Figure 1: Extract from Jordanus' De planisphaeri figurationei. Source: http://www.ub.unibas.ch/kadmos/gg/pic/gg0287_009_txt.htm.
The Arabic Sources of Jordanus de NemoreLEARN MORE
The following article by Professors Menso Folkerts and Richard Lorch, from Munich University in Germany,...
Figure 1: A logo created for the occasion of the conference and exhibition at the House of Parliament in London (© FSTC 2008). The 1001 Inventions global initiative logo flanked by Big Ben.
Muslim Heritage in our World: Social Cohesion (1001 Inventions in UK Parliament)LEARN MORE
Report on a conference launching the 1001 Inventions Exhibition at the UK House of Parliament, 15 October...
Figure 2: Two sample pages from Ibn al-Baytar's treatise Jâmi mufradat al-adwiya wa-'l-aghdiya. Suleymaniye Library, Ayasofya, MS 3748. Read: Nil Sari, Food as Medicine in Muslim Civilization.
Figure 3a-d: Arabic botanical manuscript from the 15th century arranged in alphabetical order with illustrations of plants in vivid colours at Princeton University Library, MS 583H. © Princeton University Library, Department of Rare Books and Special Collections. See the electronic edition of the manuscript.
Figure 4: Front cover of Ibn al-Baytar (d. 646 H / 1248 AD): Tafsir kitab Diyasquridus fi al-adwiya al-mufrada (A Commentary on Dioscorides' Materia Medica), edited by Ibrahim Ben Mrad (Carthage (Tunisia): Bayt al-hikma, 1990).
Figure 5: Rare manuscript copy of book of simple drugs attributed to Ibn al-Baytar, held in The Royal Library, Copenhagen Cod. Arab. 114 folio 2b. In fact the manuscript is a copy of Kitâb Taqwîm al-Adwiyah fî mâ-shtahara min-al- a'shâb wa-l-aqâqîr wa-l-aghdhiyah (Book for determining medicaments of those herbs, medical plants and nourishments which are publicly known) by Ibrâhîm ibn Abî Sa'îd al-Maghribî al-'Alâ'î, who wrote it in the middle of the 12th century. (Source).
Figure 6: Drawings from Arabic manuscripts of the cultivated and the uncultivated kinds of the hindiba, a plant well known to Muslim pharmacologists and herbalists for its therapeutic virtues which include cancer treatment. From left to right: (a) Hindiba in an Arabic version of Dioscorides' Materia Medica translated by Abdullah al-Huseyin b. Ibrahim al-Natili (Kitabu ‘l-khasa'is, Topkapi Museum Library, Ahmed III, MS 2127; (b) Hindiba illustrated in Kitab min al-tibb fi ‘l-ahkami ‘l-kulliyyat wa'l-adwiya ‘l-mufrada, Suleymaniye Library, Ayasofya, MS 3748. See: Nil Sari, Hindiba: A Drug for Cancer Treatment in Muslim Heritage.
Figure 7: Mandrake plant from an Arabic medical manuscript in Istanbul mosque. Source: Mohamad S. Takrouri, Surgical, medical and anesthesia in the Middle East: Notes on Ancient and medieval practice with reference to Islamic-Arabic medicine.
Figure 8a-d: Discorides (ca. 40-90) was an ancient Greek physician, pharmacologist and botanist from Asia Minor. He is the author of the influential Materia Medica, of which several Arabic versions and commentaries were produced. (a): An illustration and description of a Cinnamomum tree in a 10th-century Arabic manuscript of the Materia Medica; © State University Library, Leiden (Source); (b-c) two illustrations from an Arabic manuscript of De Materia Medica from Baghdad dated 621 H/1224 (Source b) (Source c); (d) another Arabic manuscript of the work of Dioscorides from Baghdad dated 735H/1334 ©The British Library, MS Or. 3366 (Source).
Figure 9: Leaf from an Arabic translation of the Materia Medica of Dioscorides on the preparation of medicine from honey. The manuscript was copied in Baghdad in 1224 CE. (Source).
Figure 10: Medicinal Plants in an Arabic manuscript from Iraq, late 14th century. (Source).
Figure 11: Views from the Islamic model for gardens: Flower-beds having regular geometric shape – rectangles, star shapes (usually eight-pointed), diamond shapes and octagons (Source); and flowerpots, which are very widely used in Islamic gardens; they are sometimes massed together in large numbers or lined against the side of pools. (Source).
Figure 12a-b: Two views of the Oriental Garden in Berlin at the Marzahn Park, opened in 2005. This 58 x 31 metre garden offers a window onto Muslim civilisation in the multicultural city of Berlin. The layout adheres to the essential traditions of the Islamic garden: the garden courtyard is centred around a fountain pavilion and divided into quarters by water channels oriented to the cardinal points; ornamentation is essential to the garden: calligraphy, floral arabesques and ‘zillij' are found on the walls, timber carving on the pavilion, ‘muqarnas' on the vestibule, and painted wood in the arcades; planting provides shade, colour, fragrance and taste. (Source).
Figure 13a-b: Samples from the electronic edition of Flora of Syria, Palestine, Egyptian territory and their steppes by Dr. George Post, printed in Beirut 1884. (Source).
Figure 14: Bronze statue of Ibn al-Baytar in his birthplace, Benalmádena on the seaward side of Castillo Bil Bil, near Malaga. Ibn al-Baytar wrote an impressive collection of simple drugs, which is regarded as the greatest Arabic book on botany of the age. He collected plants, herbs and drugs around the Mediterranean from Spain to Syria and described more than 1400 medicinal drugs, comparing them with the records of over 150 writers before him. (Source).
Professor Salim Al-Hassani, Chairman of the Board of FSTC and editor in Chief of 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World (Manchester, 2006), presenting award acceptance speech in London on June 5 2009, during The Association of Muslim Social Scientists in the United Kingdom (AMSS - UK) meeting where 1001 Inventions was distinguished by granting it the prestigious Building Bridges Award for 2009. See 1001 Inventions Distinguished in London by the AMSS (UK).
Photo of Carl Kessler. (Source)
Review 2: Kerim BALCI A book on Muslim contributions to science provides solution to identity crisis by (PDF Version), in Today's Zaman (Istanbul), 14 June 2009
Logo of the global initiative 1001 Inventions, including a Book, Touring Exhibition, Teachers' Pack and educational Poster Sets.
1001 Inventions book next to Farah Atassi, a "Syrian-American [who] seeks to unite faiths" © Washington Times, July 2009.
The time wheel illustrating the seven zones of 1001 Inventions Initiative: home, school, market, hospital, town, world and universe (Source).
Figure 2: Persian youth playing chess with two suitors. Illustration to the "Haft Awrang" (Seven Thrones) by Nur ad-Din Abd ar-Rahman Jami (d. 1492), in the story A Father Advises his Son About Love (folio 51b). Freer and Sackler Galleries, The Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. (see the online edition). (Source).
Figure 3: A classic and typically beautiful Islamic bone chess set, without any figural representations of humans or animals. The Islamic sets often have exquisite artistic appeal. This set dates from around 1900. (Source).
Figure 4: This illustration from a Persian treatise on chess, possibly dating from the 14th century, is notable for its expressive faces that hint at the "different kinds of pleasantry and jests" Mas‘udi recorded as customary among players at that time in Baghdad. © Royal Asiatic Society/Bridgeman Art Library. (Source)
Figure 5: Two chessboards of Islamic origin: (a) 18th-century Kashmir or Northern Indian Chessboard; a painted wooden games board for Nard and Chess, decorated with extensive polychrome floral motifs within cartouches and a painted blue border, 58cm long, 39cm wide; (b) Lebanese Inlaid Chessboard; an intricate inlaid chessboard (with a backgammon board on the reverse side) from Lebanon, circa 1930, with over 2000 inlaid pieces. (Source).
Figure 6: Two Arabs at play in Chess Problem #7, from Alphonso X's Book of Games (in Spanish: Libro de los Juegos or Libros del Axedrez, Dados et Tablas). The book was commissioned between 1251 and 1282 CE by Alphonso X, King of Leon and Castile. It reflects the presence of Islamic legacy in Christian Spain. It is now housed at the monastery library of St. Lorenze del Escorial. (Source)
Figure 7: Christian and Muslim playing chess (12-14th century), reproduced in Claude Lebedel, Les Croisades: Origines et conséquences (Ouest France, 2004, p. 108). The work of art itself is in the public domain. (Source).
Figure 8: An ivory chess piece of Islamic origin, dating from around 1000 CE. In general, the extant Islamic pieces have no figural representations of humans or animals, hence they used shapes, designs, and circles. (Source).
Figure 9: Illustrations from two Islamic manuscripts on chess. (Source).
Figure 10: Turkish chess manuscript in The Cleveland Public Library, where the John G. White Collection has a number of notable Turkish Chess manuscripts, including a seven volume set: see Turkish chess manuscripts, 1564, Microfilm Description: 7 v.; 18-27 cm, with typed notes by H.J.R. Murray pasted in the vols. (Source).