was commissioned between 1251 and 1282 CE by Alphonso X, King of Leon and Castile. It reflects the presence of the Islamic legacy in Christian Spain. It is now housed at the monastery library of St. Lorenze del Escorial. (Source).
View into the courtyard towards the prayer hall of the Qarawiyyin mosque and university in Fez (photograph date 1990, copyright Aga Khan Visual Archive, MIT). (Source).
Front cover of The Forgotten Queens of Islam by Fatima Mernissi, translated from French by Mary Jo Lakeland (University of Minnesota Press, 1993, hardcover).
Front cover of Al-Muhaddithat: The Women Scholars in Islam by Shaykh Mohammad Akram Nadwi (Interface Publications, 2007). This book is an adaptation of the Muqaddimah or Preface to M. A. Nadwi's multi-volume biographical dictionary in Arabic of the Muslim women who studied and taught hadith. The huge body of information reviewed in Al-Muhaddithat is essential to understanding the role of women in Islamic society, their past achievements and future potential.
Front cover of Al-Mu'allifat min al-nisa' wa-mu'allataftuhunna fi al-tarikh al-islami by Muhammad Khayr Ramadhan Yusuf (Beirut: Dar Ibn Hazm, 1412 H).
Painting of Queen Amina of Zaria by Floyd Cooper. (Source).