Figure 1. Portrait of Copernicus (beginning of the 16th century). Source: http://www.frombork.art.pl/Ang10.htm.
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Sample clearances in the cylinder block. © Joseph Vera.
Water volume calculation. © Joseph Vera.
Slot mechanism converting arc to linear motion. © Joseph Vera.
Water simulated as a virtual spring. Click here to see the animation. © Joseph Vera.
Photorealistic rendering of the "monobloc" pump. © Joseph Vera.
Figure 2: Page from Al-Kitâb al-Fakhrî by Al-Karaji. (Source).
Figure 3: Diagram of a qanat, developed in Islamic lands as a water management system used to provide a reliable supply of water to human settlements or for irrigation in hot, arid and semi-arid climates. (Source).
Figure 4: A pool at Aqiq, Saudi Arabia, one of dozens of rest and water stations on the pilgrim road from Iraq to Makkah. It still holds water more than a thousand years after it was constructed under the patronage of Zubaydah, the wife of caliph Harun al-Rashid. (Source).
Figure 5: The Albolafia noria, or waterwheel, is the last vestige of an array of mills and dams built on the Guadalquivir River in Cordoba between the 8th and 10th centuries as it appears in its present condition. (Source).
Figure 6: The shaduf was known in ancient times in Egypt and Assyria. It consists of a long beam supported between two pillars by a wooden horizontal bar. A counterweight was attached to the short arm of the beam. A bucket suspended by a rope or a pole was attached to the long arm of the beam. The bucket was lowered into the water by bearing down on the rope/pole and the counterweight raised the full bucket. The shaduf is still used in Egypt. See: Sandra Postel, "Egypt's Nile Valley Basin Irrigation". (Source).
Figure 7: The Saqiya machine of Al-Jazari, an animal powered device for raising water. Source: the original manuscript of Al-Jazari's treatise Al-Jami' bayna al-'ilm wa-'l-'amal al-nafi' fi sina'at al-hiyal held at Topkapi Palace Museum Library in Istanbul, MS Ahmet III 3472, p. 216. See S. Al-Hassani & C. Ong Pang Kiat, Al-Jazari's Third Water-Raising Device: Analysis of its Mathematical and Mechanical Principles.
Figure 8: The largest norias or water wheels in the world, with a diameter of about 20 meters, exist on the Orontes River in Hama, Syria. Norias (na'ura in Arabic, pl. nawa'ir) are machines for lifting water into an aqueduct using energy derived from the water's flow. It consists of an undershot waterwheel to which are fixed a series of containers that lift water from the river to the aqueduct at a higher level. (Source).
Figure 9: Picture of a noria in Hadith Bayadh wa Riyadh (The Story of Bayad and Riyad) , an Andalusian love story, probably written and ilustrated sometime in 13th-century Andalus by an anonymous author (unicum manuscript, Vatican, Bibliotheca Apostolica, Ar. Ris. 368, folio 19r). (Source).
Figure 10: Front cover of Al-Karaji, L'Estrazione delle acque nascoste: Trattato tecnico-scientifico di Karaji Matematico-ingegnere persiano vissuto nel Mille, Italian translation and commentaries by Giuseppina Ferriello (Turin: Kim Williams Books, 2007).
Figure 11: Aerial view of lines of qanats leading to Firuzabad in Iran. The rows of small holes resembling pockmarks reveal the presence of several qanat systems below the surface: each hole is the top of a ventilation shaft. The walls of the craters protect the shafts and the tunnel below from erosional damage from the inflow of water during a heavy rainstorm. (Source).
Figure 12: Cross-section and aerial view of a qanat system for obtaining subterranean water. (Source).
Parallel views of the virtual reconstruction of the pump.
Drawing of the six-cylinder pump as it was depicted in Taqī al-Dīn in Al-Turuq al-Saniya fī al-'ālat al-rūhaniya (Chester Beatty Library in Dublin, Arabic MS 5232, p. 38).
Drawing of the reciprocating pump with two opposing cylinders (Chester Beatty Library in Dublin, Arabic MS 5232, p. 32).
Drawing of the spiral pump (Chester Beatty Library in Dublin, Arabic MS 5232, p. 34).
Drawing of the pump of the rope with cloth balls (Chester Beatty Library in Dublin, Arabic MS 5232, p. 35).
The six-cylinder pump at work in the river.
The pump divided into three sections. Source: A. Y. Al-Hassan and D. R. Hill, Islamic Technology: An Illustrated History (Cambridge, 1986, p. 51).
Top view of the pump. Source: A. Y. Al-Hassan and D. R. Hill, Islamic Technology: An Illustrated History (Cambridge, 1986, p. 51).
Front view of the pump. Adapted from A. Y. Al-Hassan and D. R. Hill, Islamic Technology: An Illustrated History (Cambridge, 1986, p. 51).
Top view of delivery pipes.
The three forces vs. height.
Connecting rod analysis.
Cams and camshaft.
Connecting rod loading.
Poster of Chaos Island (1993) produced by DreamWorks Interactive through 3DStudio MAX.
A screenshot from the Jurassic Park game produced by DreamWorks.
View of the 3D reconstruction of the pump.
View from another angle of the 3D reconstruction of the pump.
First page of the section devoted to the six-cylinder pump in the Chester Beatty MS (p. 36) of Al-Turuq al-Saniya.
Second page of the section devoted to the six-cylinder pump in the Chester Beatty MS (p. 37) of Al-Turuq al-Saniya.
Third page of the section devoted to the six-cylinder pump in the Chester Beatty MS (p. 38) of Al-Turuq al-Saniya.