FEATURED ARTICLES

Announcement: On New FSTC Historiography
1.     Introduction The 1001 Inventions exhibition and accompanying literature and film have met with success and have been very popular. The...
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Omar Sharif’s final film dedicated to his legacy
Actor Omar Sharif’s final film “1001 Inventions and the World of Ibn Al-Haytham” has been dedicated to his legacy. Legendary Oscar-nominated actor Omar Sharif, who died on Friday 10 July 2015 in a...
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The International Year of Light Sheds Light on the Dark Ages
The UNESCO International Year of Light and Light-Based Technologies is a multi-faceted celebration of light in its scientific, technological and cultural context. Central to this has been the...
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The Astronomical Clock of Taqi Al-Din: Virtual Reconstruction
In his book The Brightest Stars for the Construction of Mechanical Clocks (Al-Kawakib al-durriyya fi wadh' al-bankamat al-dawriyya), Taqi al-Din Ibn Ma'ruf analyses the four main types of time...
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Abu al-Wafa al-Buzjanî
Muḥammad Abūʾl-Wafāʾ al-Būzjānī (10 June 940–997 or 998) was a distinguished Muslim astronomer and mathematician, who made important contributions to the development of trigonometry. He worked in a...
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World Environment Day
 World Environment Day 5th June
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1001 Inventions To Partner With China’s Biggest Science Festival
China Science Festival to host “1001 Inventions and the World of Ibn Al-Haytham”
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Ode to Ahmad Baba Al-Massufi
Abu al-Abbas Ahmad ibn Ahmad al-Takruri Al-Massufi al-Timbukti, otherwise commonly known as Ahmad Baba for short, was a well-known teacher, professor, philosopher, Arabic grammarian and an author of...
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Cairo University Announces Partnership with 1001 Inventions
Cairo University joins 1001 Inventions partners in Egypt 
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World Fairtrade Day
Happy World Fair Trade Day!
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Professor Devin Stewart: The Fihrist of Ibn al-Nadīm and the Transmission of Knowledge in the Islamic World
On Wednesday 22nd April, a public lecture exploring “The Fihrist of Ibn al-Nadeem and the Transmission of Knowledge in the Islamic World” was presented by Professor Devin Stewart at the Al-Furqan...
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Ibn Yunus and The Pendulum: A History of Errors
In this article, Professor David A. King explores the authenticity of the statement that tenth-century Egyptian astronomer Ibn Yūnus was the first person to use a pendulum to measure time. After...
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Professor Roshdi Rashed: Promoting Science-based Cultural Dialogue among Civilizations
Text of the Lecture of Professor Roshdi Rashed in the Conference Muslim Heritage in our World: Social...
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Figure 2: Manuscript of an Arabic translation of Aristote's Organon. The Organon is the name given to the collection of Aristotle's six works on logic. This manuscript contains the copy of an edition of the Organon by the physician and philosopher al-Hasan b. Suwar (d. 1017), based on earlier translations carried on by Ishaq b. Hunayn. (Source)
Figure 3:Two pages from Arabic works of geometry: (a) A page from Nasir al-Din al-Tusi's (d. 1274) commentary on Euclid's Elements, a page dealing with Euclid's method of exhaustion (Source); (b) a page from Kitab Tahrir al-Usul li-Uqlidis by the Pseudo Tusi published in Arabic in Rome in 1594. © MS Trinity College, Bodleian library in Oxford. (Source)
Figure 4: Stylized illustrations of three alembics with cucurbits in a copy of Sharh Shudhur al-dhahab (Commentary on the poems 'Nuggets') by Abu al-Qasim Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Allah al-Ansari (2nd half of 12th century). The National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland, MS A 65, fol. 81a. (Source).
Figure 5: View of a spectacular laser effect. Ibn al-Haytham proved that light travels in straight lines in his famous Kitab al-manazir (Book of Optics), the most important book of optics before Kepler. (Source).
Figure 6: Two pages from Tadhkira fi ‘ilm al-hay'a ((Memoir on Astronomy) by Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, dating from 1389: Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, MS ar. 2509, folios 40v-41r. Nasir ad-Din at-Tusi was among the first of several Arabic astronomers of the late 13th century at the observatory of Maragha who modified Ptolemy's models. The figure shown here is his ingenious device for generating rectilinear motion along the diameter of the outer circle from two circular motions. (Source).
Figure 7: Photomontage : (a) Proofs and diagrams from the Arabic translation of the Conics of Apollonius, transcribed and drawn by Ibn al-Haytham himself (MS Aya Sofya, no. 2762, Istanbul); (b) Ibn al-Haytham (at left) and Galileo appear on the frontispiece of Selenographia, a 1647 description of the moon by Johannes Hevelius. The frontispiece presents the two scientists as explorers of nature by means of rational thought (ratione—note the geometrical diagram in Ibn al-Haytham's hand) and by observation (sensu—illustrated prominently by the long telescope in Galileo's hand). Photomontage by Bartek Malysa. (Source).
Figure 8: Page 14 from the Geometry (1412) of Qadi Zada al-Rumi (d. 1436) who was an astronomer and mathematician in the court of Ulugh Beg (d. 1449) in Samarkand. His Geometry was was a commentary on the Fundamental Theorems, written by al-Samarqandi (d. 1310), where he discusses twenty-five of Euclid's propositions in detail. At the top of the page is a discussion of Euclid's Proposition I-5: the base angles of an isosceles triangle are equal; at the bottom, there is a discussion of I-6, the converse of 1-5. (Source)
Figure 9: This woodcut from a book about the nervous system, published in Venice in 1495, shows shelved reference volumes by Muslim physicians Ibn Sina, Al-Razi and Ibn Rushd, alongside works by Aristotle and Hippocrates. © Bibliothèque de la Faculté De Médecine, Paris / Archives Charmet / Bridgeman Art Library. (Source)
Figure 10: Manuscript copy of Al-Biruni's Mas'udic Canon (Al-Qanun al-Mas'udi) in the Pergamon and Egyptian Museums in Berlin. Titled after Mas'ud, son and successor of his patron Mahmud of Ghazni, and himself al-Biruni's major patron, the treatise is an extensive encyclopedia on astronomy, geography, and engineering. (Source)
Figure 11: Page of a work of Biruni's work regarding the moon eclipse. (Source). Today, on the moon there is a crater named after al-Biruni (located 17.9oN, 92.5oE). See FSTC, Al-Biruni and Illustrious Names in the Heavens: Arabic and Islamic Names of the Moon Craters.
Figure 12: Front covers of two recent Arabic translation of Roshdi Rashed's books on Arabic mathematics and optics: (a) Al-handasa wa 'ilm al-manazir fi 'l-qarn al-'ashir: Ibn Sahl, al-Quhi, Ibn al-Haytham (Geometry and Optics in the 10th century: Ibn Sahl, al-Quhi, Ibn al-Haytham) (Beirut, 1996); (b) Al-Jabr wa 'l-handasa fi 'l-qarn al-thani 'ashar: Al-mu'allafat al-riyyadhiya li-Sharaf al-Din al-Tusi (Algebra and Geometry in the 12th century: The Mathematical Works of Sharaf al-Din al-Tusi (Beirut, 1998).
Figure 13: The Madrasa Bin Yusuf in Marrakech, the largest traditional Islamic college in Morocco. The college was named after the Almoravid sultan Ali ibn Yusuf (reigned 1106–1142). The college was founded during the period of the Merinid (14th century) by the Merinid sultan Abu al-Hassan and allied to the neighbouring Bin Yousuf Mosque. Closed down in 1960, the building was refurnished and reopened to the public as an historical site in 1982.
Figure 14: Animated orbit of 9936-Al-Biruni, a main belt asteroid which orbits the Sun once every 5.39 years. Discovered on August 8, 1986 by Eric Elst and Violeta Ivanova at the Bulgarian National Astronomical Observatory in Smolyan, it was given the provisional designation "1986 PN4" and later renamed "Al-Biruni" for his important contributions to anthropology, mathematics and astronomy. Orbit of 9936: Al-Biruni (blue), planets (red) and the Sun (black). Work of art in the public domain . (Source).
Figure 15: The physicians of Islamic civilisation added hundreds of medicines to those recorded by the Greeks. In this Ottoman manuscript, two doctors give instructions on the preparation of prescriptions. (Source)
Figures 16:A specutacular Arabic astrolabes from Islamic Spain, made by Ibrahim ibn Said al-Sahli in 1086. They come with many exchangeable dials and is amazingly well preserved in the Landesmuseum Kassel, Germany. The instruments were displayed on the occasion of the fifth annual conference in November 2008 of the historical section of the Vereinigung der Sternfreunde (German Amateur Astronomical Society). (Source).
Figure 17: Diagram of the eye from Risner's edition of Opticae thesaurus. Alhazeni Arabis libri septem Opticae thesaurus... (Basilea, 1572), the first edition of the Latin translation of Ibn al-Haytham's Kitab al-manazir, the most important and most influential Arabic treatise on physics, that exercised profound influence on Western science in the 16th and 17th centuries. Sarton calls Ibn al-Haytham "the greatest Muslim physicist and one of the greatest students of optics of all times..." (Source).
Another photo of Sir Crispin Tickell. On his left: Dr Anne-Maria Brennan, co-author of First Ecology: Ecological Principles and Environmental Issues (Oxford University Press, 2004, paperback 2007) and Senior Fellow (FSTC) chairing the MHAG session on "Environment and Muslim Heritage", and on his right, Dr Elizabeth Bell, Head of Policy and External Affairs, The Physiological Society, London.
View of the audience listening to Sir Crispin Tickell's lecture.
Figure 2: Prof. Salim Al-Hassani talking during the meeting. On his left: Dr Anne-Marie and Sir Crispin Tickell.
Figure 3: From left to right: Dr Silke Ackermann, Dr. David Manning and Mr. Maurice Coles.
Figure 4: From left to right: Mr. John K Whittlesey and Prof. Charles Savage .
Figure 5: From right to left: Dr Silke Ackermann and Prof. Charles Savage.
Figure 6: Dr Suhair Al-Qurashi.
Figure 7: Dr Suhair Al-Qurashi and Ms Suhad Jarrar-Browne.
Figure 8: From right to left: Prof. Rafid Al-Khaddar, Prof. Mohammed El-Gomati, Prof. Rabieh A. Haleem, Mr Peter Raymond and Dr. Paul Berkman.
Figure 9: Sir Crispin Tickell and Dr Anne-Maria Brennan.
Figure 10: Sir Crispin Tickell. On his left: Dr Anne-Maria Brennan and on his right Dr Elizabeth Bell.
Figure 11: From right to left: Mr Peter Raymond, Dr. Paul Berkman and Baron Junaid Bhatti.
Figure 12: Mr. Martin Palmer.
Figure 13: From left to right: Mrs Margaret Morris, Geoffrey Roper and Mr. Farikh Mirza.

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